Nikos Kazantzakis, Nietzsche, and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review

19/11/13 12:36 AM

HOME

ABOUT

LOGIN

SEARCH

CURRENT

ARCHIVES

F ON T S I Z E

Home > Volume 32, Numbers 1 and 2 (2005) > Pourgouris
JO U R N AL HE LP ContextSensitive Help QuickReference Guide (pdf) Documentation @ SFU Support Forum @ SFU

Nikos Kazantzakis, Nietzsche, and the Myth of the Hero
Marinos Pourgouris, Rutgers University* In practicality the same circumstances under which Christ was born, his dark brother, the Antichrist, would be born, and he would work very much the same miracles but in order to seduce mankind.1 C. G. Jung's statement, given during his five-year-long seminar on Zarathustra, may be extended to express the parodic structure of Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Out of a travesty of the Gospels Nietzsche's Antichrist is born to "seduce" mankind away from the paleontological Christian eschatology and into the new vision of the Overman. Jung called the tendency of any concept to give birth to its opposite enandiodromia.2 The same enandiodromic relationship exists between Nikos Kazantzakis's The Last Temptation of Christ3 and the story of Jesus Christ as it is revealed in the New Testament. Both Nietzsche and Kazantzakis employ a return to the historical moral arena in which the counter value-system was born. "As a historical being," writes Mircea Eliade, "man killed God, and after this assassination — this 'deicide' — he is forced to live exclusively in history."4 In myth, time is reversible: "a primordial mythical time made present."5 In other words, mythological time attempts a return back to the indeterminable epoch in which things 'originated.' The neo-historical modern era, however, is independent of the sacred mythological time, and thus a return to the moment when hierophany6 gains its meaning constitutes both a "deconstruction" and a "fixing." The death of God poses an enormous threat to life and its capacity for transcendence: The Last Man — a modern nihilist. Both The Last Temptation's and Zarathustra's return to the arena of Christian morals aims to shudder its moral foundations as well as to provide a process that overcomes the nihilist attitude of the Last Man.7 In essence, both The Last Temptation of Christ and Thus Spoke Zarathustra are statements of what we may call "historic mythologization." To clarify this point we first need to understand the relationship between myth and history as well as Nietzsche's perception of history. Similar to Nietzsche, Mircea Eliade places history before myth. "The historical event in itself," he writes, "however important, does not remain in the popular memory, nor does its recollection kindle the poetic imagination save insofar as the particular historical event closely approaches the mythical model."8 One should note at this point the importance of what Nietzsche termed "mnemotechnics" in the process of mythologization. In the second essay of his Genealogy of Morals, Nietzsche discusses in detail the importance of memory in the emergence of a particular morality. "If something is to stay in the memory," he writes, "it must be burned in: only that which never ceases to hurt stays in the memory."9 As an intricate part of collective memory, mythology is indicative of a certain morality that reflects the value system of a particular society. However, it only "hurts" when this value system is of the strict "good vs. evil" morality.10 Nevertheless, Eliade perceives "the memory of the collective" as unhistorical:
http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852

JO U R N AL CONTENT Search All Search Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals

