The Reproductive Process…
Donna May dela Cruz-Papa College of Science University of Santo Tomas

Nature of the reproductive process
A. Mechanisms 1. Asexual reproduction - involves only one parent - no special reproductive organs or cells involved - Genetically identical offspring are produced - Production of offspring is simple, direct and rapid 2. Sexual reproduction - involves two parents - gametes unite to form a zygote - Unique offspring = genetic material from both parents - Sexual reproduction recombines parental characters and makes possible a richer and more diversified population.


vivum ex ovo”

Asexual : - mutations are expressed and selected quickly Sexual : - a normal gene on the homologous chromosome may mask a gene mutation

“all life developed from the egg” - W. Harvey


bacteria . cytoplasmic division produces many daughter cells • Sporogony is spore formation. each grows into an individual similar to the parent • can be lengthwise or transverse • In multiple fission .nucleus divides repeatedly. all offspring have the same genotype and are called Clones widespread in .an outgrowth of the parent -develops organs and then detaches • Cnidarians and some other animal phyla 2 .unicellular eukaryotes . • Asexual reproduction • Binary fission • Budding • Gemmulation • Fragmentation Budding • unequal division of an organism • bud .invertebrates ensures rapid increase in numbers Binary fission • common among bacteria and protozoa • parent divides by mitosis into two parts. a form of multiple fission in parasitic protozoa.1/16/2012 Asexual reproduction • • • Reproduction Without Gametes Neither eggs nor sperm are involved Unless mutations occur.

emerge and grow a new sponge sexual reproduction • Reproduction With Gametes Bisexual reproduction Hermaphroditism Parthenogenesis Fragmentation • involves a multicellular animal breaking into many fragments that become a new animal • seen in many anemones and hydroids Bisexual reproduction • Aka biparental • produces offspring from union of gametes from two genetically different parents 3 . the enclosed cells become active.1/16/2012 Gemmulation • formation of a new individual from an aggregation of cells from the parent individual surrounded by a resistant capsule (gemmule) • Freshwater sponges survive winter in the dried or frozen body of the parent • In good conditions.

small. testes produce sperm and ovaries produce eggs • Gonads . uterine tubes and uterus. but they develop and mature at different points in the lifecycle. these organism still need another individual at the opposite stage for fertiliZation 4 . motile and much more numerous • Dioecious – separate sexes (vertebrates & inverts) • Monoecious / hermaphrodites – both male and female organs • Meiosis (duplication and two divisions) produces four haploid cells • Fertilization .1/16/2012 • Offspring therefore have a genotype different from either parent • Male = spermatozoa .When sexual parents merely join together to exchange nuclear material Hermaphroditism • have both male and female Simultaneous organs in the same individual hermaphrodites • Many sessile.primary sex organs • Additional accessory sex organs include penis. Most species only change sex once in their development.2 haploid cells combine to restore the diploid chromosome # • Zygote divides by mitosis for all somatic (body) cells • Conjugation . a fish starts life as one sex and is genetically programmed to change to the other sex later CLOWNFISH have both male and female sex organs. vagina.large with stored yolk and is nonmotile. • In sequential hermaphroditism. in contrast to dioecious species where about half is male • Organs that produce germ cells are gonads. • spermatozoon . burrowing and/or endoparasitic invertebrate animals and a few fish are hermaphroditic • Each individual is reproductive. female = ova • Ovum . As a result.

