# Lasers – Construction Here we briefly describe how to construct a laser. I.

Laser Cavity A schematic diagram of a typical laser cavity is shown in Fig. 6.
R 1 ~ .!" R#~\$ → !"

Gain medium (aser output %1
Fig. 1

%# or &'

• • •

%1) %# * mirrors) intensity reflectivity of %1 ~ .!" or higher. %# is also called output coupler +&',) intensity reflectivity typically \$" → -". Characteristics: +1, %1) %# very flat ~λ.#- +λ / laser wavelength,. +#, %1) %# are aligned such that they are 0very1 parallel. +see e2ercise,. Remarks: +1, %1) %# / multi/layer dielectric coating mirrors. +#, %irror in your bedroom) reflectivity3 +4, 5ometimes concave mirrors are used. +6hy3,

II. Gain (Amplified)
7op. 8nv.

p1
(aser output

%1

Fig. 2

&'

Represents an atom with an e2cited electron in level A. (ight inside the cavity has gain +i.e. number of photons increases in time, if there is population inversion and the reflectivity of &' is high enough. 5everal round trips after photon p1 is emitted) this process results in a lot of photons +see e2ercise,. Remark: 5timulated emissions shown in Fig. \$ will be lost through the walls of cavity.

1

Fig.%1 &' Fig. Another way to visuali>e this property is depicted in Fig. 1#. is shown as a function of z. Again the electric field of the light wave +at a certain instant. ! III. <eam profile. I + z. \$ M2=OC ) where I. " light intensity as a function of > is 8 (z) 0 Z Z M1 ?+=. photons are 0vibrating1 in phase. = I o e − z # . 'oherent. Gaussian) i.is a constant) and ∆ is the width of the profile.e. # . # ∆# Remark: (aser beam intensity could have other distributions) an e2ample is depicted in Fig. C aracteristics of Laser Lig t • • • 0Single1 fre9uency +or wavelength. 11 showing the electric field of light wave as a function of z. # Fig. = θ Fig.) also :nown as monochromatic.

• gas • li9uid • solid. × 1-# :m ≈ #-.:m +9uite smallB. He/Ce laser) ArD laser) '&# laser) C# laser) H'C laser. ) %mall &eam divergence @ypical value of θ is ~ -. '.?+=. ruby laser) @i.\$ × 1-! :m A 1. 5ubstance) inside the laser cavity) that achieves population inversion and thus leads to laser action.. 8t could be. • Eye laser / active medium.g. M2 Fig.\$ × 1-! :m <eam radius on moon A -. (B By mode of operation • '6 • pulsed +see e2ercise. I'. By active media • Gas laser) e.! × 1-−4 rad. 4 . dye molecules in li9uid solvent +sometimes in solids also.g. Gain (Active) (edium Gain means that signal got amplified +the 0A1 in laser. Z 0 Z M1 • ?+=. • 5olid state laser / crystal) or glass) doped with impurities) e. Classification of Lasers (asers can be classified according the following different schemes. Example.sapphire laser) semiconductor laser. %ean earth/moon distance A 4..! × 1-−4 × 4. +A.

statestate Ground F/level 4 # transition 'I. F .\$ nm +red. • @he electrodes have to be very smoot / avoid local discharge.-) and !F4.EA C*( laser- /C 0212' (1 spar2 plugs Fig. !"#\$ %e&'e laser glass tu&e . &utput power -.e-..-) ! F. Ce pressure ~ -.1 @orrG wavelength 64#.(C By pumping and laser levels • 4/level laser • F/level laser fast pump laser transition gr.ig voltage 0 1111' /C Fig.e Laser output (1 . *+amples 8n this 5ection) we give e2amples of specific lasers and briefly describe their characteristics. • 7ulse width ~1 ns A 1-− sec. 4 He pressure ~ 1 @orr +1 @orr is a pressure of 1 mm Hg. !"#( )ulsed C*( laser +. • %par2 plugs create charges to facilitate discharge between the two flat electrodes. is the most common output.ransverse Excited Atmospheric (. state state Ground 4/level Fig. 11 • (aser cavity filled with '&# gas at atmosp eric pressure.! nm) respectively) are also available) typical output power ~ -. 3 F fast pump laser transition gr. Remark: Recently) orange) yellow) and green outputs of wavelengths 61#.! × 1-−4 6 to #! × 1-−4 6.# × 1-−4 6.

