# Properties of greatest integral function

:
(i)
| | | |
1 x x x ≤ < + and
| | | |
1 , 0 1 x x x x x − < ≤ ≤ − < .
(ii)
| | | |
x m x m + = + if m is an integer.
(iii)
| | | | | | | | | |
1 x y x y x y + ≤ + ≤ + + .
| | | |
x x − = − if x I ∈
| | | |
1 x x − = − − if x I ∉
(iv)
| | | |
0 if is an integer
1 otherwise
x
x x
¦
+ − =
´

¹
(v) If
| |
1, x n x n n > ⇒ ≥ + ∈ integer
(vi) If
| |
, x n x n n < ⇒ < ∈ integer
(vii)
| | | | | |
x y x y x x ( + = + + −
¸ ¸
for all , x y R ∈
(viii)
| |
x
x
m m
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
if m is a positive integer.
(ix)
| | | |
1 2 1
.... ,
n
x x x x nx n N
n n n
− ( ( (
+ + + + + + + = ∈
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(x) If ( ) , x I φ ( ≥
¸ ¸
then ( ) . x I φ ≥
(xi) If ( ) , x I φ ( ≤
¸ ¸
then ( ) 1. x I φ < +
(xii)
| |
x x − is the fractional part of x.
(xiii)
| |
x − − is the least integer x ≥ .
(xiv)
| |
0.5 x + is the nearest integer to x. If two integers are equally near to x.
| |
0.5 x + denotes
the nearest to x .
(xv) If n and a are positive integers,
| |
/ n a is the number of integers among 1, 2, ......, n that
are divisible by a.
EXPONENT OF PRIME p in n!
Exponent of a prime p in ! n is denoted by ( ) !
p
E n and is given by
( )
2 3
! ... .
p k
n n n n
E n
p p p p
( ( ( (
= + + + +
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

where
1 k k
p n p
+
< < and
n
p
(
(
¸ ¸
denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to .
n
p
For example, exponent of 3 in ( ) 100 ! is ( )
3 2 3 4
100 100 100 100
100!
3 3 3 3
E
( ( ( (
= + + +
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

10. Algebraic functions : Functions consisting of finite number of terms involving powers and roots
of the independent variable and the four fundamental operations +, –, ×, and ÷ are called algebraic
functions.
e.g., (i)
3
2
5 x x + (ii)
1
, 1
1
x
x
x
+

(iii)
4
3 5 7 x x − +
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10. The sum of even and odd function is neither even nor odd function.
11. Zero function ( ) 0 f x = is the only function which is even and odd both.
PERIODIC FUNCTION
A function : f X Y → is said to be a periodic function if there exists a positive real number T such that
( ) ( ) f x T f x + = , for all x X ∈ . The least of all such positive numbers T is called the principal period or
fundamental period of f. All periodic functions can be analysed over an interval of one period within the
domain as the same pattern shall be repetitive over the entire domain.
To test for periodicity of the function we just need to show that ( ) ( ) f x T f x + = for same ( ) 0 T >
independent of x whereas to find fundamental period we are required to find a least positive number T
independent of x for which ( ) ( ) f x T f x + = is satisfied for all . x
The following points are to be remembered :
If ( ) f x is periodic with periodT , then ( ) af x b + where ( ) , 0 a b R a ∈ ≠ is also periodic with period T.
1. If ( ) f x is periodic with period T , then ( ) f ax b + where ( ) , 0 a b R a ∈ ≠ is also period with period
T
a
.
2. Let ( ) f x has period ( )
1
/ , and co-prime T m n m n N = ∈ and ( ) g x has period
2
/ T r s =
( ) , and co-prime r s N ∈ and T be the LCM of
1
T and
2
T i.e.,
( )
( )
,
,
LCM of m r
T
HCF of n s
= .
Then T shall be the period of f g + provided there does not exist a positive number ( ) k T < for which
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f k x g k x f x g x + + + = + else k will be the period. The same rule is applicable for any other
algebraic combination of ( ) f x and ( ) g x .
Note :
LCM of p and q always exist if / p q is a rational quantity. If / p q is irrational then algebraic
combination of f and g is non-periodic.
(a) sin , cos , cosec
n n n
x x x and sec
n
x have period 2π if n is odd and π if n is even.
(b) tan
n
x and cot
n
x have period π whether n is odd or even.
(c) A constant function is periodic but does not have a well-defined period.
(d) If g is periodic then fog will always be a periodic function. Period of fog may or may not be the
period of g.
(e) If f is periodic and g is strictly monotonic (other than linear) then fog is non-periodic.
COMPOSITE FUNCTION
If : f A B → and : g B C → are two function then the composite function of f and g .
gof A C → will be defined as ( ) ( ) , gof x g f x x A ( = ∀ ∈
¸ ¸
Properties of composition of function :
1. f is even, g is even ⇒ fog even function.
2. f is odd, g is odd ⇒ fog is odd function.
3. f is even, g is odd ⇒ fog is even function.
4. f is odd, g is even ⇒ fog is even function.
5. Composite of functions is not commutative i.e., fog gof ≠ .
6. Composite of functions is associative i.e., ( ) ( ) fog oh fo goh = .
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7. If : f A B → is bijection and : g B A → is inverse of . f Then
B
fog I = and
A
gof I = . Where
A
I and
B
I
are identity functions on the sets A and B respectively.
8. If : f A B → and : g B C → are two bijections, then : gof A C → is bijection and ( ) ( )
1
1 1
gof f og

