Few decades ago, people are aware of robots only through movies and books.

Robots are used for the purpose of entertainment in various movies. In these days, robots plays a major role in the field of medicine. Scientists are trying to find out new ways for making use of robots in their medical field. Robots can be helpful in the medical world by three ways which includes dealing with diagnosis, surgery and bringing back good health for the patients. There seems to be high risk of difficulties in most of the surgeries and sometimes there are chances for mortality. Hence, most of the scientists and doctors made various researches in order to make the surgeries safe and secure. In such situations, robots can help a lot in making the surgery more safer since they could make smaller cuts in the organs or tissues. This would in turn make the patients feel easier and comfortable. The most important point considered in the medical world is to get accurate and safer diagnosis. Most of the times, the patients are diagnosed in an inaccurate manner and hence they suffer from various problems. The test instruments in robots are able to perform various tests that can be performed by doctors or nurses. These tests include sample collection, CAT scans performance, etc. This would help in reducing the errors and also reduces the malpractices done in case of reports delivered. Most of the people are injured through accidents. The quality of such patient’s life can be improved by rehabilitation. Robots would help in such process by helping the patients in restoring the function of their legs and hands. Robots can also help in monitoring the progress of each and every patient. Thus robots play a vital role in the field of medicine and it reduces the work of human. Medical robotics is an interesting discipline that is related to human health of all individuals. Their use is becoming popular due to their numerous advantages in the medical field.

History Of Medical Robotics Medical robotics was introduced in the science of medicine during the early 1980s, first in the field of urology. Robotic arms were introduced and used for medical operations. Robotics initially had inferior quality imaging capabilities. During this period, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration also started exploring utilization of robotics for telemedicine. Telemedicine comprises the use of robotics by physicians for the observation and treatment of patients without being actually in the physical presence of the patient. As telemedicine improved, it started to be used on battlefields. During the close of the last century, medical robotics was developed for use in surgery and numerous other disciplines. Continued advancement in medical robotics is still in progress, and improved techniques are being developed. Features Of Medical Robotics Medical robotics is managed by physicians through computerized consoles. The consoles may be near the patients, or at an external site. Consoles include single or multiple arms being in the control of the physicians who perform operations on patients. The shape and dimensions of these

and he can accordingly control the robot by a computer. Therefore. The medical data and requirement is fed in the robotics before start of surgery. including the X-rays. Robots are being used for multiple operations. increased patient comfort. and less hazardous and more meticulous interventions. though these systems can also still use telemanipulators for their input. and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. but can be anywhere in the world. (Some surgeries may be performed for long durations causing extensive fatigue to the physicians. Types of medical robots Surgical robots Their most important feature is their high precision. Robotic surgery. Roboticallyassisted surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of minimally-invasive surgery and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery. kidneys. In computer-controlled systems the surgeon uses a computer to control the robotic arms and its end-effectors. and other diagnostic examinations. and open heart surgery. A telemanipulator is a remote manipulator that allows the surgeon to perform the normal movements associated with the surgery whilst the robotic arms carry out those movements using end-effectors and manipulatorsto perform the actual surgery on the patient. instead of directly moving the instruments. He may not be required to be present in the patient room. the environment produced is friendly where the physicians experience less fatigue. Rehabilitation robots These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures. One advantage of using the computerised method is that the surgeon does not have to be present.) The use of robotics in the medical field makes many medical procedures much more smooth and comfortable. The robots have enabled the physicians to perform operations on patients who are located at long distances. either a direct telemanipulator or through computer control. In the case of robotically-assisted minimally-invasive surgery. computer-assisted surgery.arms depend upon the type of surgery being performed. including replacement of joints. Robotic surgery is a method to perform surgery using very small tools attached to a robotic arm. such as training and therapy. leading to the possibility for remote surgery. The purpose of utilizing medical robotics is the provision of enhanced diagnostic capabilities. the surgeon uses one of five methods to control the instruments. . This information facilitates the medical robotics to traverse the human body correctly. The surgeon controls the robotic arm with a computer. The patient images are visible to the physician.