USER Username Password Remember me Login

I N F O R M AT I ON For Readers For Authors For Librarians

Page 1 of 8

died alongside God. as 'truths'" (thus dissolving everything "natural.13 Before observing the process through which Kazantzakis rehabilitates Jesus in The Last Temptation. and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM "the memory of historical events is modified. Mythology. which we have already labeled "historic mythologization. is performed in conformity with archaic ontology. Mythology is primordial and "archaic. "died as he had lived. "I raise against the Christian church the most terrible of all accusations that any accuser ever uttered" (Antichrist 62. revengeful. "and the historical are equally necessary for the health of an individual. Memory preserves the heroic.unb. however. "This 'bringer of glad tidings'. hates reality (Antichrist 30).." he writes.. the greater-than-life. His understanding of Jesus' type is nonetheless one of a "typical decadent" (Antichrist 30). Similarly. and crude manners of ecclesiastical Christianity. Zarathustra teaches the "character" of this hero. the Overman becomes a Nietzschian hero whom we are asked to imitate. The focus of Nietzsche's condemnation of Christianity is the ecclesiastical derivation from the evangelical Christ.hil. parody answers the question: a common (invisible) space is needed to express the enandiodromic tension. Nietzsche."15 For Nietzsche." calls for the shift of the emphasis on the past to a constructed earthly "horizon. that of an Antichrist would be irrelevant." In such a scheme. but the process can only be discovered. one may suggest. In The Last Temptation of Christ. The answer to this question. strong and fruitful only within a horizon" (HfL 10)."12 The superhistoric man is bound to become a nihilist — a Last Man — since living entirely in history necessitates a life of insomnia. These historical men live a much more creative existence.16 Jesus' life becomes a paradigmatic representation. the process. then. by the individual. they "believe that ever more light is shed on the meaning of existence in the course of its process.14 He is removed from "the sense of touch" (Antichrist 29). In essence."11 The tendency to perceive history and mythology as opposites is apparent. carried out by the consciousness of the popular strata in Europe almost down to our day. temporal. historical" into mere signs). The analogy is not static: A hero becomes only in a process. the meaning." The collective memory does not preserve history-myth does. is much more complicated. which cannot accept what is individual and preserves only what is exemplary. my emphasis). And here is the problem: Is the conceptualization of Christ as a hero possible in the Zarathustrian vision? On the surface. can work only as an enhancement of the present through a meaningful projection in the future." writes Nietzsche. http://journals. and they look back to consider that process only to understand the present better and learn to desire the future more vehemently" (HfL 13). This reduction of events to categories and of individuals to archetypes. unable even of impulsive resistance. the right of the evangel. Life is "healthy. or better lived. Kazantzakis presents us with a feeble decadent turning into a life-transcending hero. This conception of the evangel clashes directly with the forceful. contradicts the ecclesiastical concepts of "god as person" and the "kingdom of heaven. let us look into Nietzsche's understanding of the Christ-type. History is irreversible and new. "The unhistorical. a "great symbolist" who "accepted only inner realities as realities. achievement. Nietzsche acknowledges the life of Christ as an indication of how to live. a people and a culture. spatial. According to Nietzsche.Nikos Kazantzakis. We might say that popular memory restores to the historical personage of modern times its meaning as imitator of the archetype and reproducer of archetypal gestures.. The mere existence of Christ. Is mythology then possible in the modern unhistorical era? Myth. The question still remains: Is it possible to make a hero out of Jesus? In Eliade's concept of the mythological function as an imitation of a heroic model. Nietzsche finds in this distinction between Jesus and the Church an ironic opposition: "Mankind lies on its knees before the opposite of that which was the origin. and his example rests on passive "not-doings" (Antichrist 39). in such a way that it can enter into a mold of the archaic mentality. This hierophany is precisely what the nirvana-seeker concept of Christ is fighting against. as he had taught — not to 'redeem men' but to show how one must live" (Antichrist 35). Jesus of Nazareth is a feeble existence. the hierophanic presence of Christ represents the feeling itself that enters the "overall feeling of the transfiguration of all things (blessedness)" (Antichrist 34).php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 2 of 8 . after two or three centuries. in the concept of 'church' it has pronounced holy precisely what the 'bringer of the glad tidings' felt to be beneath and behind himself — one would look in vain for a greater example of world-historic-irony" (Antichrist 36). Nietzsche clearly distinguishes between the ecclesiastical Christ and Christ the evangel. Without the notion of a Christ.ca/index.