− −
= .
9. fog gof ≠ but if, fog gof = then either
1
f g

= or
1
g f

= also, ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) fog x gof x x = = .
10. ( ) gof x is simply the g-image of ( ) f x , where ( ) f x is f-image of elements . x A ∈
11. Function gof will exist only when range of f is the subset of domain of g.
12. fog does not exist if range of g is not a subset of domain of f.
13. fog and gof may not be always defined.
14. If both f and g are one-one, then fog and gof are also one-one.
15. If both f and g are onto, then gof and fog are onto.
INVERSE OF A FUNCTION
If : f X Y → be a function defined by ( ) y f x = such that f is both one-one and onto, then there exists a
unique function : g Y X → such that for each ( ) , y Y g y x ∈ = if and only if ( ) y f x = . The function g so
defined is called the inverse of f and denoted by
1
f

. Also if g is the inverse of f, then f is the inverse of g and
the two functions f and g are said to be inverses of each other.
The condition for existence of inverse of a function is that the function must be one-one and onto.
Whenever an inverse function is defined, the range of the original function becomes the domain of the inverse
function and domain of the original function becomes the range of the inverse function.
Note : ( ) ( )
1 1
fof x f of x x
− −
= = always and the graph of f and
1
f

are symmetric about the line y x = .
Methods of Finding Inverse of a Function :
1. If you are asked to check whether the given function ( ) y f x = is invertible, you need to check that
( ) y f x = is one-one and onto.
2. If you are asked to find the inverse of a bijective function ( ) f x , you do the following :
If
1
f

be the inverse of f, then
( ) ( )
1 1
f of x fof x x
− −
= = (always)
Apply the formula of f on ( )
1
f x

and use the above identity to solve for ( )
1
f x

.
Properties of Inverse function :
1. Inverse of a bijection is also a bijection function.
2. Inverse of a bijection is unique.
3.
( )
1
1
f f

=
4. If f and g are two bijections such that ( ) gof exists then ( )
1
1 1
gof f og

− −
= .
5. If : f A B → is bijection then
1
. f B A

→ is an inverse function of
1
.
A
f f of I

= and
1
B
fof I

= . Here
A
I is an identity function on set A, and
B
I , is an identity function on set B.
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(b) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
lim lim lim
x a x a x a
fg x f x g x
→ → →
=
(c) ( )
( )
( )
lim
lim
lim
x a
x a
x a
f x
f
x
g g x

| |
=
|
\ .
(provided ( ) lim 0
x a
g x

≠ )
(d) ( ) ( ) ( ) lim lim ,
x a x a
cf x c f x
→ →
= where c is a constant.
METHODS OF EVALUATION OF LIMITS
We shall divide the problems of evaluation of limits in five categories.
1. Algebraic limits : Let ( ) f x be an algebraic function and ‘a’ be a real number. Then ( ) lim
x a
f x

is known
as an algebraic limit.
(i) Direct substitution method : If by direct substitution of the point in the given expression we get
a finite number, then the number obtained is the limit of the given expression.
(ii) Factorisation method : In this method, numerator and denominator are factorised. The common
factors are cancelled and the rest outputs the results.
(iii) Rationalisation method : Rationalisation is followed when we have fractional powers
(like
1 1
,
2 3
etc.) on expressions in numerator or denominator or in both. After rationalization the
terms are factorised which on cancellation gives the result.
(iv) Based on the form when → ∞ x : In this case expression should be expressed as a function
1/ x and then after removing indeterminate form, (if it is there) replace
1
x
by 0.
2. Trigonometric limits : To evaluate trigonometric limit the following results are very important.
(i)
0 0
sin
lim 1 lim
sin
x x
x x
x x
→ →
= = (ii)
0 0
tan
lim 1 lim
tan
x x
x x
x x
→ →
= =
(iii)
1
1
0 0
sin
lim 1 lim
sin
x x
x x
x x

→ →
= = (iv)
1
1
0 0
tan
lim 1 lim
tan
x x
x x
x x

→ →
= =
(v)
0
limcos 1
x
x

= (vi)
1 1
limsin sin , where 1
x a
x a a
− −

= ≤
(vii)
1 1
limcos cos , where 1
x a
x a a
− −

= ≤ (viii)
1 1
limtan tan
x a
x a
− −

=
(ix)
sin cos
lim lim 0
x x
x x
x x
→∞ →∞
= =
(x) lim
n n
n m
m m
x a
x a n
a
x a m

=

and also
1
lim
n n
n
x a
x a
na
x a

=

Some important Trigonometrical Expansions
(xi)
3 5
sin ......
3! 5!
x x
x x = − + − (xii)
2 4
cos 1 ......
2! 4!
x x
x = − + −
(xiii)
3
5 7
2 17
tan ......
3 15 315
x
x x x x = + + + (xiv)
3 5
sinh ......
3! 5!
x x
x x = + + +
(xv)
2 4
cosh 1 ......
2! 4!
x x
x = + + + (xvi)
3 5
7
2 17
tanh ......
3 15 315
x x
x x x = − + −
(xvii)
3 5
1
9
sin ......
3! 5!
x x
x x

= + + + (xviii)
3 5
1
9
cos ......
2 3! 5!
x x
x x
π

| |
= − + + +
|
\ .

