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Q

Q´

B

P

θ

P´

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

; ; .

a b c

l m n

a b c a b c a b c

= ± = ± = ±

+ + + + + +

where +ve or – ve sign is to be taken in all the three.

(b) A line can have many sets of direction ratio which are proportional to each other.

(c) If ( )

1 1 1

P , , x y z and Q( )

2 2 2

, , x y z are any two points, then direction-ratios of PQ

(or line) PQ are

( )

2 1 2 1 2 1

, , . x x y y z z − − −

(d) Angle between two vectors (or line) whose direction-ratios are ( )

1 1 1

, , a b c and ( )

2 2 2

, , a b c is given

by

∴

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2

cos .

.

a a b b c c

a b c a b c

θ

+ +

=

+ + + +

(i) If these are

1 2 1 2 1 2

' ' ; 0. a a b b c c ⊥ + + = (ii) If these are

1 1 1

2 2 2

' ' ; .

a b c

a b c

= =

7. Projection

Projection of a line joining the points ( ) ( )

1 1 1 2 2 2

, , and , , P x y z Q x y z on another line AB whose direction

cosines are l, m and n. If the line segment PQ makes angle θ with the line AB then

Projection of PQ is P'Q', P'Q' ∴ ( ) ( ) ( )

2 1 2 1 2 1

cos cos cos x x y y z z α β γ = − + − + −

( ) ( ) ( )

2 1 2 1 2 1

. x x l y y m z z n = − + − + −

PLANE

1. (i) General equation

If a, b, c are direction-ratios of normal to the plane, then the equation of plane in Cartesian

form is 0 ax by cz d + + + =

In vector form general equation is

. ; where r n p n =

is a vector ⊥ to the plane.

(ii) Equation of plane in normal form

If l, m, n be the direction cosines of the normal to a plane and p be the length of the perpendicular

from the origin on the plane, then the equation of the plane is . lx my nz p + + =

In vector form normal equation of plane is

ˆ r n p ⋅ =

where ˆ n is a unit vector ⊥ to the plane.

(iii) Equation of plane in intercepts form

If a plane makes intercepts a, b, c on the axes of coordinates, its equation is 1.

x y z

a b c

+ + =

(iv) Equation of a plane through a given point

P( )

1 1 1

, , x y z and having ( ) , , a b c as direction-ratios of normal is given by :

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1

0 a x x b y y c z z − + − + − = Cartesian form

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Or

( ) 0; isavectornormal toplane. r a n n − ⋅ =

Vector form

where a

is the position vector of a point in the plane.

(v) Equation of a plane through three given points

The equation of the plane passing through three non-collinear points ( ) ( )

1 1 1 2 2 2

, , , , , x y z z y z

and ( )

3 3 3

, , x y z is

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1

2 1 2 1 2 1

3 1 3 1 3 1

0.

x x y y z z

x x y y z z

x x y y z z

− − −

− − − =

− − −

2. Equation of Systems of Planes

(i) The equation 0 ax by cz k + + + = represents a system of plane parallel to the plane

0 ax by cz d + + + = , k being parameter.

Or

Vector form . r n k =

(ii) The equation 0 ax by cz k + + + = , represents a system of planes perpendicular to the

line .

x y z

a b c

= =

(iii) The equation ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

0 a x b y c z d k a x b y c z d + + + + + + + = .represents a system of planes

passing through the intersection of the planes

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

0,and 0. a x b y c z d a x b y c z d + + + = + + + =

k being a parameter.

(iv) The equation ( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1

0 A x x B y y C z z − + − + − = represents a system of planes passing through

the point ( )

1 1 1

, , x y z where , , A B C are parameters.

3. Angle Between Two Planes

The angle θ between the planes

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

0, 0, a x b y c z d a x b y c z d + + + = + + + = is given by

( ) ( )

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2

cos

a a b b c c

a b c a b c

θ

+ +

=

+ + + +

4. Parallelism and Perpendicularity of Two Planes

The planes

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

0, 0 a x b y c z d a x b y c z d + + + = + + + = are parallel if and only if

1 1 1

2 2 2

;

a b c

a b c

= = and

perpendicular if and only if

1 2 1 2 1 2

0 a a b b c c + + =

5. Two Sides of a Plane

Two points ( ) ( )

1 1 1 2 2 2

, , and , , P x y z Q x y z lie on the same or different sides of the plane 0 ax by cz d + + + =

according as

1 1 1 2 2 2

and ax by cz d ax by cz d + + + + + + are of the same or of different signs.