Eventually.Nikos Kazantzakis. What is emphasized is not Christ's glorious telos but rather "his bloody tracks" (LT 2). has introduced the two most inappropriate concepts possible into his explanation of the Jesus type: the concept of genius and the concept of the hero ('héros'). In The Hero with a Thousand Faces." Kazantzakis's Christ is introduced in the novel as a mortal man. His "dual substance" is by no means a state but rather a process. The definition of the "hero" in Nietzsche becomes clear: A "hero" is one who engages in lifetranscending contests.hil. has here become instinct: the incapacity for resistance becomes morality here ('resist not evil'-the most profound word of the Gospels. After all. Christ was the "savior" from the moment of his birth. how they overcame it. Renan. Nietzsche. In fact. Nikos Kazantzakis dares to transform this Nietzschian anti-hero into a mouthpiece of Zarathustrian principles. of man to attain to God or. mythology may be seen as the springboard for life's transcendence.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 3 of 8 . in gentleness."19 Can the figure of Christ as it appears in the New Testament be perceived as a hero in this Campbellian model? Since he represents the hierophanic manifestation of the thing itself.20 The interval part of Christ's life. Campbell magnifies the "separation-initiation-return" formula to represent the "nuclear unit of the monomyth": "A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man. "to bestow boons on his fellow man. On the one hand. divinity is constantly sought but never attained. more exactly.' therefore distancing itself from anything of real or historical value. is indeed one of supernatural wonder not much different from the sort of wonder we find at its beginning and its end (namely the heavenly utopia).17 that buffoon in psychologicis. the relationship between man and God is nothing but a "yearning". The Last Temptation ends with the crucified Christ in order to stress his ephemeral http://journals. so superhuman.. and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM Understanding Jesus in such a mythological frame. In Ecce Homo. however." Christ begins as a bestower of boons and ends as such. "The dual substance of Christ.ca/index. upon his return. Furthermore. I suggest the heroic model as described by the mythologist Joseph Campbell. In his Last Temptation. To make a hero of Jesus!" (Antichrist 29). the transcending process of the heroic journey is manifested in the hero's power. It is the ability to unveil something greater than the nihilist tendencies that prevailed after God's death. But we have so far attempted an application of the heroic model on the ecclesiastical Christ. in not being able to be an enemy . To examine the validity of the Christ-Hero concept and the transubstantiation of Christ into a Nietzschian Antichrist. This process implies the mythological function that underlines the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles. But if anything is unevangelical it is the concept of the hero. The narrative frame of his life begins with his magical birth and ends with his equally magical resurrection. he returns to the same divine world. of all feeling-oneself-in-a-struggle. confronts us with a dangerous predicament: To perceive Jesus as a hero is for Nietzsche no less than 'idiotic': "M. the hero is defined in action and not in his "ideal" (or idealized) existence (Ecce Homo: "Birth of Tragedy" 2). On the other hand. their key in a certain sense). Is an application of the same model to Christ the evangel possible? The project fails dramatically merely in front of the evangel's decadent inertia.unb. to return to God and identify himself with him-has always been a deep inscrutable mystery to me.. it is an existence that necessitates earthly and bodily action.. he ventures forth from the uncommon day world of the divine and into a region of the common (namely. blessedness in peace. it becomes a term similar to 'fiction." begins Nikos Kazantzakis's Last Temptation"the yearning so human. Nietzsche attempts to redefine what is valuable in The Birth of Tragedy in precisely its transcending capacity: "Hellenism and Pessimism would have been a less ambiguous title-suggesting the first instruction about how the Greeks got over their pessimism. A heroic life is an individual existence that struggles toward the Overman. Just the opposite of all wrestling. the journey. the earthly)."18 It is precisely in his inability to overcome pessimism that Christ becomes an anti-hero in Nietzsche's mind. Jesus definitely presumes nothing for himself alone-and as the child of God everyone is equal to everyone. Nietzsche's attitude toward the "hero" also reveals his perception of "mythology" as a function. Any attempt to understand this journey as educational or life transcending is literally sacrilege since it violates the dogma of Christ's divinity. Unavoidably.