we use miniaturized surgical instruments that fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions.). When necessary.In the case of enhanced open surgery. And because of the console’s design. Robotic surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery. minimizing surgeon fatigue. Placing his fingers into the master controls. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's arms. When performing surgery with the da Vinci Si—the world’s most advanced surgical robot—these miniaturized instruments are mounted on three separate robotic arms. feedback-controlled motions than could be achieved by a human hand. the surgeon can even change the scale of the robot’s movements: If he selects a three-to-one scale. allowing the surgeon maximum range of motion and precision. Every movement he makes with the master controls is replicated precisely by the robot. giving him a better. This approach seeks to improve open surgeries. he is able to operate all four arms of the da Vinci simultaneously while looking through a stereoscopic high-definition monitor that literally places him inside the patient. that have so far not benefited from minimally-invasive techniques. the tip of the robot’s arm will move just one inch for every three inches the surgeon’s hand moves. more detailed 3-D view of the operating site than the human eye can provide. The surgeon controls these instruments and the camera from a console located in the operating room.   The surgeon makes small cuts to insert the instruments into your body. Description You will be given general anesthesia(insensitivity to pain. The da Vinci’s fourth arm contains a magnified highdefinition 3-D camera that guides the surgeon during the procedure.) so that you are asleep and pain-free. A thin tube with a camera attached to the end of it (endoscope) allows the surgeon to view enlarged 3-D images of your body as the surgery is taking place. . particularly cardio-thoracic. The main object of such smart instruments is to reduce or eliminate the tissue trauma traditionally associated with open surgery without requiring more than a few minutes' training on the part of surgeons. the surgeon’s eyes and hands are always perfectly aligned with his view of the surgical site. ―Minimally invasive‖ means that instead of operating on patients through large incisions(a surgical cut made in skin or flesh. autonomous instruments (in familiar configurations) replace traditional steel tools. especially as the injection of drugs before surgical operations. performing certain actions (such as rib spreading) with much smoother. The surgeon sits at a computer station and directs the movements of a robot.

Why the Procedure is Performed Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. Risks The risks for any anesthesia are:   Reactions to medications Problems breathing The risks for any surgery are: . This is due to the amount of time needed to set up the robot. The surgeon can make small. Once the robotic arm is placed in the abdomen. many hospitals may not have access to this method. including:             Coronary artery bypass Cutting away cancer tissue from sensitive parts of the body such as blood vessels. Also. nerves. This can allow the surgeon to do a procedure through a small cut that once could be done only with open surgery. or important body organs Gallbladder removal Hip replacement Hysterectomy Kidney removal Kidney transplant Mitral valve repair Pyeloplasty (surgery to correct ureteropelvic junction obstruction) Pyloroplasty Radical prostatectomy Tubal ligation Robotic surgery cannot be used for some complex procedures. The robot matches the doctor's hand movements to perform the procedure using the tiny instruments. precise movements using this method. This method lets the surgeon move in a more comfortable way. The surgeon can also see the area where the surgery is performed more easily. The small. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. Robotic surgery may be used for a number of different procedures. precise movements that are possible with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standardendoscopic techniques. Robotic surgery can take longer to perform. as well. it is easier for the surgeon to use the surgical tools than with laparoscopic surgery through an endoscope.

the surgeon operates seated comfortably at a console while viewing a high definition. The system seamlessly translates the surgeon's hand. anti-inflammatory medications. Avoid heavy lifting or straining until your doctor gives you the OK. Before the Procedure You cannot have any food or fluid for 8 hours before the surgery. blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin) or Plavix. 3D image inside the patient’s body. Recovery Surgical cuts are smaller than with traditional open surgery. Benefits include:      Faster recovery Less pain and bleeding Less risk of infection Shorter hospital stay Smaller scars Components of da Vinci Surgical surgeon control  1. or other supplements 10 days before the procedure. You should be able to walk within a day after the procedure. Depending on the type of surgery performed. vitamins. using the da Vinci Surgical System. you may have to stay in the hospital overnight or for a couple of days. Your doctor may tell you not to drive for at least a week. 3. How soon you are active will depend on the surgery that was done. However. After the Procedure You will be taken to a recovery room after the procedure. You may need to cleanse your bowels with an enema or laxative the day before surgery for some types of procedures. the risks are different. 2.  Bleeding Infection Robotic surgery has as many risks as open and laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon's fingers grasp the master controls below the display with hands and wrists naturally positioned relative to his or her eyes. wrist and . Stop taking aspirin.