• 6una&le * insert) into the cavity) a plate +or wedge. !"#6 .• 6avelength 1-. A @i. can be constructed. no>>le focused pumping light dye Iet.!". ! . dye degradation upon prolonged irradiation by the intense pumping light) has to be changed ~ every # wee:s) which is very laborious. that is transparent) changes cavity property slightly) and thus changes the laser wavelength. long does it take for an electron to travel a distance of /\$ cm under (01000 !2 !"#3 4ye laser Eye cell laser output <lue/green laser @unning plate +wedge. material +say glass) water) etc. Remark. Exercise: %o. similarly) a pulsed C# laser +9uite common.sapphire means sapphire crystal doped with @iD impurities. • Eisadvantage. Eye out Fig. 12 @he reason for using a dye Iet is as follows.sapphire laser is a dye laser with the dye cell replaced by a piece of @i. pulse width can be achieved +see e2ercise. • 5hort pulse generation) ~1-−1F sec. Remark: For the generation of this type of short pulses) the dye cell has to be replaced by a dye 5et.. <ut its reflectivity for the lasing wavelength +mostly yellow or read.i:sapphire laser @i. 11 • 7ump sources / usually blue) green) violet) ultraviolet lasers. ~ 1--µm thic: Eetails of no>>le Jet surface should be very smoothB Fig. A short pulse becomes boarder after passing a piece of thic: +~ cm.6 µm) that is far in the infrared. is ~ . A C# laser lases at 44H...sapphire. • Eye continuously flowing / avoid heating up.1 nm +in the utra/violet spectrum. • 5ic roic mirror / allow ~ -" of pumping laser light to pass through.

ig voltage (capacitor &an2) • @he first laser invented +in 1 6-. sapphire crystal +red in color..→ 1--.Focused pump beam focused pumping light @i. containing many capacitors in parallel. • (aser wavelength 6 F.sapphire crystal +red in color. 1! @i. 5ince its repetition rate is so slow) nobody wants to use this type of laser these days. 1# ?lectrons Holes 6 . • 'an be pumped 0harder1) and hence higher output.4 nm) pulse width ~ 1-/\$ sec.ig reflection coating flas lamp 7u&y rod partially silvered (/C) .nm. • Advantage / active medium suffers no degradation. @he reason for choosing sapphire is that its thermal conductivity is good compared to other non/ metallic solids. @he resultant • 7ump source. capacitance could be as large as a Farad.#µm &utput Fig. 1" 5chematic of a ruby laser. Fig. • Classic 3&level laser. 'apacitor ban: is a cabinet !"#9 Semiconductor laser contact layer laser intensity profile pD /GaAs p /Ga1/yAlyAs Active layer GaAs n / Ga1/2Al2As d ~ -. flash lamp.min. Fig. !"#7 Ru8y laser (Earliest solid&state laser . • Kery low repetition rate ~1 pulse. • @uning range ~H-. <y 0harder1 we mean that the crystal is pumped by a higher blue/green laser power.

A) <L can form compound) but de/e2cite and dissociate 9uic:ly) and thus achieves a population inversion. 1#6 1F6 5pecies Ar'l ArF (aser 6avelength +nm.• :ound in C4 players.eflon +a polymer. • <lue/green semiconductor lasers appear in recent years. H . 8n a 'E operated by blue/green would store about F/times information as that +of the same si>e. . • Active medium should be extremely pure. operated by a red laser.uestion: where are the cavity mirrors3 !"#< Excimer laser *nergy A8. #F\$ #\$# Excitation methods: • ?lectron beam • Eischarge / similar to that of a @?A '&# laser )oints to consider for successful operation: • F) 'l) etc. #.nm wavelength are available. is commonly utili>ed for structural construction. • Recent years #. 1H! 1 4 5pecies MrF Ne<r (aser 6avelength +nm. Lase A-8 7 A-8. &therwise) if the laser cavity is contaminated by a small amount of impurities) the laser cannot laser anymore.6 output at ~\$-. Fig.) are extremely corrosive) ∴cavity should be corrosion resisting. Examples 5pecies Ar# Mr# (aser 6avelength +nm. @he reason that people are interested in blue/green semiconductor lasers is clear. • 6indows / transparent to OK. 8n their ground states) atoms A) < repel one another. 8ound e+ited molecules *lectronic e+citation 7A8 A8 between the two atomic nuclei.<L represents an atom in an e2cited state. 1. . 1\$ RA< // distance 99 distance &et:een t e t:o atomic nuclei.

