Metric Bolt Properties, Grades, and Strength

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(1)   U.S. BLM, Metric Handbook, H-9102, Sect. 2.E.8.  (1999-12-29). (2)   ISO 898-1, 1999, Sections 3 through 7, and App. A. (3)   ISO 965-1, 1998, Sections 5.2, 7, 12.

1999-12-29,  Rev. 2003-01-22.               © 2003 Garrett D. Euler 

Metric Bolt Strength    
6.  General Fasteners. a. USA industry is now using metric fasteners extensively. The remainder of the world uses ISO metric fasteners almost exclusively, due to their superiority in proportions, fatigue strength, pitch, size and specification designations, and international availability. b. The Thomas Register lists hundreds of firms under Metric Fasteners, Metric Screws, and Metric Bolts. The Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI) has guides for fastener types and producers. c. Metric fasteners for all aerospace applications are made readily and easily available at "rock" bottom price to all NASA and contractor employees via NASA GSFC Fastener Inventory. d. Metric fastener size designation. i. Metric fastener size designation nomenclature.  As fully explained in ISO 965-1, Sect. 5, metric fastener size designations always begin with capital M or MJ followed by fastener nominal diameter and thread pitch, both in units of millimeters (mm), separated by the symbol "x", as follows. M10 x 1.5-6g-S means metric fastener thread profile M, fastener nominal size (nominal major diameter) 10 mm, thread pitch 1.5 mm, external thread tolerance class 6g, and thread engagement length group S ("short"). If referring to internal thread tolerance, "g" would be capitalized. A fit between threaded parts is indicated by internal thread tolerance class followed by external thread tolerance class separated by a slash; e.g., M10 x 1.5-6H/6g.


and 12. " x 1. 4.  Preferred nominal diameters for bolts and threaded rod are as listed below.  Bolts are headed fasteners having external threads that meet  http://euler9. Thread profile MJ designates the external thread has an increased root radius (shallower root relative to external M thread profile).. However.  Metric fastener thread profile M is the normal. (In a few cases.  The fourth series listed below should be  limited to unusual requirements when none of the preceding series can be used. and U bolts. and Strength Page 2 of 7 ii. ISO metric fastener material property classes (grades) should be used. The standard metric fastener thread series for general purpose threaded components is the M thread profile and the coarse pitch thread series. ISO metric fastener material strength property classes (grades). Default metric fastener thread tolerance class. e.tripod. J.. For example. If thread engagement length group designation (e.g. f. thereby having higher fatigue strength (due to reduced stress concentrations). 5.  If thread tolerance class designation (e. For full details. which is 6H/6g.6." iii. Grades.5.5 14 18 22 27 33 39 45 M15 17 25 40 M7 9 11 26 28 32 35 38 g. Metric fastener thread profile compatibility.g.. it specifies  coarse pitch threads.  If metric thread pitch designation (e. Preferred diameters. Default metric fastener thread pitch and engagement length.8. fastener material ISO property class 5. specifies M10 x 1. Reference individual standards prior to specification. Imperial tolerance class 3A is approximately equivalent to ISO tolerance class 4g6g. 7. Consult Table 10.. Sizes M5 to M45 are commonly used in construction. and 5.  Imperial internal and external thread tolerance class 2B/2A is essentially equivalent to ISO  thread tolerance class and fit 6H/6g. it specifies "medium" thread tolerance. by default. Bolt versus screw definition.8 times tensile ultimate strength or 0.  The correct definition of bolt and screw is as follows. the actual tensile ultimate strength may be approximately 20 MPa higher than nominal tensile ultimate strength indicated via the nominal property class code. it specifies thread engagement length group N meaning "normal. "-6g") is omitted (e. below.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 30 36 42 M3. "-S") is omitted. Sects.g. though class fit 3B/3A is approximately equivalent to ISO class fit 4H5H/ For example. M10 or M10-6g. such as ISO classes 4.8 means nominal (minimum) tensile ultimate strength 500 MPa and nominal (minimum) tensile yield strength 0.g. Equivalent imperial thread tolerance classes.5") is omitted.5). and threaded rod) are made from low carbon steel grades.Metric Bolt Properties.) Many anchor bolts (L. M external threads are compatible with M and MJ internal threads (just as UN and UNR external threads are compatible with UN and UNJ internal threads). but requires the truncated crest height of the MJ internal thread to prevent interference at the external MJ thread root (just as the UNJ external thread profile requires the UNJ internal thread).2. for exact values. v. see ISO 965-1.8.   First choice:   Second choice: Third choice: Avoid: M2 2.  As given in ISO 898-1.8(500) = 400 MPa.html 6/2/2011 . commercially-available thread profile. The 6H/6g fit is the standard ISO tolerance class for general use. M10 x 1. iv.