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(xix)
3 5 7
1
tan ......
3 5 7
x x x
x x

= − + − +
3. Logrithmic limits : To evaluate the logarithmic limits we use following formulae.
(i) ( )
2 3
log 1 ......to
2 3
x x
x x + = − + − ∞ where 1 1 x − < ≤
(ii) ( )
2 3
log 1 ... to
2 3
x x
x x − = − − − − ∞ where 1 1 x − ≤ <
(iii)
( )
0
log 1
lim 1
x
x
x

+
= (iv) limlog 1
e
x e
x

=
(v)
( )
0
log 1
lim 1
x
x
x

= − (vi)
( )
0
log 1
lim log , 0, 1
a
a
x
x
e a
x

+
= > ≠
4. Exponential limits
(i) Based on series expansion
We use (a)
2 3
1 .....
2! 3!
x
x x
e x = + + + + ∞
(b) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
log
log log
1 log ...
2! 3!
x x a
x a x a
a e x a = = + + + +
To evaluate the exponential limits we use the following results
(a)
0
1
lim 1
x
x
e
x

= (b)
0
1
lim log
x
e
x
a
a
x

=
(ii) Based on the form 1

:
To evaluate the exponential form 1

we use the following results.
(a) ( )
1/
0
lim1
x
x
x e

+ = (b)
1
lim 1
x
x
e
x
→∞
| |
+ =
|
\ .

(c)
1
1 1
lim
0 1 1
doesnotexist 1
n
n
if x
if x
x
if x
if x
→∞
∞ > ¦
¦
=
¦
=
´
− < <
¦
¦
≤ −
¹
where n N ∈
(d)
2
1
1 1
lim 0 1 1
1 1
1
n
n
if x
if x
x if x
if x
if x
→∞
∞ > ¦
¦
=
¦
¦
= − < <
´
¦
= −
¦
∞ < − ¦
¹
(e)
2 1
1
1 1
lim 0 1 1
1 1
1
n
n
if x
if x
x if x
if x
if x
+
→∞
∞ > ¦
¦
=
¦
¦
= − < <
´
¦
− = −
¦
−∞ < − ¦
¹

(f) If ( ) lim 1
x a
f x

= and ( ) lim
x a
g x

= ∞.
Then ( ) { }
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lim 1
lim lim1 1
x a
f x g x g x g x
x a x a
f x f x e

→ →
( = + − =
¸ ¸
(iii) Based on the form 0
0
or ∞
0
:
If ( ) ( )
( )
lim
g x
x a
f x

is in the form of
0
0 or
0
∞ then ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) lim log
lim
x a
g x f x g x
x a
f x e

=
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5. L’ HOSPITAL’S RULE
Let ( ) f x and ( ) g x be two function differentiable in some neighbourhood of the point a, except may be
at the point ‘a’ itself. If ( ) ( ) lim lim 0
x a x a
f x g x
→ →
= = .
or ( ) ( ) lim lim
x a x a
f x g x
→ →
= = ∞. Then
( )
( )
( )
( )
'
lim lim
'
x a x a
f x f x
g x g x
→ →
= provided that the limit on the right exist or is
±∞.
6. Newton-Leibnitz’s formula in evaluating the limits :
Consider the definite integral, ( ) ( )
( ) g x
a
l x f t dt =

, where ‘a’ is a given real number.
Newton Leibnitz’s formula say that, ( ) ( )
( )
.
d g x
dl
f g x
dx dx
=
and if ( ) ( )
( )
( ) h x
g x
l x f t dt =

( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
. .
dh x dg x dl
f h x f g x
dx dx dx
= −
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Continuity
CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION AT A POINT
A function ‘ f ’ is said to be continuous at a point a in the domain of f if the following conditions are
satisfied :
(i) ( ) f a exists (ii) ( ) lim
x a
f x