1) n1 and n# are refractive indices of media 1 and #) respectively. • indicates that ? is pointing into the paper.g. However) it is not easy of ma:e a 2/ray laser. 13 (1 Reasons for using <rewster windows in a laser cavity are. A&out t e aut or< @ey:ords< Gain or Amplified) population inversion) stimulated emissions) e2citation) polari>ation.Applications of Excimer lasers: • ?tching • %edical) e. • &utput laser light is polari>ed) which is convenient for many optical applications. Eouble/headed arrows indicate direction of the electric field +?. of the optical radiation. .ote< 8re:ster=s Angle (>indo:) θB %edium 1 n n 1 # 8nterface %edium # Fig. corneal sculpting • (aser deposition of thin films !"#= >&ray laser 8n recent year) there is intense interest in 2/ray lasers. &ne of the :ey problems is that there is no mirror that can reflect 2/ray efficiently. • (ow loss in each trip through the window. 7elated 6opics in t e %ylla&us< N/rays) ?nergy levels) emission and absorption) 6ave) polari>ation \$ . active medium polari?ed /C output Fig.

meter. Assume that the laser wavelength is H . 5uppose that the pea: power of the laser pulses is 1-H 6 and the beam divergence is -.#! " while other parameters unchanged. +Remark: when the laser pulse is so short) the laser output will no longer monochromatic but have a distribution of wavelengths. @he distance between the two reflecting surfaces of the mirrors is 1. Assume that the angle between the two mirrors is much smaller than one degree and during the first single trip) the light ray is perpendicular to one of the mirrors.. 5uppose the repetition rate is 1. 1 mm Fig. +a. A laser is producing utra/short laser pulses of 1-/1F sec pulse width. Find the angle between the two mirrors.!21-/4 radian. ?ach pulse has an energy of -. 6hat will be the number of photons at the end of the !th trip3 Assuming that we start with one photon traveling along a direction perpendicular to the mirrors. 6hat would be the power density +per unit area. Aoints for furt er discussion< 1... 5uppose that in every trip) stimulated emissions occur F times as indicated by the diagram for e2plaining gain in the lecture notes. .  How population inversion is obtained in Ruby (aser and He/Ce laser3  6hat is the application of laser3 +welding) surgery) holography) printing) optical communication) reading of digital reading) compact disc etc. #.. 1F +solid line starting position) dashed line position after ! round trips. How many cycles does the optical field oscillate within the duration of the pulses. Qou can assume that the pulse is rectangular in shape.sec) what is the average output power3 4.pulses. @he laser is operated in pulsed mode at a wavelength of !4# nm.*+tensions (from t e sylla&us)< <ring out ideas. >arm9up discussion  6hat type of Ruby (aser and He/Ce laser belong to3 +5olid laser and gaseous laser resp. A laser is operated in a pulsed mode. For simplicity) we have assumed that it is monochromatic. 1" !. @he <rewsterPs Angle @he angle of incidence at which the refracted light and reflected light are at right angles to each other is called the <rewsterPs Angle." and \$H.nm.! ") respectively. 'onsider a laser for measuring the distant between Hong Mong and the a spot on the moon where a set of corner cubes are located. F./ sec. 6hat is the resolution of the distance measurement3 +Resolution is Iust speed of light times pulse width. Repeat this e2ercise with the intensity reflectivity of the &' changed to 6. Assume that the laser light does not suffer attenuation after passing through the atmosphere. @he pulse width of the output pulses is 1. of the laser pulse on the surface of the moon.# J and a pulse width of 1-/\$ sec. @he intensity reflectivities of %1 and &' are 1-. 'alculate the instantaneous power of each laser pulse. 'onsider a light beam of # mm diameter travelling between two flat mirrors whose reflecting surfaces are not e2actly parallel so that after ! round trips) the position of the light beam deviates from its original position as shown Fig..