1) 2) 3) c. selection is intense and diversity prevents extinction On a geological time scale.Fertilized eggs become female workers or queens . wasps and ants . Why do so many animals reproduce sexually rather than asexually? Inferred to be highly advantageous? Sexual reproduction is more common among animals The costs of sexual reproduction are greater more complicated. they differentiate.the unfertilized eggs become drones (male) ORIGIN AND MATURATION OF GERM CELLS • Somatic cells are non-reproductive body cells. haploid egg returns to a diploid condition by chromosomal duplication a.haploid ovum is formed by meiosis and develops without fusion with the male nuclei Reasons : . b.Sperm may be absent or they may only activate development . requires more time & uses more energy than asexual The cost of meiosis to the female is passage of only half of her genes to offspring Production of males reduces resources for females that could produce eggs Sexual organisms produce more novel genotypes to survive in times of environmental change Asexual organisms can have more offspring in a short time to colonize new environments In crowded habitats. f.no meiosis occurs . e. the egg forms by mitotic division • meiotic parthenogenesis . protect and nourish the germ cell line • The germ cell lineage may be traceable.The queen controls whether the eggs are laid fertilized or unfertilized .1/16/2012 Parthenogenesis • development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg • Male and female nuclei may fail to unite after fertilization • ameiotic parthenogenesis . in some invertebrates. asexual lineages with less variation are prone to extinction Many invertebrates with both sexual and asexual modes enjoy the advantages of both • Haplodiploidy occurs in bees. function and die before or with the animal • Germ cells form gametes. g. the germ cells develop from somatic cell 5 . the germ cell line provides a continuous line between generations • Somatic cells support. d.in some species.

future stock of gametes for an animal • Germ plasm from the vegetal pole of the uncleaved egg mass moves to gut endoderm and migrates by ameboid movement to genital ridges Gametogenesis • Gametogenesis is the series of transformations that result in gametes. the female brain does not become masculinized perhaps due to low estrogen receptors Sex Determination Spermatogenesis a. clitoris and uterus • Despite levels of estrogen. Outermost layers are spermatogonia diploid cells increased by mitosis d.1/16/2012 Migration of Germ Cells • Vertebrate gonads arise from a pair of genital ridges that grows into the coelom • Primordial germ cells . • Testes carry out spermatogenesis. promote ovary formation reversing X) • Absence of testosterone in a genetic female embryo dev’t of vagina. Spermatids transform into mature spermatozoa (sperm) 6 .secretes testosterone with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Each 2° enters M2 = produce 4 haploid spermatids g. The wall of seminiferous tubules contains germ cells five to eight cells deep b. ovaries carry out oogenesis • Human males . Sertoli (sustentacular) cells extend from the periphery to nourish germ cells c.organizes the gonad into a testis • Testis . 1° . masculinizes the fetus dev’t of penis. spermatogonium .becomes primary spermatocyte e. which determines brain organization for male-typical behavior • DDS (dosage sensitive sex reversal) or SRVX (sex . testosterone is enzymatically converted to Estrogen.undergoes M1 = two 2° f.SRY (sex determining region Y) on Y chromosome . scrotum and male glands • In the brain.region of X chrom.

2) The haploid nucleus condenses into a head 3) A midpiece forms containing mitochondria. 7 . one lysin is hyaluronidase .2° oocyte forms a large ootid and a small polar body polar body also divides = three polar bodies that eventually disintegrate ootid forms a functional ovum with sufficient yolk oogenesis forms one haploid ovum **Most vertebrate and some invertebrate eggs wait for fertilization to complete the last meiotic divisions. ***Often the acrosome contains lysins to clear an entrance through layers surrounding the egg Oogenesis Oogonia are early germ cells in the ovary. How are sperms formed.allows sperm to penetrate follicular cells around egg • Most invertebrate sperm. 4) The whiplike flagellar tail provides locomotion. really? 1) Most cytoplasm is lost.1/16/2012 • In mammals. 5) The sperm head contains an acrosome (except for some fishes and invertebrates). • Sperm greatly outnumber eggs. the rest goes to the first polar body M2 . an acrosome filament extends suddenly upon contact with egg • Fusion of egg and sperm plasma membranes is the initial event for fertilization. they are diploid and increase by mitosis primary oocytes Larger daughter cell or 2° oocyte receives most of the cytoplasm.