exists finitely (iii) ( ) ( ) lim .
x a
f x f a

=
For the existence of ( ) lim
x a
f x

it is necessary that ( ) ( )
0 0
lim and lim
x a x a
f x f x
→ − → +
both exist finitely and both are
equal.
If any one or moreof the above condition fail to be satisfied, the function f is said to be discontinuous at the
point a. Geometrically speaking, the graph of the function will exhibit a break at the point x a =
GEOMETRICAL MEANING OF CONTINUITY
(i) The function ‘f ’ will be continuous at x a = if there is no break in the graph of the function
( ) y f x = at the point ( ) ( )
, a f a .
(ii) The function ( ) f x will be continuous in the closed interval
| |
, a b if the graph of ( ) y f x = is an
unbroken line (curved or straight) from the point ( ) ( )
, a f a to ( ) ( )
, b f b .
CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION IN AN OPEN INTERVAL (a, b)
A function f is said to be continuous in ( ) , a b if f is continuous at each and every point ( ) , . a b ∈
CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION IN A CLOSED INTERVAL [a, b]
A function f is said to be continuous in a closed interval
| |
, a b if
(i) f is continuous in the open interval ( ) a, b , and
(ii) f is continuous at ‘a’ from the right
i.e., ( ) ( )
0
exists, lim
x a
f a f x
→ +
exists finitely and ( ) ( )
0
lim
x a
f x f a
→ +
=
(iii) f is continuous at ‘b’ from the left
i.e., ( ) ( )
0
exists, lim
x b
f b f x
→ −
exist finitely and ( ) ( )
0
lim .
x b
f x f b
→ −
=
ALGEBRA OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
Say ( ) ( ) , f x g x be any two functions having x a = as one of condensation* point of domain.
Let us define ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 3
, . , / h x c f x c g x h x f x g x h x f x g x = ± = = .
The following results hold true.
Case I : When f and g both are continuous at x a = .
In this case ( ) ( )
1 2
, h x h x and ( )
3
h x will be continuous at x a = , (it has been assumed that x a = is
also the condensation point of domain of ( ) ( )
1 2
, h x h x and ( )
3
h x ).
Case II : When one of functions either g or f is discontinuous at x a = .
In this case ( )
1
h x is definitely discontinuous at x a = . But nothing can be said, in general about the
continuity of ( )
2
h x and ( )
3
h x at x a = . They may or may not be continuous at x a = .
Case III : When f and g both are discontinuous at x a = .
In this case nothing be said, in general, about the continuity of ( ) ( )
1 2
, h x h x and ( )
3
h x at x a = .
They may or may not be continuous at x a = .
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For example,
| |
x and { } x both are discontinuous at all integral points, but their linear combination i.e.,
| | { } x x + is continuous for all values of x.
Note : ( ) max ,
2 2
a b a b
a b
+ −
= + , { } max ,
2 2
a b a b
a b
+ −
= − .
*ACCUMULATION POINT (Cluster Point or Limit Point or Condensation Point)
Accumulation point : An accumulation point of a set of points is a point P such that there is at least one point
of the set distinct from P in any neighborhood of the given point; a point which is the limit of a sequence of
points of the set (for spaces ability). An accumulation point of a sequence is a point P such that there are an
infinite number of terms of the sequence in any neighborhood of ; P e.g., the sequence
1 1 1 1
2 3 4 5
1, , 1, , 1, , 1, , ...
has two accumulation points the numbers 0 and 1
Note :
(a) Every constant function is everywhere continuous.
(b) The greatest integer function
| |
x is continuous at all points except at integeral points.
(c) The identity function ( ) , I x x x R = ∀ ∈ is everywhere continuous.
(d) Modulus function x is everywhere continuous.
(e) The exponential function ( ) ( ) log , 0, 1
a
f x x a a = > ≠ is continuous on ( ) 0, . ∞
(f) A polynomial function
2
0 1 2
... , 0
n
n n
a a x a x a x a + + + + ≠ and ,
i
a R ∈ is everywhere
continuous.
(g) All trigonometrical functions, namely sin , cos , tan , cot , sec , cosec x x x x x x are
continuous at each point of their respective domains.
(h) Likewise, each inverse trigonometrical function (i.e.
1 1
sin , cos , x x
− −
etc.) is continuous in
its domain.
CLASSIFICATION OF DISCONTINUITIES
Although discontinuity means failure of continuity it is interesting to note that all discontinuities are not
identical in character. Broadly speaking, discontinuities may be classified as
(i) Removable, where at a point x a = , ( ) lim
x a
f x

exists but ( ) f a is either undefined or if defined, it
does not equal to ( ) lim .
x a
f x

(ii) Irremovable where ( ) lim
x a
f x

does not exist, even though ( ) f a exists or additionally ( ) f a also
does not exist.
In the first case the removal of discontinuity is achieved by modifying the definition of the function
suitably so that ( ) f a is equal to ( ) lim
x a
f x

which is found existing.
In the second case when ( ) lim
x a
f x

does not exist, no modification of definition at x a = can succeed
to make the ( ) lim
x a
f x

exist. Hence the discontinuity remains irremovable.
Removable type of discontinuity can be further classified as :
(i) Missing point discontinuity (ii) Isolated point discontinuity.
(i) In the case of function ‘f’ where ( ) lim
x a
f x

exists finitely but ( ) f a is not defined, the graph of the
function will show an imperceptible break at x a = in as much as the point x a = is missing on it. It
just like a wire (of the shape of the graph) which is broken but whose ends are put together.
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Appropriately, such a discontinuity is called missing point discontinuity This type of discontinuity
can, however, be removed by redefining the function such that ( ) ( ) lim
x a
f a f x

= ; thus the
redefinition provides welding together the broken wire at the point of break.
(ii) In case a function f is defined such that ( ) ( ) lim ,
x a
f x f a

≠ the graph of the function will show a
break at x a = together with a single point at x a = isolated from the main graph, thus justifying the
name isolated point discontinuity.
Irremovable type of discontinuity can be further classified as :
(i) Finite discontinuity
(ii) Infinite discontinuity
(iii) Oscillatory discontinuity.
In all these cases the value ( ) f a of the function at x a = (point of discontinuity) may exist or may not
exist but ( ) lim
x a
f x

does not exist.
(i) Finite discontinuity: Here ( ) f a exists finitely, but it is either equal to ( ) lim
x a
f x

or ( ) lim
x a
f x
+

and
( ) lim
x a
f x

, ( ) lim
x a
f x
+

are finite and unequal.
(ii) Infinite discontinuity: A discontinuity is termed infinite, if the magnitude of the break at a point of
discontinuity is infinite or the break occurs at infinity. Here both ( ) lim
x a
f x

