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To transfer the gray levels so that the histogram of the resulting image is equalized to be a constant:

The purposes: • To equally use all available gray levels; • For further histogram specification.

This figure shows that for any given mapping function y = f(x) between the input and output images, the following holds:

i.e., the number of pixels mapped from x to y is unchanged. To equalize the histogram of the output image, we let p(y) be a constant.

dy will be narrow. . causing p(y) to be low to keep p(y) dy = p(x) dx.. then p(y) = 1. which monotonically increases. causing p(y) to be high. P(x) has a steep slope.In particular. histogram equalization is realized by the following: • If p(x) is high. if the gray levels are assumed to be in the ranges between 0 and 1 ( ). P(x) has a shallow slope. dy will be wide. the mapping function y = f(x) for histogram equalization is: where is the cumulative probability distribution of the input image. Then we have: i. Intuitively.e. • If p(x) is low.

and it needs to be converted to the by either of the two ways: 2. The resulting function y’ is in the range gray levels 1. . the gray level of the input x takes one of the L discrete values: and the continuous mapping function becomes discrete: where h[i] is the probability for the gray level of any given pixel to be i ( ): Here h[i] is the histogram of the image and H[i] is the cumulative histogram.For discrete gray levels.

19 0. The following table shows the equalization process corresponding to the two methods: 0/7 1/7 2/7 3/7 4/7 5/7 6/7 7/7 790 1023 850 656 329 245 122 81 0.89 0. or the integer part of a real number x.21 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.65 0.00 .24 0.21 0.5 is for proper to the highest gray level L-1.44 0.21 0.19 0.06 0.03 0.25 0.65 0.25 0.00 1/7 3/7 5/7 6/7 6/7 7/7 7/7 7/7 0.11 1.98 1.00 0/7 2/7 4/7 5/7 6/7 7/7 7/7 7/7 0.81 0.08 0.19 0.16 0.Here is the floor. and adding 0. rounding.08 0.19 0.44 0.25 0.65 0.11 1. Example: Assume the images have 64 x 64 = 4096 pixels in 8 gray levels.89 0.44 0.95 0.89 0.02 0. Note that while both conversions map the second conversion also maps to occupy the entire dynamic range to 0 to stretch the gray levels of the output image .81 0.

In the following example. The density histogram is not guaranteed to be a constant because the pixels of the same gray level cannot be separated to satisfy a constant distribution. . but the cumulative histogram is a exact linear ramp indicating that the density histogram is indeed equalized. the histogram of a given image is equalized. Although the resulting histogram may not look constant.

Programming Hints: • Find histogram of given image: .

• Build lookup table: • Image Mapping: Example: .

y = y’.e. i.Histogram Specification Here we want to convert the image so that it has a particular histogram as specified. it could also be equalized: Here is the histogram of the output image. First consider equalization transform of the given image x: If the desired image were available. they are actually the same image. The inverse of the above transform is Since images y and y’ have the same equalized histogram. and the overall transform from the given image x to the desired image z can be found as: where both f and g can be found from the histogram of the given image x and the desired histogram. which is specified.. . respectively.

find and then find a j level so Setup a lookup entry lookup[i] = j. and find histogram equalization Step 3: Build lookup table: For each gray level that best matches : . . and find histogram equalization • Step 2: Specify the desired histogram mapping: .• Step 1: Find histogram of input image mapping: .

65 0.00 .25 0. 790 1023 850 985 448 0.21 0.44 0.19 0.19 0.24 0.11 0.Example: The histogram of the given image and the histogram desired are shown below: • Step 1: Equalize to get y = g(x) (save as previous example).89 1.

.0 0.15 0.65 0.30 0.85 1.0 0.0 0.0 • Step 3: Obtain overall mapping.0 0.• Step 2: Equalize .0 0. 0/7 1/7 2/7 3/7 4/7 5/7 6/7 7/7 0.35 0.20 0.20 0. .0 0.15 0.15 0.

and linear decrease in the upper half.This is the histogram of the resulting image: In the following example. . Again the cumulative histogram shows indeed the density histogram is such a triangle. the desired histogram is a triangle with linear increase in the lower half of the gray level range.

Programming issues: .

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