as well as the biblical Christ. but on the other it requires a collective attitude of a heroic aristocracy whose will transcends life. he is described as a feeble quivering carpenter in Nazareth." writes Campbell." writes Nietzsche.." Indeed. If you do not hear this Cry tearing at your entrails. As the story is not concerned with a magical birth. a dangerous on-the-way. 9. However. This isolation also works as a parodic reconstruction of Christ's forty-day http://journals. when he detaches himself from the world of the "common. Evidently. The heroic process focuses. The "fabulous forces" that this Nietzschian hero must encounter are the "spirit of gravity. the whole heart of man is a single outcry. a similar concept awakens man from his lethargy: "1. The "desert" becomes the holy ground where the spirit struggles to unite the fragmentary human wills into one creative Will to power. the free spirits. Kazantzakis restores Jesus. is the historicity of Christ and the redefinition or the fixing of his evangelion." and the figure of the "jester. In Zarathustra. a dangerous shuddering and stopping. only out of the decadent may a new spirit evolve. it is the process that makes the hero-the adventurous space between his departure and his return."25 Once more." What we return to. "there was only one Christian and he died on the cross. Ironically. A dangerous across. ideals. He is introduced to us around the age of thirty. do not set out. a good-for-nothing traitor . "The familiar life horizon has been outgrown. What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end: what can be loved in man is that he is an overture and a going under. it is equally indifferent to the concept of the bodily resurrection. "the old concepts." writes Nietzsche. Man is a rope and always remains a rope. as masters of the desert. and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM nature as a historical being. The function of the transformation is apparent: only out of a mortal can a hero be born. a dangerous looking-back. But suddenly a convulsive cry tears through me: 'Help me!' Who calls? 2. the heroic frame is presented through the metaphor of the tightrope walker at the beginning of the first part: "Man is a rope. "that the truthful have dwelt. He stands firmly only on the towers." Unlike the evangel. This is the moment of greatest crisis.. He is.. and emotional patterns no longer fit." the "nausea. someone is struggling and shouting within you. tied between beast and overman-a rope over an abyss. Kazantzakis's Christ isolates himself before beginning his teachings: in that "wilderness" the seed of the Overman is laid.hil. Nietzsche."24 The role of the "herald" who delivers this "convulsive Cry" in The Last Temptation is performed by Judas. "In truth. is no one else's than that of the Antichristian figure of Judas the Iscariot: "You're a coward.22 The heroic adventure is reserved only for strong spirits. he is precisely at the same age as Zarathustra. on the individual quest of the hero. Like Zarathustra. and that later awakens him from this litharge. but what defines him as a "skillful" or a "clumsy" acrobat is the walk. this weakness is precisely what will later turn the "metamorphosed" Jesus of The Last Temptation into a life-transcending hero. on the one hand." The role of the jester is essential in this heroic model. The tightrope walker departs from one tower and struggles over the rope until he reaches the second tower. the desert becomes the process through which the Hero must struggle and transcend himself." (LT 24).Nikos Kazantzakis. Jesus will then isolate himself in the desert in order to discern this call."21 What should be stressed here is Nietzsche's dialectical treatment of the metaphor." 23 In the Kazantzakian philosophy. as Nietzsche emphasizes.unb. If the boundaries of the heroic must be laid out-and they are laid out in Thus Spoke Zarathustra — they must encompass within them the most worthy arena in which the human spirit can struggle. to the historic Nietzschian perception of his decadent anti-heroism. The transition of the hero to the realm of adventure requires the appearance of a herald. Lean against your breast to hear it. as we have already discussed. Gather your strength and listen. the voice that announces Jesus' pitiful image.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 4 of 8 .ca/index. We have already discussed Eliade's conception of myth as a "faithful repetition" of paradigmatic models and applied this vision to the process of the Overman.. Indeed. at the opening of the work. This is the signal for the March to begin.. he makes a mockery of Jesus in the same manner that Nietzsche attacks Ernest Renan's poor illustration of Jesus as a hero. It is within these Zarathustrian heroic boundaries that the Kazantzakian Christ struggles. however. His fear of resistance (against both the Romans and the Judaic moral structure) is such that he resolves to making crosses to crucify the various rebel-Messiahs that preach the end of Roman rule. "a bridge"-a process-and "not an end. the time for the passing of a threshold is at hand. then. "It was ever in the desert.