and ( ) f a do not exist.
e.g. for ( ) ( )
1
, 4
4
f x f
x
=

is undefined.
1
for 4
4
x
x

→ ∞ →

and
1
for 4
4
x
x
+
→ ∞ →

Showing 4, x = is a point of discontinuity occurring at ∞, since both branches of the graph from the
left as well as from the right of the line 4 x = tend towards , ∞
(iii) Oscillatory discontinuity: For a function f, if ( ) f a is undefined as ( ) f x oscillates finitely as
x a → then x a = is called a point of finite oscillatory discontinuity, and incase ( ) f x oscillates
infinitely as x a → , then x a = is called a point of infinite oscillatory discontinuity.
PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
Here we present two extremely useful properties of continuous functions ;
Let ( ) y f x = be a continuous function
| |
, x a b ∀ ∈ , then following results hold true.
(i) f is bounded between a and b. This simply means that we can find real numbers
1
m and
2
m such
( ) | |
1 2
, m f x m x a b ≤ ≤ ∀ ∈ .
(ii) Every value between ( ) f a and ( ) f b will be assumed by the function atleast once. This
property is called intermediate value theorem of continuous function.
In particular if ( ) ( ) . 0 f a f b < , then ( ) f x will become zero atleast once in ( ) , a b . It also means
that if ( ) f a and ( ) f b have opposite signs then the equation ( ) 0 f x = will have atleast one
real root in ( ) , a b .
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Differentiation
DEFINITION
If ( ) f x is a function and a and a h + belongs to the domains of , f then the limit given by
( ) ( )
0
lim ,
h
f a h f a
h

+ −
if it finitely exist, is called the derivative of ( ) f x with respect to ( ) or w.r.t x at x a =
and is denoted by ( ) ' f a ,
( )
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f a h f a
f a
h

+ −
′ ∴ = .
Note : ( ) f a ′ is the derivates of ( ) f x w.r.t x at . x a =
DERIVATIVE OF f (x) FROM THE FIRST PRINCIPLES (i.e. definition or ab-initio)
Let ( ) y f x = …(1)
be a given function defined in some domain.
Let x δ be small change in , x and y δ be the corresponding change in y.
( ) +δ y y f x x δ ∴ + = …(2)
On subtracting (1) from (2), we have
( ) ( ) d y f x x f x δ ∴ = + −
Dividing by
( ) ( ) +
0,
f x x f x y
x
x x
δ δ
δ
δ δ

≠ =
Taking limits on both side as 0, x δ → we get
( ) ( )
( )
0 0
lim lim
f x x f x y
f x
x x
δ δ
δ δ
δ δ
→ →
+ −
′ = =
if it finitely exist (i.e. if f is derivable at x) is called the differential coefficient (d.c.) or the derivative of
( ) w.r.t. f x x or derived function
Denoting L.H.S by
x 0
lim ,
dy y
dx x
δ
δ
δ

= we have ( )
d
d
y
f x
x
′ = and it may be denoted by anyone of the
following symbol :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
, , , , , , .
x
dy d d
f x y f x y y D y
dx dx dx
′ ′
The general derivative of f w.r.t. x is given by
( )
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f x h f x
f x
h

+ −
′ =
The denominator ‘h’ represents the change (increment) in the value of the x whenever it changes from x to
x h + . The numerator represents the corresponding change (increment) in the value of ( ) f x . Hence we
can write ( )
( )
0
changein or
lim
increment in
h
f x y
f x
x

′ = .
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DIFFERENTIABILITY
(i) A function f is said to have left hand derivative at x a = iff f is defined in some (undeleted)
left neighbourhood of a and
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f a h f a
h

+ −
exists finitely and its value is called the left
hand derivative at a and is denoted by
( )
. f a

(ii) A function f is said to have right-hand derivative at x a = iff f is defined in some (undeleted)
right neighbourhood of a and
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f a h f a
h
+

+ −
exists finitely and its value is called the
right hand derivative at a and is denoted by
( )
. f a
+

(iii) A function f is said to have a derivative (or is differentiable) at a if f is defined in some
(undeleted) neighbourhood of a and
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f a h f a
h

+ −
exists finitely and its value is called
the derivative or differential coefficient of f at a and is denoted by ( ) f a ′ or
( )
x a
df x
dx
=
(iv) If a function f is differentiable at a point ‘ a ’ then it is also continuous at the point ‘ a ’. But,
converse may not be true. For example, ( ) f x x = is continuous at 0 x = but is not differentiable
at 0. x =
(v) A function f is differentiable at a point x a = and ( ) ( )
, P a f a is the corresponding point on
the graph of ( ) y f x = iff the curve does not have P as a corner point.
Note : From (iv) and (v) it is clear that if a function f is not differentiable at a point x a = then either the
function f is not continuous at x a = or the curve represented by ( ) y f x = has a corner at the point
( ) ( )
, a f a (i.e. the curve suddenly changes the direction)
(vi) A function f is differentiable (or derivable) on
| |
, a b if
(a) f is continuous at every point of ( ) , a b
(b)
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f a h f a
h
+

+ −
and
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f b h f b
h

+ −
both exist.
A function f is said to be differentiable if it is differentiable at every point of the domain.
A function f is said to be everywhere differentiable if it is differentiable for each x R ∈ .
SOME STANDARD RESULTS ON DIFFERENTIABLITY
(i) Every polynomial function, every exponential function ( ) 0
x
a a > and every constant function
are differentiable at each x R ∈ .
(ii) The logarithmic functions, trigonometrical functions and inverse – trigonometrical functions are
always differentiable in their domains.
(iii) The sum, difference, product and quotient (under condition) of two differentiable functions is
differentiable.
(iv) The composition of differentiable functions (under condition) is a differentiable function.
DERIVATIVES OF SOME STANDARD FUNCTIONS
(i) ( ) 0
d
c
dx
= if c is a constant and conversely also.
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Test of constancy. If at all points of a certain interval ( ) 0, f x ′ = then the function f is constant in that
interval.
(ii)
( )
1 n n
d
x nx
dx