slackerism.) are now written in metric. Screws are headed. 9. incompatible product dimensions USA arbitrarily comes up with.3.  Rounding these  conversion factors to a few less decimal places.9 (kg/m^3)/(lbm/in^3). and Strength Page 3 of 7 an exacting.01846 (kg/m^3)/(lbm/ft^3).  Fastener Data. see details.  Long the language universally used  in science and among technically adept individuals.html 6/2/2011 . and inability to solve or understand even simple problems such as metric conversion. 113. independent. 112.  It evolved from the original French metric system and is currently being used virtually worldwide.4482216152605 N/lbf. etc. ASME.89476 MPa/ksi. as there is essentially no global market for the archaic.4 mm/inch (exact). including  what appear to be a few typos. oddball. For full discussion of misdefinitions and corresponding confusion regarding these two words. h.2. 47.448222 N/lbf. UN. SI has also become the dominant language of international commerce and trade. 8. 16.0184634 (kg/m^3)/(lbm/ft^3). verified accurate to the decimal places shown via multiple. Handy conversion factors. 16.  Table 9 comes verbatim from Ref.880259 Pa/psf.  Japan also was intelligent enough to recognize simple matters such as this  long ago. Metric system (SI). 6. are 25. UNR." below.8803 Pa/psf.tripod. and consequently has become a major global financier. in an effort to regain lost USA competitiveness in a global economy. IEEE. Table 10.98483 (N mm)/(in lbf). as the lead engineers in these organizations recognize the importance of trying to get the USA on track with technically advanced countries.0 (N mm)/(in lbf). SAE. has been verified accurate per ISO 898-1 and ASTM F 568M. uniform bolt thread specification (such as M. 6. All new USA standards (ASTM. marked "[sic].Metric Bolt Properties. defeated in WWII only 60 years ago.08746 (N/m^3)/pcf. while they forfeit industries and jobs to third-world countries who have no problem understanding something so simple and fulfilling the need efficiently.9047 (kg/m^3)/(lbm/in^3). 27679. ANSI. 27679. 47. Systeme International d'Unites).087 (N/m^3)/pcf. 1. externally-threaded fasteners that do not meet the above definition of bolts. has since captured a large portion of the global economy due to their intelligent progress. the International System of Units (from the French.  The abbreviation for the metric system is SI. low educational level. and UNJ) such that they can accept a nontapered nut. 157. we have 4.  Imperial conversion factors. Table 9 FASTENER DATA Basic Product Metric Bolts Product Type and Head Style hex Available Size Range M5-M100 For thread and dimension details For mechanical property details refer to refer to: Table 10 or: ANSI/ASME B18.  IEEE was intelligent enough to recognize this decades ago. This small country. i. 4. 157. credible  sources.89475729318 MPa/ksi.80665 (m/s^2)/gravity (exact).5M http://euler9. MJ. while USA has become a world-class debtor to the tune of trillions due to inefficient business practices. on the other hand.  Tables 9 and 10 provide much of the data available for different metric fasteners.

7M IFI 541 [sic] ANSI/ASME B18.3.6M ASTM F568M ASTM F468M ASTM F738M ASTM A325M ASTM A490M IFI 541 [sic] ASTM F568M ASTM F486M ASTM F738M prevailing torque.6M see note 3 [sic] ASTM F568M ASTM F468M ASTM F736M IFI 524 IFI 525 ASTM A574M ASTM F837M ASTM F835M ASTM A574M ASTM F879M ANSI/ASME B18.2.1M ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.5M ANSI/ASME B18.6-M48 M6.3. and Strength Page 4 of 7 heavy hex round head short square neck (carriage) round head square neck (carriage) bent heavy hex structural hex transmission tower Metric Screws hex cap formed hex heavy hex hex flange heavy hex flange hex lag Metric Studs double end continuous thread Metric Locking Screws Metric Socket Screws M12-M36 M8-M20 M5-M24 M5 and larger M12-M36 M16-M24 M5-M100 M5-M24 M12-M36 M5-M16 M10-M20 M5-M24 M5-M100 M5-M100 ANSI/ASME B18.6M ANSI/ASME B18.5.6-M36 insert chemical coated socket head cap socket head shoulder socket button head cap socket countersunk head cap socket set M6-M20 M1.2.2.html 6/2/2011 .3.6-M24 http://euler9.3.8M IFI 528 [sic] see note 3 [sic] see note 3 [sic] ANSI/ASME B18.2.1M ANSI/ASME B18.2M IFI 528 [sic] ANSI/ASME B18. ANSI/ASME B18.2.3. Grades.9M ANSI/ASME B18.Metric Bolt Properties.2.2. non-metallic M1.5-M25 M3-M16 M3-M20 M1. ANSI/ASME B18.3.2M ANSI/ASME B18.3.3.3M ANSI/ASME B18.1M ANSI/ASME B18.tripod.4M ANSI/ASME