with offering the other cheek."26 In The Last Temptation." The feeble biblical representation of Jesus becomes. In Zarathustra's "Three Metamorphoses. saw her gaze toward the river Jordan and sigh. "the son of http://journals. sweeten."29 In Kazantzakis. Jesus grew pale. The voice goes on to make a stunning proposal to Jesus. He will make the camel/serpent choice in his dream in a spirit that "renounces and is reverent" until this vision of slave-conformity turns into a nightmare that awakens him on the cross. No matter how great the capacity of the camel. and forgetfulness.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 5 of 8 . the spirit becomes a camel. round breast against Jesus' own and was sliding slowly. the three temptations of the Bible are replaced with those described in Zarathustra's "Three Metamorphoses. In other words. He is fed up with the camel-like humility.Nikos Kazantzakis.. "Who are you?" and the Lion answers: "Yourself-the hungry lion inside your heart and loins that at night prowls around the sheepfolds. most of all life's burden. and with being gentle. and the lion.. The process is strikingly similar to Zarathustra's perception of the three metamorphoses of man's spirit. more luring. The concept is interesting: As Jesus awakens from the vision of the lion. you clung to the door of your house and to your mother's clothes so that you would not fall. closed his eyes." but the lion. it becomes the hunter but also the hunted. the camel a lion." The second metamorphosis in Zarathustra is that into the lion: the enslaved camel now becomes a conquering lion. Jesus feels "his heart grown more and more ferocious" (LT 261)." the camel obeys the moral command of "thou shalt..27 The first temptation that comes to struggle with Jesus' spirit is a serpent28: "The serpent had now pressed its hard. Zarathustra teaches the transformation of the lion into a child: "For the game of creation . In its best capacity. and weighs whether or not to jump in and eat. Jesus is given each stage as a resolution-a telos. The Kazantzakian Christ transcends his spirit in the wilderness. choice. make me God!" (262-63). Soon. But how can god struggle with his 'perfect' spirit? The three temptations posted by the Devil are overcome with great ease and in accordance with the passive attitude of the evangel. shouting: I am hungry. a dazzling light blinds him and a voice is heard: "Do you remember when you where a small child still unable to walk. Jesus asks. is needed for "the creation of freedom for oneself and a sacred 'NO'. cool. in order to deconstruct and then reconstruct the desert episode of the gospels. make me God! God. The "sacred 'No'" and the "I will" also become concepts of dependence. Maddened. shouted loudly. a child. The point is made clear when this temptation returns to haunt the crucified Jesus in a dream."31 The child-spirit wills its own will. everything is mine!" (LT 260).. wrapping itself around him. 'God." In Nietzsche. a more creative metamorphosis is needed to overcome the lion's anger and dependence. the camel-spirit is able to withstand a lot without buckling. The lion now depends on the prey. the narrator says. make me God! God. innocence. the vision of the "domestic" serpent is also replaced with the vision of the lion. however. and shouted within yourself. he is tempted to remain in one of the first two stages or to make a third. I rush from Babylon to Jerusalem. The spirit is asked to carry the placid burden of a common life. from Alexandria to Rome. and her bosom was filled with children: his own. She extended her hand-she was seeking him. the vision of the lion also collapses and the four kingdoms "become four handfuls of ashes" (LT 262). The common space between Kazantzakis's serpent temptation and Nietzsche's camel-spirit lies in their inability to transcend life. but equally decadent.hil. Christ has turned from decadent inertia to paralyzing anger and conscious self-interest. Nietzsche. and all at once: what happiness! How his life would change.. to give a sign. the kingdoms of this world. but it always remains a slave. a ferocious lion-like warrior. Confronted with this majestic vision. and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM isolation in the desert in the Gospels. saw Magdalene's firm. tortuously. It enjoys an impulsive (self-propelled) creative process. from Jerusalem to Alexandria. He had only to twitch the corner of his eye. The human tragedy of Jesus ends joyfully in his utterance "It is accomplished. In other words.unb. In The Last Temptation the will of the child is misinterpreted into a temptation. finally. become more human!" (LT 257). the choice is still easy: the spirit becomes a slave of the morality that loads it. a sacred 'Yes' is needed. In The Last Temptation. A last.ca/index. He now wants to conquer the "four kingdoms"30 of the earth. through a second temptation. high-rumped body wriggling along the shores of Lake Gennesaret. he gets up and girds himself "interminably with an invisible sword. with the appearance of the lion. I can make you a god! And even more.