= (iii) ( ) ( )
1
.
n n d
ax b n ax b a
dx

+ = +
(iv) ( ) sin cos
d
x x
dx
= (v) ( ) cos sin
d
x x
dx
= −
(vi) ( )
2
tan sec
d
x x
dx
= (vii) ( )
2
cot cosec
d
x x
dx
= −
(viii) ( ) sec sec tan
d
x x x
dx
= (ix) ( ) cosec cosec cot
d
x x x
dx
= −
(x)
( )
1
2
1
sin
1
d
x
dx
x

=

(xi)
( )
1
2
1
cos
1
d
x
dx
x

=

(xii)
( )
1
2
1
tan
1
d
x
dx x

=
+
(xiii)
( )
1
2
1
cot
1
d
x
dx x

=
+
(xiv)
( )
1
2
1
sec
1
d
x
dx
x x

=

(xv)
( )
1
2
1
cosec
1
d
x
dx
x x

=

(xvi)
( )
log
x x
e
d
a a a
dx
= (xvii)
( )
x x
d
e e
dx
=
(xviii) ( )
1
log
log
a
e
d
x
dx x a
=
( )
1
log
e
d
x
dx x
=
(xix)
( )
, 0,
d x
x x
dx x
= ≠ y x = is not differentiable at 0 x =
(xx)
| | ( )
0 for
does not exist for
x R I
d
x
x I dx
∈ − ¦
=
´

¹
(xxi) { } ( )
1 if
does not exist if
x R I
d
x
x I dx
∈ − ¦
=
´

¹
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION
1. The derivative of a constant function is zero , i.e. ( ) 0.
d
c
dx
=
2. The derivative of constant times a function is constant times the derivative of the function, i.e.
( ) { } ( ) { }
. .
d d
c f x c f x
dx dx
= ⋅
3. The derivative of the sum or difference of two function is the sum or difference of their derivatives, i.e.,
( ) ( ) { } ( ) { } ( ) { }
.
d d d
f x g x f x g x
dx dx dx
± = ±
4. PRODUCT RULE OF DIFFERENTIATION
The derivative of the product of two functions = (first function) × (derivative of second function)
+ (second function) × (derivative of first function)
i.e. ( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
.
d d d
f x g x f x g x g x f x
dx dx dx
= ⋅ + ⋅
5. QUOTIENT RULE OF DIFFRENTIATION
The derivative of the quotient of two functions
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=
( ) ( )
( )
2
denom. derivative of num. num. derivative of denom.
denominator
× − ×
i.e.
( )
( )
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
2
d d
g x f x f x g x
f x
d
dx dx
dx g x
g x
⋅ − ⋅
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
6. DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION OF A FUNCTION (CHAIN RULE)
If y is a differentiable function of t and t is a differentiable function of x i.e. ( ) y f t = and ( ), t g x =
then .
dy dy dt
dx dt dx
= ⋅
Similarly, if ( ), y f u = where ( ) u g v = and ( ), v h x = then, .
dy dy du dv
dx du dv dx
= ⋅ ⋅
7. DERIVATIVE OF PARAMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Sometimes x and y are separately given as functions of a single variable t (called a parameter) i.e.
( ) x f t = and ( ). y g t =
In this case,
( )
( )
.
dy
f t
dy
dt
dx
dx g t
dt

= =

and
2
2
.
d y d dy d dy dt d dy dx
dx dt dx dx dx dt dx dx dt
| | | | | |
= = × =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
8. DIFFERENTIATION OF IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS
If in an equation, x and y both occurs together i.e. ( ) , 0 f x y = and this equation can not be solved either
for y or x, then y (or x) is called the implicit function of x (or y).
For example
3 3
3 0 x y axy c + + + = ,
y x
x y a + = etc.
Working rule for finding the derivative
First Method :
(i) Differentiate every term of ( ) , 0 f x y = with respect to x.
(ii) Collect the coefficients of
dy
dx
and obtain the value of
dy
dx
.
Second Method :
If ( ) , f x y = constant, then
/
/
dy f x
dx f y
−∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂
, where
f
x

and
f
y

are partial differential
coefficients of ( ) , f x y with respect of x and y respectively.
9. DIFFERENTIATION OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
When base and power both are the functions of x i.e., the function is of the form ( )
( ) g x
f x (
¸ ¸
.
( )
( ) g x
y f x ( =
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) log log y g x f x ( =
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
1
. .log
dy d
g x f x
y dx dx
( =
¸ ¸
( )
( )
( ) ( ) . log
g x dy d
f x g x f x
dx dx
¦ ¹
( ( =
´ `
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¹ )
.
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Then
( )
( )
'
2
y f x
dy
dx y f x
=

.
12. ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
2 2
lim
h
f a h f a h f a
f
h
α

+ − + +
′′ = and in general
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
0
1 2 .... 1
lim
n
n n
n
n
h
f nh C f n h C f n h f
f
h
α α α α
α

+ − + − + + − + + −
=
13. ( )
( )
( )
1
1
x f
x
d
f x
d dx
f x
dx
α
α

=
=
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¦ ¹
¹ )
´ `
¹ )
ALGEBRA OF DIFFERENTIABLE FUNCTIONS
(i) Logarithmic differentiation
If ( ) ( )
1 2
y f x f x = or ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
.... y f x f x f x =
or
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
.....
,
.....
f x f x
y
g x g x
= then first take log on both sides and then differentiate.
If , u v are functions of , x then
( ) ( ) log
v v
d d
u u v u
dx dx
=
In particular,
( ) ( ) 1 log
x x
d
x x x
dx
= +
(ii)
( )
d u du
u
dx u dx
= (iii) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
log
d d
f x f x
dx f x dx
=
(iv)
( )
( )
( )
( ) log . .
f x f x
d
a a a f x
dx
′ =
LEIBNITZ THEOREM AND nTH DERIVATIVES
Let ( ) f x and ( ) g x be functions both possessing derivatives up to n th order. Then,
n
n
d
dx
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
1 2
...
n n n n n
f x g x f x g x C f x g x C f x g x
− −
= + + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ... .
n n r r n n
r n
C f x g x C f x g x