2) Yolk is stored as granules of lipid. 4) Accumulation of yolk granules and nutrients cause eggs to grow massively beyond normal cell size Structure of Reproductive Systems Components • Primary organs . • Embryos continuously derive nourishment from the mother • Fertilization is internal • occurs in mammals & some fishes. eggs and sex hormones • Accessory organs . some oocytes develop into 2° oocytes .After puberty.provides more protection to offspring. Reproductive Patterns Oviparous animals lay eggs in the env’t for dev’t • Fertilization may be internal (before eggs are laid) or external (after laid) • Some animals abandon eggs.M2 is completed only after penetration by a spermatozoon.Human ova arrest development in prophase I until puberty . others provide extensive care Ovoviviparous animals retain eggs in their body • Essentially all nourishment is derived from the yolk • Common in some invertebrate groups and certain fishes and reptiles • Fertilization is internal Viviparous animals give live birth • Eggs develop in an oviduct or uterus. protein or both.1/16/2012 Development is arrested in prophase I in the primary oocyte phase. Egg Yolk 1) Egg maturation involves deposition of yolk.Human ova begin M1 at the 13th week of fetal dev’t . meiosis resumes at ovulation or after fertilization .assist gonads in formation and delivery of gametes and may support embryos 8 . 3) Yolk may be synthesized internally or supplied from follicle cells.the gonads that produce sperm.

Testes contain numerous seminiferous tubules where sperm develop.Mature gametes may be released through ducts or spill out through ruptures Insects • separate sexes • accomplish internal fertilization using complex systems .One mating may provide enough sperm to last the reproductive life of a female insect Male Reproductive System 1. gametes are cells from the body cavity . Between tubules are interstitial cells (leydig cells) that produce testosterone.Sperm . except in mammals Uterine duct of the oviduct .stored in seminal vesicles before ejaculated .Polychaete annelids have no permanent reproductive organs. 3.composed of the vas deferens .1/16/2012 Invertebrate Reproductive Systems Vertebrate Reproductive Systems Urogenital system . 9 . birds and mammals Cloaca .sites of sperm production 2.show close connections of reproductive and excretory systems Mesonephric duct .Female have ovaries in a series of egg tubes .drains the kidney and carries sperm in male fishes and amphibians . Sperm are surrounded by Sertoli cells that nourish developing sperm 4.Mature ova pass to a common genital chamber and short vagina .a separate ureter develops in male reptiles.common chamber for intestinal. reproductive and excretory canals.has an independent duct opening into cloaca when present • Invertebrates that transfer sperm for internal fertilization require complex organs • Invertebrates that release sperm into water for external fertilization may be simple .Sperm inserted by male are stored in a seminal receptacle in female . Paired testes .

b. 9. A sac-like scrotum suspends testes outside the warm body cavity. **Unless fertilization occurs. a. Shelled eggs may be retained Embryos may complete their development Placental mammals use the walls of the uterus to intermingle vascular tissue as a placenta.produce ova and sex hormones. 2. estrogen and progesterone Jawed vertebrates . • b.The clitoris is a small erectile organ equivalent to the glans penis of male.mature ova from ovaries enter funnel-like uterine tubes or oviducts Terminal end of uterine tube is specialized in cartilaginous fishes. 5. The penis is a copulatory organ used to introduce spermatozoa into the female vagina.muscular tube that receives the male’s penis and serves as birth canal cervix . prostate gland and bulbourethral glands form seminal fluid. 10 . lower temperature of scrotum is vital to normal sperm production 6. The prostate gland secretes a milky. The terminal portion uterine tube expands into a muscular uterus. Ovaries . The vas deferens carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra. c. 3.1/16/2012 5. Seminal vesicles secrete a thick fluid containing nutrients for use by sperm. where it exits the penis.external genitalia in human females • a. c. 7. special regions produce albumin and shell 4. Ovaries are paired and slightly smaller than male testes Uterus • specialized to house the embryo for nine months • has thick muscular walls and is stretchable • endometrium is the specialized lining rich in blood vessels.Labia majora and labia minora enclose urethral and vaginal openings. a. reptiles and birds to produce shelled eggs. b. Bulbourethral glands release mucus secretions that provide lubrication release mucus secretions that provide lubrication.end of the uterus that extends into the vagina vulva . vagina . Seminal vesicles. slightly alkaline solution that counters acidity. 8. 300–400 per a 30-year reproductive lifetime **300–400 primary oocytes reach maturity while the rest degenerate and are absorbed Female Reproductive System 1. women release about 13 oocytes per year. Sperm pass from the testes to vasa efferentia and to coiled epididymis for maturation.