which Nietzsche had already exposed. Interestingly. Unlike the Christian institutions that corrupted and misinterpreted the teachings of Christ. The problem. (A more appropriate translation is "The Life and Works of Alexis Zorba. made a choice of an ideology suggests.Nikos Kazantzakis.). my trans. as Zarathustra becomes the prophet of the "Struggling Man" concept." "Nietzsche enriched me with new agonies. Return to article 2. from the Greek by P. (Bergson was Kazantzakis's teacher when he was studying at the Sorbonne in France. It is the comic aspect of the tragedy-the sacred "Yes"-that finds one nailed on the cross uttering triumphantly "It is accomplished" and the other leaving the cave with his disciples behind "glowing and strong as a morning sun that comes out of dark mountains. The word was originally used by Heraclitus. 1973).hil. Kazantzakis's attempt in The Last Temptation is to turn Christ into a Zarathustrian disciple. Return to article 5.) Kazantzakis wrote his doctoral dissertation in France (1909). Nietzsche. and uncertainty into pride" (Report to Greco 445. The misapplication here resembles a teleological misperception of the Overman. Subsequent references are to this edition and are cited parenthetically in the text following the abbreviation LT. both Zarathustra and Christ remain alone." As Peter Bien has suggested. Zorba is presented as a Dionysian celebration of life placed next to his Apollonian writer-boss). The term is proposed by Mircea Eliade in The Sacred and the Profane to express that "something sacred shows itself to us" (11). Nietzsche's view of Christ as a nihilist who. Return to article 6. The Kazantzakian Christ always struggles within the earthly arena. without disciples. Mircea Eliade. Mircea Eliade. 1988) 12-13. but it becomes evident with the publication of Zorba the Greek. lies within the static understanding of a telos. Return to article 3. I include a brief synopsis of Nietzsche's influence on Kazantzakis's thought to familiarize the reader with the concepts I will be discussing: In his autobiographical work Report to Greco (London: Faber and Faber.ca/index. Both Nietzsche and Kazantzakis stress the importance of the "yearning" and the "bridge" in conceptualizing the New Christ and the Overman. I find the word appropriate to express the incarnation of God in Jesus Christ. The http://journals. The Sacred and the Profane. Ironically. Return to article 7. The Quest (Chicago: University of Chicago Press." * This article is dedicated to Walter Sokel.unb. The proposal represents a union with what his spirit is striving toward.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 6 of 8 . The Last Temptation of Christ. trans. Such an understanding could only be achieved through a deconstruction and a historic remythologization of the figure. a possibility for the rehabilitation of Jesus' image. Kazantzakis (1883-1957) presents Nietzsche and Bergson as the two greatest philosophical influences of his life. nevertheless. 1959) 68. Carl Gustav Jung. between Christ the evangel and the ecclesiastical Christ. trans. Return to article Notes 1. A. Seminar on Nietzsche's Zarathustra. 1969) 48. bitterness. Bien (New York: Simon and Schuster. to say the least. The Last Temptation of Christ was finished in 1951 and was first published in German because of apparent difficulties in finding a Greek publisher. It is their destiny to remain alone. 1998). and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM God!" The parody is apparent. entitled "Nietzsche on the Philosophy of Justice. of course. at the conclusion of their journey. The influence of Nietzsche on his work is clear from the production of his first theatrical plays in Athens. ed. Nikos Kazantzakis. Kazantzakis manipulates the power of transcendence that the child-spirit has in order to present the vast dichotomy." he writes. Christ becomes an example of a struggling man. James Jarrett (Princeton: Princeton University Press. from the French by Willard Trask (New York: A Harvest Book. Return to article 4. "and taught me to transubstantiate misery.