+ +
( )
( )
( )
1
1 !
1
!; ; sin sin ,
2
n
n n n
n
n n n n
n
d d d
x n x x n
dx dx x x dx
π
+

| | | |
= = = +
| |
\ . \ .
( ) ( )
cos cos ; .
2
n n
mx n mx
n n
d d
x x n e m e
dx dx
π | |
= + =
|
\ .

SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
(i) If ( ) , ,
m
y ax b m N = + ∉ then ( )( ) ( )( ) 1 2 ..... 1 .
m n
n
n
y m m m m n ax b a

= − − − + +
(ii) If ( ) , ,
m
y ax b m N = + ∈ then
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 2 ..... 1 . for
! , if
0,
m n
n
m
n
m m m m n ax b a n m
y m a n m
n m

¦
− − − + + <
¦
¦
= =
´
¦
>
¦
¹
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(iii) If
1
, y
ax b
=
+
then ( ) ( )
1
1 . ! .
n n
n
n
y n ax b a
− −
= − +
(iv) If ( ) log , y ax b = + then ( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 1 !
n n
n
n
y n a ax b
− −
= − − +
(v) If ( ) sin , y ax b = + then sin
2
n
n
y a ax b n
π | |
= + +
|
\ .

(vi) If ( ) cos , y ax b = + then cos
2
n
n
y a ax b n
π | |
= + +
|
\ .
(vii) If
x
y a = then ( ) log
n
x
n e
y a a = .
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
The partial differential coefficient of ( ) , f x y with respect to x is the ordinary differential coefficient of
( ) , f x y when y is regarded as a constant. It is written as
f
x

or or
x x
D f f .
Thus,
( ) ( )
0
, ,
lim
h
f x h y f x y
f
x h

+ −

=

Again, the partial differential coefficient
f
y

of ( ) , f x y with respect to y is the ordinary differential
coefficient of ( ) , f x y when x is regarded as a constant.
Thus,
( ) ( )
0
, ,
lim
k
f x y k f x y
f
y k

+ −

=

e.g., If ( )
4 4 2 2
, 3 2 z f x y x y xy x y x y = = + + + + +
Then
z
x

or
f
x

or
3 2
4 3 2 1
x
f x y xy = + + + (Here y is regarded as constant)
z
y

or
f
y

or
3 2
4 6 2
x
f y xy x = + + + (Here x is regarded as constant)
HIGHER PARTIAL DERIVATIVES
Let ( ) , f x y be a function of two variables such that ,
f f
x y
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
both exist.
(i) The partial derivative of
f
x

w.r.t. ‘x’ is denoted by
2
2
f
x

or
xx
f .
(ii) The partial derivative of
f
y

w.r.t. ‘y’ is denoted by
2
2
f
y

or
y y
f .
(iii) The partial derivative of
f
x

w.r.t. ‘y’ is denoted by
2
f
x y

∂ ∂
or
x y
f .
(iv) The partial derivative of
f
y

w.r.t. ‘x’ is denoted by
2
f
y x

∂ ∂
or
yx
f .
These four are second order partial derivatives.
Note : If ( ) , f x y possesses continuous partial derivatives then in all ordinary cases.
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2 2
f f
x y y x
∂ ∂
=
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
or .
xy yx
f f =
EULER’S THEOREM ON HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTIONS
If ( ) , f x y is a homogeneous function in , x y of degree n, then
f f
x y nf
x y
∂ ∂
+ =
∂ ∂
DEDUCTION OF EULER’S THEOREM
If ( ) , f x y is a homogeneous function in x, y of degree n, then
(i) ( )
2 2
2
1
f f f
x y n
x x y x
∂ ∂ ∂
+ = −
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ii) ( )
2 2
2
1
f f f
x y n
y x y y
∂ ∂ ∂
+ = −
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(iii) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 1 ,
f f f
x xy y n n f x y
x x y y
∂ ∂ ∂
+ + = −
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
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A function ( ) f x is increasing (decreasing) at a point
0
, x if ( ) f x is increasing (decreasing) on an
interval ( )
0 0
, x x δ δ − + for some 0. δ > A function ( ) f x is increasing (decreasing) on
[ ]
, a b , if it is
increasing (decreasing) on ( ) , a b and it is also increasing (decreasing) at x a = and x b =
2. TEST OF MONOTONICITY
Let ( ) f x is continuous on
[ ]
, a b and differentiable on ( ) , . a b
(a) If ( ) f x is increasing
( )
↑ on
[ ]
, a b then ( ) 0 f x ′ ≥ for all ( ) , x a b ∈
(b) If ( ) f x is decreasing
( )
↓ on
[ ]
, a b then ( ) 0 f x ′ ≤ for all ( ) , x a b ∈
(c) If ( ) 0 f x ′ > for all ( ) , x a b ∈ then
s