2.html 6/2/2011 .9 style 1 hex.4. Grades.4M ANSI/ASME B18. multiply the stress value (MPa) in Table 10 by the tensile stress area (mm^2) of the product's screw thread as given in Table 9 or Standard Metric Bolt Shank Dimensions.6-M36 M3-M36 M5-M36 M5-M20 M5-M36 M12-M100 M3-M36 M6-M20 ANSI/ASME B18.1M ANSI/ASME B18. e.2M ANSI/ASME B18. b. or tensile ultimate strength in kilonewtons (kN) for a bolt.4. Some environments may cause stress corrosion cracking of nonplated.4. as well as the anticipated service environment.1M ANSI/ASME B18. and Strength Page 5 of 7 ASTM F912M ASTM F880M Metric Nuts hex.16.tripod.3M ANSI/ASME B18. Properties specified in each are identical except for minor exceptions.2M ASTM A563M ASTM F467M ASTM F836M ASTM A194M Notes for Table 10. c. steel hex flange.8 products are available in lengths 150 mm and less.2.4. products. In general.2.2. Class 5. as well as electroplated. To compute the tensile proof load. or stud. then divide this result by 1000. Where differences exist. steel M1. identification markings are located on the top of the head and preferably are raised. below. When only the ISO property class number is shown in Table 10.4. Caution is advised when considering the use of property class 12.3M ANSI/ASME B18.2. style 2 slotted hex hex flange hex jam heavy hex Metric PrevailingTorque Nuts hex.4. the ASTM F 568M values are given. a.16. the class is standard in both ISO 898-1 and ASTM documents. The capabilities of the fastener manufacturer.16.2.Metric Bolt Properties. screw. Table 10 http://euler9. should be carefully considered.6M ANSI/ASME B18. d.5M ANSI/ASME B18. tensile yield strength.

com/bolt-database/22. Grades. quenched and tempered medium carbon steel. quenched and tempered atmospheric corrosion resistant steel.8 A325M  8S C23 C34 8. quenched and tempered low carbon boron steel. Surface.html 6/2/2011 .Metric Bolt Properties.8 C27 C36 9. Marking 4.8 10.8 C33 C39 10.9 M1. MPa Min.9 http://euler9.8 A325M Type 1 8.6-M16 M1. Strength.8 C23 C34 8. Core Max. Hardness. quenched and tempered medium carbon steel. Rockwell Min.8 A325M Type 2 A325M Type 3 M5-M24 M16-M72 M16-M36 M16-M36 M16-M36 380 600 600 600 420 660 660 660 520 830 830 830 -30N56 30N56 30N56 B82 B95 5.8 M5-M100 M1. and Strength Page 6 of 7 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CARBON STEEL EXTERNALLY-THREADED METRIC FASTENERS Property Class Designation Nominal Size Material and Treatment of Product Mechanical Requirements Proof Load Tensile Yield Stress.8 9. 400 420 --Property Class Ident.6-M16 M5-M20 650 650 830 720 720 940 900 900 1040 30N58 30N58 30N59 C27 C36 9.8 8.6-M16 low or medium carbon steel low or medium carbon steel. MPa. quenched and tempered low carbon boron steel.tripod. MPa. quenched and tempered 225 310 240 340 B67 B95 4.8 5. Tensile Ultimate Prod. Strength. Max. Min. fully or partially annealed low or medium carbon steel. cold worked medium carbon steel.8 A325M  8S C23 C34 A325M  8S3 9.6 4.6 B71 B95 4.

com/bolts/ http://euler9. Grades.9 A490M  10S C33 C39 A490M  10S3 12.6-M100 970 1100 1220 30N63 C38 C44 6/2/2011 . quenched and tempered atmospheric corrosion resistant steel.assoindust.9 A490M Type 1 10.9 A490M Type 2 A490M Type 3 M5-M100 M12-M36 M5-M36 M12-M36 M12-M36 medium carbon alloy steel.9 Return to Structural Analysis Reference Library. 830 quenched and tempered low carbon boron steel. Euler Metric bolt All sizes of bolts.   Ads by Google © 2003 Garrett D.9 M1.9 A490M  10S C33 C39 10.tripod.Metric Bolt Properties. quenched and tempered 830 830 940 940 940 1040 1040 1040 30N59 30N59 30N59 C33 C39 10. Visit now to get a free quotation! www. and Strength Page 7 of 7 10. quenched and tempered alloy steel. ISO certified.