inde2#Rba:.com. 7elated :e& sites< o o o o o %t.m#. @he pea: power of the laser radiation of 1..h:.html 物理實驗 @his site contains many hyperlin:s of animations which demonstrate some principles of physics..Iava. 8t can be used to observe bone structure and soft organs li:e stomach) liver) brain) blood clearly.h:u. Qou will find the following information useful...com.+C. Aaul=s Lasi2 Centre @his site contains information about (A58M service. Given.www.www.. Again you may assume that the light passing through the air does not attenuate.h:. Furthermore) you can assume that the laser pulse is rectangular in shape and has a width of -.lightlin:. http.o: a Compact 5isc >or2s 1- .sergey. consider also diffraction effect.www.lasi:.Iava. @he light bulb is at a distance of 1.#! mm.) and assume that the intensity reflectivity of the corner cube is -") find the power density of the portion the light that get bac: to the earth for +i.\$!21-/1# '#... @he energy density of ?% wave is +1.laser../\$ sec.6 of electrical power.\$-21-! :m..m can readily create plasma.inde2.. @ry to find the information about General 7rinciples of using N ray in medical purpose.lasi:. http. 5uppose that the surface area of each corner cube is F cm # +and there are 1-. @hat is) you can assume the laser energy is uniformly distributed inside a beam of diameter # mm.+b.htm 5emonstrationB 6 e Laser @his site introduces the laser principle with simple animation.lin:.cmi. Activities<  8n medical uses) N/ray photography is made with the human body between N ray source and a film as close to his body as possible.:m from you. 8s there any instruction and preparation3  @hree acronyms) 'A@) %R8) and 7?@) are now commonly heard in hospital. Osually) an electric field that e2ceeds 1-H K.h:. A Cd.htm Laser 7efractive Centre (C inese version only) @his site provides a brief introduction on (A58M. 'ompare these values with a typical lab situation. 5uppose that #-" of the power that it consumes is converted to light power. 'ompute the electric field of the ?% wave at pea: power.!21. 'ompare the power density that you observe due to the light bulb and the power density of part +b. +Although the topics in the site are in 'hinese) the contents of the hyperlin:s are in ?nglish. Repeat the calculation if the beam diameter is -.stpaullasi:.com. neglect diffraction of light wave and +ii. @he laser beam diameter is # mm.corner cubes..www. the electric field between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor with plate separation of 1 mm and an applied voltage of 1!-.# (olecular *+pressions *lectricity and (agnetism – Interactive Cava 6utorials .εo?#. http. Qou need not use the wavelength in this calculation. http. εo A \$. 6. +c.-6F µm wavelength is 421-\$ 6.nsf.#. A light bulb is consuming 1-. @he distance between the moon and the earth is 4. @ry to discuss about it.K is li:ely to cause electrical brea:down.7hy.QAG laser is operated in a pulsed mode.All6eb<yOnit3&penKiewS5tartA!.

.cd.html A ysics 2111999Lasers (C inese version only) @his site contains some interesting programs on introducing the principles and creating of lasers.magnet.html Furt er readings< 7eferences< 1. F..www. http. http.physics.www.. A ysics >orld999> at is laserD <rief introduction in the principle) mechanism and properties of (A5?R. Jen:ins and H.org. %cGraw/Hill) 1 \$1.# /!.laser.h:/phy...electromag.-4.www.china/laser. A.nsu. http.# .colorado.. ?.articles.edu.edu.lasers. #... http.o o o o @his site introduces how laser is applied in reading 'ompact Eisc +'E.www.-4. 6iley 1 \$ .org.Iava.html Cature///(asers reveal why the coo:ie crumbles <iscuits brea: because of how they cool) <ritish scientists have discovered http.nature. Qariv) 0Tuantum ?lectronics1) 4rd ed.micro. 11 .#---...inde2. A. 中國激光 (C inese version only) @his site provides many information on the latest developments of laser in 'hina.fsu. 6hite) 0 Fundamentals of &ptics1) Fth ed.com.laserRe..