Repeated safety checks prevent any independent movement of the instruments or robotic arms. suturing and tissue manipulation. patient-side cart  1. 2. Each instrument has a specific surgical mission such as clamping. A full range of EndoWrist instruments is available to the surgeon while operating. 2. The instruments are designed with seven degrees of motion . . improves the cosmetic outcome. It includes either three or four robotic arms that carry out the surgeon's commands.finger movements into precise. and increases overall precision. or shaft on which a mechanism turns or oscillates. The patient-side cart is where the patient is positioned during surgery. 4. Quick-release levers speed instrument changes during surgery.)to the patient. EndoWrist instruments  1.a range of motion even greater than the human wrist 3.) be under the direct control of the surgeon. pin.) which reduces trauma (physical injury. The system requires that every surgical maneuver(move skilfully or carefully. 3. The robotic arms move around fixed pivot points(the central point. real-time movements of surgical instruments.

. A view of the operating field is available to the entire OR team on a large viewing monitor (vision cart). The da Vinci Surgical System enables doctors to perform surgery in a manner never before experienced. With the surgeon sitting at a console a few feet from the patient. vision system 1. This widescreen view provides the surgical assistant at the patient’s side with a broader perspective and visualization of the procedure. 3D endoscope (flexible tube with a camera and light at the tip) and image processing equipment that provides true-tolife images of the patient’s anatomy. da Vinci translates that surgeon’s hand movements into corresponding micro-movements of instruments inside the patient’s body. The vision system is equipped with a high-definition. 2.

These arms are controlled by a computer that exactly replicates the movements of the operating surgeon. The surgeon also operates a footswitch that provides additional options. 1. . audio and system settings. contains the robot’s four arms—three that can hold a multitude of different surgical instruments. The da Vinci System provides unparalleled vision inside the patient’s body with natural depth perception. abdomen or pelvis. This precision allows the surgeon to minimize trauma to the surrounding anatomy.The da Vinci System provides better visualization. while enabling the surgeon to perform procedures through tiny. such as the neurovascular bundle near the prostate during prostate cancer surgery. How the da Vinci Si Works The da Vinci Si has two separate but connected sections: The tower. The surgeon manipulates the robot’s four arms by maneuvering two master controls that provide fingertip precision of movement. high definition 3-D view of the surgical site. Immersive view of the surgical field Improved visualization allows surgeons to handle and dissect delicate tissue with added precision – even in confined spaces like the chest. crisp. Bright. 1-2 cm incisions. Revolutionary 3D. dexterity. precision and control than open surgery. high definition vision with up to 10x magnification 2. which is positioned directly over the patient during surgery. The console is where the surgeon sits and operates the robot’s controls while looking into a stereoscopic monitor that provides a magnified. focused position at all times. while the ergonomic console and the alignment of the controls and monitor are designed to keep the surgeon in a relaxed. and a fourth that holds the system’s 3-D cameras. high-resolution image 3. Finally. such as the ability to switch between two different energy sources. Touchpads allow the surgeon to easily adjust video. additional video screens link in the rest of the surgical team by providing a two-dimensional view of what the surgeon is looking at through the da Vinci’s stereoptic monitor. and magnification for more accurate tissue identification.