6. Length of the Perpendicular from a Point to a Plane

The perpendicular distance of the point ( )

1 1 1

, , x y z from the plane lx my nz p + + =

1 1 1

is , p lx my nz − − − where l, m, n are direction cosines of the normal to the plane and p is the length of

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It is called symmetric form of the line.

Note : Any point on this line is ( )

1 1 1

, , x a y b z c λ λ λ + + + , where λ is a parameter.

2. Equations of line through two given points

Vector form. Let the points on line are A( )

1 1 1

, , x y z and B( )

2 2 2

, , x y z and their position vectors are

1

a

and

2

a

respectively. Then equation of line is given by ( )

1 2 1

. r a a a λ = + −

Cartesian form

1 1 1

2 1 2 1 2 1

.

x x y y z z

x x y y z z

− − −

= =

− − −

The coordinates of a variable point on AB can be expressed in terms of a parameterλ in the form

2 1 2 1 2 1

, , ,

1 1 1

x x y y z z

x y z

λ λ λ

λ λ λ

+ + +

= = =

+ + +

λ being any real number different from -1. In fact, (x, y, z) are the coordinates of the point which divides

the join of A and B in the ratio λ :1.

3. Changing unsymmetrical form to symmetrical form

The unsymmetrical form of a line

0, 0 ax by cz d a x b y c z d ′ ′ ′ ′ + + + = + + + =

can be changed to symmetrical form as follows :

.

'

bd b d da d a

x y

z

ab a b ab a b

bc b c ca c a ab a b

′ ′ ′ ′ − −

− −

′ ′ ′ ′ − −

= =

′ ′ ′ ′ ′ − − −

4. Angle between two lines

Vector form : Let the lines be

1 1 1

r a b λ = +

and

2 2 2

, r a b µ = +

then

1 2

1 2

.

cos .

.

b b

b b

θ =

If lines are (i) parallel

1 2

b kb =

and (ii) perpendicular

1 2

. 0 b b =

.

Cartesian form : Let the lines are

1 1 1 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2

x x y y z z x x y y z z

and

a b c a b c

− − − − − −

= = = = then

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2

cos .

.

a a b b c c

a b c a b c

θ

+ +

=

+ + + +

If these are (i) parallel

1 1 1

2 2 2

a b c

a b c

= = (ii) perpendicular

1 2 1 2 1 2

0 a a b b c c + + = .

5. To find equation of a line parallel to given line

Vector form : Given equation is

1 1

r a b λ = +

.

Equation of a line parallel to it through point B( )

2 2 1

is a r a b µ = +

.

Cartesian form : Let the given line be

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= = then a line parallel to it and passing

through point B( )

2 2 2

, , x y z has equation

2 2 2

.

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= =

6. To find equation of line perpendicular to two given lines

Vector form

Let given lines be:

1 1 1 2 2 2

and . r a b r a b λ µ = + = +

A line perpendicular to them is

3 3

r a b α = +

where

1 3

. 0 b b =

and

2 3 3 1 2

. 0or . b b b b b = = ×

Cartesian form

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Let given lines be :

1 1 1

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= = and

2 2 2

2 2 2

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= =

Then a line through ( )

3 3 3

, , x y z and ⊥ to given lines is:

3 3 3

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= =

where

1 1 1

0 aa bb cc + + = and

2 2 2

0 aa bb cc + + = .

Find a, b, c by rule of cross multiplication.

7. To find whether two given lines cut or not

Vector form. Let given lines be

1 1 1 2 2 2

and r a b r a b λ µ = + = +

.

Since r

is the position vector of an arbitrary point on the lines, if these intersect, for some values

of λ and µ these points must coincide i.e.,

1 1 2 2

a b a b λ µ + = +

. Equate components of

ˆ ˆ ˆ

, , , i j k

Solve any two equations for ‘ λ ’ and ‘ µ ’. Put this value in third equation, if it is satisfied lines

intersect, otherwise not. To find point of intersection put λ (or µ ) in given equation.

Let given lines be

1 1 1

1

1 1 1

:

x x y y z z

L

a b c

λ

− − −

= = = , say and

2 2 2

2

2 2 2

:

x x y y z z

L

a b c

µ

− − −

= = = , say.

Any point on line L

1

is ( )

1 1 1 1 1 1

, , x a y b z c λ λ µ + + + and on line L

2

is ( )

2 2 2 2 2 2

, , x a y b z c µ µ µ + + + .