ed. In fact.Nikos Kazantzakis. On the Advantage and Disadvantage of History for Life. Nietzsche. In The Portable Nietzsche p. the two events represent the core of Christian celebrations: Christmas and Easter. "The 'kingdom of heaven'. Return to article 14. Return to article 8. "is a state of the heart-not something that is to come 'above the earth' or 'after death'. The Antichrist. See The Sacred and the Profane 97-98. in The Portable Nietzsche. Return to article 13. The Last Temptation was placed on the index of forbidden books. In an explanatory note. The Myth of the Eternal Return (Princeton: Princeton University Press." writes Nietzsche. Prologue. Subsequent references to both works are to this edition and are cited parenthetically in the text by chapter and aphorism unless otherwise noted. 1974) 42. Hollingale (New York: Vintage Books.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 7 of 8 . Nietzsche apparently refers to Renan's Vie de Jésus (The Life of Jesus). 126-27. In 1954. Return to article 10. Return to article 22. They overcame it of course to a great extent through the staging of tragedies. Peter Preuss (Indianapolis: Hackett. Return to article 17. aphorism 4. Ernest Renan (1823-1892). The Sacred 99. Return to article 11. Return to article 18. Return to article http://journals. On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. Nietzsche acknowledges the importance of the Judeo-Christian decadent values in the creation of a stronger and healthier society whose exposure to this "sickness" creates the necessary antibodies. trans. Return to article 20. See Friedrich Nietzsche. The complex cosmic mythology of ancient Greece presented itself as an all-encompassing impulsive projection of the human psyche. 1980) 10. Friedrich Nietzsche. Return to article 9." The Antichrist 34. 1961) 30.hil. 1989) Genealogy II.ca/index. Mircea Eliade. Return to article 12. Return to article 21. Subsequent references are to this edition and are cited parenthetically in the text by aphorism. Campbell attributes the word monomyth to James Joyce's Finnegan's Wake. Subsequent references are to this edition and are cited parenthetically in the text following the abbreviation HfL. Return to article 19. Joseph Campbell. Walter Kaufmann and R. Mircea Eliade. and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM Greek Holy Synod attempted Kazantzakis's prosecution on the count of blasphemy (before the book was published in Greek). Return to article 16. trans. Mircea Eliade. Walter Kaufmann (New York : Penguin. 3. and trans. Ecce Homo: "The Birth of Tragedy" 1. The Myth 44.unb. Return to article 15. Kazantzakis celebrated Nietzsche's birthday every year (in a parallel tradition to that of the martyr-day celebration in Orthodox Christianity). Friedrich Nietzsche. J. The Hero with a Thousand Faces (New York: Pantheon. 1976) aphorism 29 and 35.

Return to article 31. Babylon.php/IFR/article/view/7795/8852 Page 8 of 8 . As I will discuss later. Jerusalem. Nikos Kazantzakis. In The Portable Nietzsche 139. rpt.In The Portable Nietzsche 215. his novels deal with an application of the concepts he explains in this work. and the Myth of the Hero | Pourgouris | International Fiction Review 19/11/13 12:36 AM 23. Return to article 30. In The Portable Nietzsche 139. Subsequent references to the three metamorphoses are quoted from this aphorism. Return to article 26. In essence. Return to article 25. Jesus overcomes his biblical nature by being able to desire a woman. Nietzsche.Nikos Kazantzakis. Often. The Spiritual Exercises is Kazantzakis's only explicitly philosophical work. Return to article 24. who is continuously associated with the serpent in the novel. the third temptation misuses the child-spirit to tempt Jesus. 1960. The Portable Nietzsche 137. Kazantzakis aims to draw an association between this temptation and Jesus' desire for Mary Magdalene. Kimon Friar (New York: Simon and Schuster.ca/index. 1982) 64. In using a serpent instead of the Zarathustrian camel. The Zarathustrian transformation into a child takes a slightly different meaning in Kazantzakis. That is. Alexandria. and Rome. Spiritual Exercises. Return to article http://journals.hil. Campbell 51. Return to article 27. trans. Return to article 29. Return to article 28.unb.