estrone and estriol Estrogen Functions a. which stimulate tissues of the gonads Gonadal Steroids and Their Control 1. Secondary non-reproductive characteristics include 1) male plumage and pelage coloration. The three estrogens : estradiol. Secondary non-reproductive characteristics include 1) skin or feather coloration 2) bone development 3) body size. there is no menstruation Menstrual Cycles a. apes and humans b. and secondary sexual traits c. and 4) initial development of mammary glands in mammals Both estrogen and progesterone prepare the uterus to receive an embryo • The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) . sperm ducts. Females are receptive to males only during brief periods of estrus or “heat.” b. and 4) vocal cord growth in humans d. 3) antlers in deer. The estrous cycle ends with uterine lining reverting to original state. b. stimulate female reproductive activity c. Testosterone and DHT feedback to hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to keep secretion of GnRH. temperature or social cues 3. This cycle occurs in monkeys. Vertebrate reproduction is seasonal or cyclic to align with food supply and survival of young 2. Testosterone and its metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are required for growth of the penis. photoperiod.governs pituitary release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) Testosterone Estrous Cycles (in heat) a.1/16/2012 Endocrine Events that Orchestrate Reproduction Hormonal Control of Timing of Reproductive Cycles 1. Sertoli cells of testes secrete inhibin. c. The hypothalamus region of the forebrain regulates the release of anterior pituitary gland hormones. develop female accessory sex structures: oviducts. Ovaries produce estrogens and progesterone progesterone. Sexual cycles are controlled by hormones that respond to food intake. Females are receptive to males throughout the cycle. 2. rainfall. At the end of the menstrual cycle the endometrium (uterine lining) is discharged a. 2) bone and muscle growth. uterus and vagina b. Interstitial cells .manufacture testosterone. FSH and LH in check e. and glands. regulates FSH of anterior pituitary 11 .

stimulates an increase in nutrients in the mother • β -endorphin . 3) Third stage: the placenta or afterbirth is expelled. signals the menstrual phase Birth or parturition begins with rhythmic contractions of uterus called labor • Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) appears to initiate the birth process • Estrogen secreted before birth stimulates contractions • Progesterone levels. which inhibit contraction.1/16/2012 The Menstrual Cycle Ovary has two phases: a.aids PRL in preparing the mammary glands for secretion • hPL . day 13-14) b. 2) Second stage: the baby is forced out of the uterus and through the vagina. follicular (release – ovulation.dilates the cervix in preparation for delivery Childbirth 1) First stage: the cervix enlarges and the amniotic sac will rupture. making the uterus more irritable • Oxytocin stimulates uterine smooth muscle contractions Hormones of Human Pregnancy and Birth • Preparation of mammary glands to secrete milk requires two additional hormones • Prolactin (PRL) & lactogen (hPL) . 12 .regulate appetite and mood during pregnancy • Relaxin . decline • Prostaglandin hormones increase. luteal – endometrium degeneration (menstrual discharge) Menstruation. shedding of the uterine lining.

may separate early and have separate placentas b.1/16/2012 Milk Production 1) triggered when infant sucks on the mother’s nipple 2) Oxytocin causes contraction of smooth muscles lining ducts of mammary glands 3) Suckling also stimulates release of prolactin. twins are derived from one zygote. or identical. twins are from two zygotes and may not resemble each other any more than other siblings. derived from one zygote Monozygotic. giving birth to many offspring at one time Some give birth only to one at a time. Identical Twins • Identical/monozygotic twins come from one zygote • Non-identical / dizygotic / fraternal – 2 zygotes & do not resemble each other a. all male or all female. 2. the armadillo gives birth to four young. they are uniparous. but most have individual amniotic sacs 13 . they have identical genomes Fraternal. dizygotic or nonidentical. Multiple Births 1. 3. Many mammals are multiparous. Exceptions occur. Two-thirds share a placenta and splitting occurred after formation of the inner cell mass. 4. 5. which continues milk production.