(d) If ( ) 0 f x ′ < for all ( ) , x a b ∈ then
s

(e) If a function ( ) f x is defined on ( ) , a b and ( ) 0 f x ′ > for all ( ) , x a b ∈ except for a finite
number of points where ( ) 0, f x ′ = then ( ) f x is strictly increasing
( )
S
↑ on ( ) , a b
(f) If a function ( ) f x is defined on ( ) , a b and ( ) 0 f x ′ < for all ( ) , x a b ∈ except for a finite
number of points where ( ) 0, f x ′ = then ( ) f x is strictly decreasing
( )
S
↓ on ( ) , a b
V. MAXIMA AND MINIMA
1. A real valued function ‘ f ’ with domain
f
D is said to have absolute maximum at a point
0 f
x D ∈ iff
( ) ( )
0
f x f x ≥ ( )
0
and
f
x D f x ∀ ∈ is called the absolute maximum value and
0
x is called the point of
absolute maxima.
Likewise, ‘ f ’ is said to have absolute minimum at a point
0
, x if ( ) ( )
0 f
f x f x x D ≤ ∀ ∈ and
0
x is called
the point of absolute minima.
Note : Absolute maximum and Absolute minimum values of a function, if exist are unique and may occur at
more than one point of
f
D .
2. A real valued function ‘ f ’ with domain
f
D is said to have local maxima at
0 f
x D ∈ , if for some positive
( ) ( )
0
, f x f x δ > ( ) ( )
0 0 0
, . x x x f x δ δ ∀ ∈ − + is called the local maximum value and ( ) ( )
0 0
, x f x is
called the point of local maxima.
Likewise ‘ f ’ is said to have local minimum at
0 f
x D ∈ if for some positive
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0
, , f x f x x x x δ δ δ < ∀ ∈ − + ( )
0
.f x is called the local minimum value and ( ) ( )
0 0
, x f x is called
the point of local minima.
3. A point of domain of ‘ f ’ is an extreme point of , f if it is either a point of local maxima or local minima.
It is also called as turning point.
A point
0
x of domain of ‘ f ’ is a critical point, if either f is not differentiable at
0
x or ( )
0
0. f x ′ =
A point
0
x where ( )
0
0 f x ′ = is called a stationary point and ( )
0
f x is called the stationary value at
0
. x
Note : A local maxima or minima may not be absolute maxima or absolute minima. A local maximum value at
some point may be less than local minimum value of the function at another point.
4. To find absolute maximum and absolute minimum in [a, b], proceed as follows
(i) Evaluate ( ) f x at points where ( ) 0 f x ′ =
(ii) Evaluate ( ) f x at points where ( ) f x ′ does not exist
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x
slightly
0
x < slightly
0
x > Nature of the point ‘
0
x ’
( ) f x ′
ve + ve −
Maxima
( ) f x ′
ve − ve +
Minima
(iii) Find ( ) f a and ( ) f b
Then, the maximum of these values is the absolute maximum value and minimum of these values is the
absolute minimum value of the function . f
But if the given function has domain ( ) , a b then we will find ( ) lim
x a
f x
+

and ( ) lim
x b
f x

, but note that
( ) lim
x a
f x
+

is greatest (or least) then we will say that point of Absolute Maxima (or Absolute Minima)
does not exist, similarly for ( ) lim .
x b
f x

5. To find the local maximum and local minimum.
First Derivative Test
A point
0
x is a point of local maxima (local minima) if
(i) ( )
0
0 f x ′ = and
(ii) ( ) f x ′ changes sign from positive (negative) to negative (positive) while passing through
0
x
Second Derivative Test
A point
0
x is a point of local maxima (local minima) if
(i) ( )
0
0 f x ′ = and
(ii) ( ) ( )
0
0 0 f x ′′ < >
If ( )
0
0, f x ′′ = then second derivative test fails and find ( )
0
. f x ′′′ If ( )
0
0 f x ′′′ ≠ then it is a point of
inflexion. If ( )
0
0, f x ′′′ = find
( )
( )
0
iv
f x . If ( )
0
iv
f x is 0 < then
0
x is the point of local maxima. If
( )
0
0
iv
f x > then
0
x is the point of local minima. If ( )
0
0
iv
f x = then we find ( )
0
.
v
f x If ( )
0
0
v
f x ≠ then
0
x given the point of inflexion. If ( )
0
0
v
f x = then we find ( )
0
vi
f x is so on in similar way.
6. If ( )
0
f x ′ does not exist, but f ′ exists in a neighbourhood of ‘
0
x ’, then
PROPERTIES OF MONOTONIC FUNCTIONS
(i) If ( ) f x is strictly increasing on
[ ]
, a b , then
1
f

exists and is also strictly increasing.
(ii) If ( ) f x is strictly increasing on
[ ]
, a b such that it is continuous, then
1
f

is continuous
on ( ) ( ) , f a f b  
 
.
(iii) If ( ) f x and ( ) g x are monotonically (or strictly) increasing (or decreasing) on
[ ]
, a b
then ( )( ) gof x is also monotonically (or strictly) increasing (or decreasing) on
[ ]
, . a b
(iv) If one of the two functions ( ) f x and ( ) g x is strictly (monotonically) increasing and the other
is strictly (monotonically) decreasing, then ( )( ) gof x is strictly (monotonically) decreasing on
[ ]
, . a b
CONCAVITY. CONVEXITY AND POINT OF INFLEXION
1. Concavity and Convexity
Let P be a point on the curve ( ), y f x = where the tangent PT is not parallel to y-axis. The curve is said
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