If lines intersect these two points must coincide for some value of λ and µ . Equate the corresponding

co-ordinates then proceed as in vector form.

8. To find foot of perpendicular from a point on a line

Vector form

Let given point be A( )

1

a

and line is . r a b λ = +

Position vector of any point on line is P

( )

. a b λ +

Then ( ) ( ) = Position vectorof P Position vectorof A AP −

.

If P is foot of perpendicular, then AP. =0 b

find λ .

Put the value of λ in a b λ +

to get foot of ‘ ⊥’. Length of AP ⊥=

Equation of ‘ ⊥’ is

( ) 1

AP . r a µ = +

Cartesian form

Let A( )

2 2 2

, , x y z be given point and

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= = be the line.

Let

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

λ

− − −

= = = , say.

Any point on this line is P( )

1 1 1

, , x a y b z c λ λ λ + + + .

Direction-ratios of ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 2 1 2 1 2

, , AP x a x y b y z c z λ λ λ = + − + − + −

If P is foot of ⊥ form A on line, then use ‘

1 2 1 2 1 2

0 a a b b c c + + = ’ where ( )

1 1 1

, , a b c and ( )

2 2 2

, , a b c are

direction-ratios of given line and AP respectively.

Find λ and put in P to get foot of ⊥.

Length of perpendicular =AP and equation of perpendicular is :

2 2 2

2 2 2

.

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= =

9. Line of shortest distance:

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If l

1

and l

2

are two skew lines, then the straight line which is perpendicular to each of these two non-

intersecting lines is called the “Line of shortest distance “There is one and only one line perpendicular to

each of lines

1 2

and l l .”

10. Shortest distance between two skew lines

Vector form

Let two lines be

1 1 1 2 2 2

and r a b r a b λ µ = + = +

then

( )

( )

2 1 1 2

1 2

.

Shortest Distance

a a b b

b b

− ×

=

×

.

Cartesian form

Let two skew lines be,

1 1 1 2 2 2

1 1 1 2 2 2

and

x x y y z z x x y y z z

l m n l m n

− − − − − −

= = = =

Therefore, the shortest distance between the lines is given by

( ) ( ) ( )

2 1 2 1 2 1

1 1 1

2 2 2

2 2 2

1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

x x y y z z

l m n

l m n

d

m n m n n l l n l m ml

− − −

=

− + − + −

Method of parallel plane

When one of the lines is in the general form and the other is in the symmetrical form

Let

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

0

0

a x b y c z d

a x b y c z d

+ + + =

+ + + =

…(1)

and

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= = …(2)

are two equations of straight lines

Use the following steps to find distance between these lines

Step I : Find the equation of a plane which contain line (1)

i.e. ( )

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

0 a x b y c z d a x b y c z d λ + + + + + + + = …(*)

Step II : Find ‘ λ ’ so that the plane (*) is parallel to the line (2)

Step III : Find the distance of the point ( )

1 1 1

, , x y z from the plane (*)

This is the distance between these two lines.

Foot of perpendicular from a point ( ) , , A α β γ to a given plane ax + by + cz + d = 0.

If AP be the perpendicular from A to the given plane, then it is parallel to the normal to the plane, so that

its equation is

( ) ,

x y z

r say

a b c

α β γ − − −

= = =

Any point P on it is ( ) , , ar br cr α β γ + + + . If it lies on the given plane and we find the value of r and

hence the point P.

11. Image of a point in a plane

Let P and Q be two points and let L be a plane such that

(i) Line PQ is perpendicular to the plane L , and

(ii) Mid-point of PQ lies on the plane L .

Then either of the point is the image of the other in the plane L .

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O

C

P

c

r

a

( )

1 1 1

, , P x y z

0 ax by cz d + + + =

R

( )

1 1 1

, , x ar y br z cr + + +

Q

π

θ

90 θ −

12. To find the image of a point in a given plane, we proceed as follows

(i) Write the equations of the line passing through P and normal to

the given plane as

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= =

Write the co-ordinates of image Q as ( )

1 1 1

, , x ar y br z cr + + + .

(ii) Find the co-ordinates of the mid-point R of PQ.

(iii) Obtain the value of r by putting the co-ordinates of R in the

equation of the plane.

(iv) Put the value of r in the co- ordinates of Q.