allowing seamless integration with your current OR and the expandability to accommodate tomorrow’s HD video technology. EndoWrist instruments with 7 degrees of freedom and a range of motion far greater than the human hand 2. Dual console capability An available second console allows two surgeons to collaborate during a procedure. Comfortable seated posture The design of the da Vinci System allows for natural hand-eye positioning at the surgeon's console. Surgeons can exchange control of the instrument arms and endoscope using the surgeon touchpad. The da Vinci System's robotic arms hold the camera and instruments steady.eliminating the need for large. da Vinci instruments provide a range-of-motion that enhances dexterity. .As surgeons operate in confined spaces of the body. it can man less assistance needed and reduced fatigue. 1. For the surgeon. with the robotic arms providing added mechanical strength. The addition of a second console enables: * Two surgeons of the same or different specialties to collaborate on a single case. while a built-in intercom system facilitates communication. da Vinci is not only more comfortable. * An immersive environment for training new da Vinci surgeons. * A platform for existing da Vinci surgeons to more efficiently refine techniques and learn new procedures directly from their peers. The da Vinci Si System is designed to keep you at the forefront of minimally invasive surgery. traumatic incisions. but may also be clinically advantageous due to reduced surgeon fatigue. Finally. surgeons can now offer a minimally invasive approach to higher-BMI patients who are considered obese. 1. which provides better ergonomics than traditional open and laparoscopic technology. Added dexterity enables surgeons to more accurately and easily perform complex surgical maneuvers through small "ports" . Reduction of surgeon hand tremors da Vinci is the only surgical system that allows doctors to operate while seated. Optimal alignment of visual and motor axes 2. high-speed networking and image guidance systems. that means less potential for torque and trauma to the body. For the patient.

there are no awkward movements. TilePro™ multi-input display Allows the surgeon and the OR team to view 3D video of the operative field along with up to two additional video sources such as ultrasound and EKG.‖ says one NYU surgeon. This additional arm. gives the surgeon 50 percent more operating capability. including delicate resections as well as suturing and knot-tying. Instant image referencing.Boom compatibility Addressing the increasing trend towards OR integration. The da Vinci Si’s two stereoscopic high-definition cameras provide the surgeon with a magnified view of the surgical site that combines superbly accurate depth perception with a 40 percent sharper image then previous models. ―With the da Vinci. An additional arm. This innovation lets the surgeon calibrate the robot’s arm to move a fraction of an inch for every inch the surgeon’s hand moves—simplifying the most complex movements. vision system components may be conveniently installed on an OR boom (with optional upgrade). which can be used to hold a retractor or other surgical instrument. Stowage of the vision cart components on a user-provided boom can help maximize valuable OR floor space. Extra-mobile “wrist action.” The da Vinci Si’s patented mechanical wrists. da vinci patients safety . which can hold a wide array of specialized instruments. directly alongside the view of the real-time procedure—providing a critical extra reference where necessary. function just like a human’s but with even greater range of motion. How Does the Newest da Vinci Si Help Surgeons? The da Vinci Si includes a number of new surgeon-friendly features that make surgical procedures easier and more efficient than ever. This innovative feature lets the surgeon display up to two diagnostic images of the area being operated on (such as ultrasound or CT scans taken prior to surgery) inside the da Vinci’s monitor. These include: 3-D high-definition vision. Scalability.

Continual safety self-checks By performing over one million safety checks per second. . the system ensures the safest and most reliable operation. Widescreen touchscreen A wide touchscreen with telestration capability facilitates team communication. The larger view provides assistants improved visualization of anatomy and instruments entering from the periphery. Guided instrument exchange An intelligent mechanism ensures efficient and safe exchange of instruments during surgery.da Vinci Si is engineered for simplicity to maximize ease-of-use and enable the surgeon and surgical team to achieve optimal case preparation and OR turnaround times.

html http://robotic-surgery.com/company/regulatory-clearance.nyu.nyu. http://www.intuitivesurgical.Audio/visual feedback Auditory and visual alerts ensure that the surgeon and OR team are constantly aware of system status and functions.med.med.edu/for-patients/what-robotic-surgery/how-da-vinci-si-works http://robotic-surgery.edu/for-patients/what-robotic-surgery/why-surgeons-andpatients-love-new-da-vinci-si .