13. Angle between a line and a plane

Let

1 1 1

x x y y z z

a b c

− − −

= = be a line and

1 1 1 1

0 a x b y c z d + + + = be a plane and

θ the angle between them

then ( )

1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1

cos 90 sin

aa bb cc

a b c a b c

θ θ

+ +

− = =

+ + + +

Or

If plane is . r n q =

and line is r a m λ = +

then

.

sin .

.

n m

n m

θ =

Note :

(a) Plane and straight line will be parallel if

1 1 1

0 a a bb c c + + =

(b) Plane and straight line will be perpendicular if

1 1 1

.

a b c

a b c

= =

(c) The line may lie in the plane if

1 1 1

0 a a bb c c + + = and

1 1 1 1 1 1

0. a x b y c z + + =

SPHERE

1. Equation of a sphere having ( ) C c

as it’s centre and a as it’s radius:

r c a − =

(Vector form)

Cartesian form: Let center be ( )

1 1 1

, , C x y z and radius =a.

Then equation is: ( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

2

1 1 1

. x x y y z z a − + − + − = …(1)

If the centre is at the origin, then equation (1) takes the form

2 2 2 2

x y z a + + =

which is known as the standard form of the equation of the sphere.

2. General equation of sphere

The general equation of a sphere is

2 2 2

2 2 2 0 x y z ux vy wz d + + + + + + = with centre ( ) , , u v w − − − i.e.,

( )

1

2

− coefficient of x ,

( )

1

2

− coefficient of y),

( )

1

2

− (coefficient z) and, radius =

2 2 2

. u v w d + + −

Equation in sphere in various forms

3. Diameter form of the equation of a sphere: If ( ) ( )

1 1 1 2 2 2

, , and , , x y z x y z are the co-ordinates of the

extremities of a diameter of a sphere, then its equation is

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C

P Q

M

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

1 2 1 2 1 2

0. x x x x y y y y z z z z − − + − − + − − =

4. Section of a sphere by a plane

Consider a sphere intersected by a plane. The set of points common to both

sphere is always a circle. The equation of the sphere and the plane taken

together represent the plane section.

Let C be the centre of the sphere and M be the foot of the perpendicular from C

on the plane. Then M is the centre of the circle and radius of the circle is given

by

2 2

. PM CP CM = −

The centre M of the circle is the point of intersection of the plane and line CM

which passes through C and is perpendicular to the given plane.

6. Great circle: The section of a sphere by a plane through the centre of the sphere is a great circle. Its

centre and radius are the same as those of the given sphere.

7. Condition of tangency of a plane to a sphere

A plane touches a given sphere if the perpendicular distance from the centre of the sphere to the plane is

equal to the radius of the sphere. The plane lx my nz p + + = touches the sphere

2 2 2

2 2 2 0 x y z ux vy wz d + + + + + + = If ( ) ( )( )

2

2 2 2 2 2 2

. ul vm wn p l m n u v w d + + − = + + + + −

8. Intersection of straight line and a sphere

Let the equation of the sphere and the straight line be

( )

2 2 2

2 2 2 0 ... 1 x y z ux vy wz d + + + + + + =

and ( ) ,

x y z

r say

l m n

α β γ − − −

= = = …(2)

Any point of on the line (2) is ( ) , , lr mr nr α β γ + + + . If this point lies on the sphere (1) then we have,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2

2 2 2 0 lr mr nr u lr v mr w nr d α β γ α β γ + + + + + + + + + + + + = or

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 0 ... 3 r l m n r l u m v n w u v w d α β γ α β γ α β γ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + =

This is a quadratic equation in r and so gives two values of r and therefore the line (2) meets the sphere (1)

in two points which may be real, coincident and imaginary, according as root of (3) are so.

If , , l m n are the actual direction cosines of the line, then

2 2 2

1 l m n + + = and then the equation (3) can be

simplified.

9. Angle of intersection of two spheres

If the angle of intersection of two spheres is a right angle, the sphere are said to be orthogonal.

Condition for orthogonality of two spheres:

Let the equation of the two sphere be

2 2 2

2 2 2 0 x y z ux vy wz d + + + + + + = …(1)

and

2 2 2

2 ' 2 ' 2 ' ' 0 x y z u x v y w z d + + + + + + = …(2)

If the sphere (1) and (2) cut orthogonally, then 2 ' 2 ' 2 ' ', uu vv ww d d + + = + which is the require condition.

Note : Two sphere of radii r

1

and r

2

cut orthogonally, then the radius of the common circle is

1 2

2 2

1 2

.

r r

r r +

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