Book of Knowledge
7 - Galilei

The temperature of a liquid mixture varies during boiling but for a liquid substance. Also. compounds are also made up of two or more components. it does not. there are ways to tell if a sample is a mixture or a substance. One of the products obtained was distilled water. However. In this module. you have identified distilled water as a substance. A solid mixtures has portions that do not melt but a solid substance melts completely within a short time. you separated the components of seawater through distillation. You will start with the primary characteristic that distinguishes them. Some mixtures are also homogeneous. it difficult to distinguish mixtures and substances based on appearance.MODULE 3 ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS All substances are homogeneous. Being so. 1 . you will find out that substances may be further classified into two: compounds and elements. In module 2. How are elements different from compounds? How are they similar? Compounds Like mixtures.

biscuits. milk. and selenium. This is very helpful especially to those elements with long names. Instead of writing the full names. Elements Present in the Food we Eat Whether it is a natural food like a banana or those processed like banana chips. Some of these are calcium. they were able to systematically organize all of the 118 elements in what we call periodic table of elements or sometimes simply referred as periodic table. You can find these symbols in the periodic table too. 2 . These materials are the sources of the nutrients. The Nutrition Facts is a list of the different nutrients provided by the food product with their corresponding percentage share on the daily recommended dietary allowance. It is written inside the same box for that element. 118 is quite a big number! Thanks to the works of our early scientists. magnesium. zinc. into hydrogen and oxygen. Elements There are 118 elements. No two elements have the same set of properties. and juice. Hydrogen and oxygen are elements. These are the ones that are taken in by the body. a compound. Ferrous is derived from the Latin name of iron. Scientists agreed to give symbols for each element. These are mostly nutrients which the human body needs in order to function well. Each element has different set of properties. On the other hand. a one-letter or two-letter symbol may be used.Electrolysis decomposed water. ingredients give you list of the materials that have been added to make the food product.

Period A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. It means that the composition of one of the ingredients include sodium. A product label that lists sodium as nutrient does not mean that you will be eating the element sodium. Each block is named according to the subshell in which the "last" electron notionally resides. It is very rare and most of the time dangerous if you take in the element itself. such as the f-block. and recurring chemical properties. organized on the basis of their atomic numbers. there are regions where horizontal trends are more significant than vertical group trends.Minerals -the elements include are combination with other elements and the resulting compounds are referred to as minerals. 3 .electron configurations (electron shell model). The standard form of the table consists of a grid of elements laid out in 18 columns and 7 rows. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). the ingredient is monosodium glutamate. In the case of the soy sauce. Although groups generally have more significant periodic trends. Periodic Table of Elements The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements. with a double row of elements below that. Blocks The different regions of the periodic table are sometimes referred to as blocks in recognition of the sequence in which the electron shells of the elements are filled. where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements.

They are mostly coloured or colourless insulating gases that form covalent compounds with one another. Dmitri Mendeleev Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor. They are ordinarily shiny. created his own version of the periodic table of elements. metalloids and nonmetals. which have intermediate or mixed properties. Metals are generally located to the left and bottom of the periodic table. Nonmetals are located to the right and top. highly conducting solids which form alloys with one another and salt-like ionic compounds with nonmetals. In between metals and nonmetals are metalloids. 4 . He formulated the Periodic Law. and used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements and also to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered.Categories The elements can be conveniently classified according to their shared physical and chemical properties into the major categories of metals.

cheese. regulates nerve transmission. meat. seafood and chocolate Potassium (K) Selenium (Se) Sodium Catalyst in the synthesis of energy-carrier molecules. (Ca) canned fish with bones. muscle contraction. diseases of the bones in adults such as softening of the bones and decrease in bone mass Fluid loss due to too much alcohol in take. Some elements essential to life* Element Source Function Deficiency Condition Macrominerals Calcium Milk. grain antioxidant vegetables Meat. Part of enzymes. and blood clotting Magnesium (Mg) Nuts. irregular heart beat Keshan Disease (heart disease) Headache. heart failure due to spasms Sudden death during fasting. water fruits. cereal grains. green leafy vegetables Essential to formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. potatoes balance and cell integrity.Table 2. needed in nerve transmission. dried heartbeat. dark green vegetables. Maintains regular bananas. poor nerve function. 5 . legumes. sesame seeds. carbohydrate and protein metabolism Liver. table Regulates amount Rickets in children. involved in the synthesis of proteins and relaxation of muscles Orange juice.

Part of insulin and shellfish. animal Needed for glucose (Cr) and plant utilization tissues Copper Liver. nuts Loss of insulin efficiency with age Rare Dental decay Anemia. saltprocessed food of body fluid. appetite loss Sulfur (S) Zinc (Zn) Some proteins Component of biomolecules and ions Liver. Confactor for a (Mn) wheat germ. kidney. formation of whole grains hemoglobin. occasional dermatitis 6 . Strengthens bone (F) fluorinated and tooth structure drinking water Iron Liver. (I) iodized salts regulates rate of energy use Manganese Liver. poor memory. Helps in the (Cu) egg yolk. cocoa beans Iodine Sea food.(Na) salt. meat some 154 enzymes Anemia. thirst. part of 11 enzymes Flourine Sea food. involved in nerve transmission physical weakness. Part of thyroxin. number of enzymes legumes. kidney. stunted growth Microminerals or Trace elements Chromium Liver. myoglobin whole grains. Component of (Fe) green leafy hemoglobin and vegetables. meat. tiredness and apathy Goiter Weight loss.

and mixtures are about physical properties. numbers. Letters. whereas mixtures are composed of substances not chemically bonded together. or even the atmosphere. Elements .A compound is a substance formed when two or more Substances cannot be separated without breaking chemical bonds. That statement means the individual molecules enjoy being near each other. the atoms lose their individual properties and have different properties from the elements they are composed of. and symbols are used to represent elements and the number of elements in each compound. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Matter is everything around you.Elements are substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances. A chemical formula is used a quick way to show the composition of compounds. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. not chemical ones. Water. and sugar are examples of compounds.  Compounds . salt. They are all mixtures. it is the amount of stuff in an object.  Matter .  Mixture . When the elements are joined. Water is made up of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Look at rocks. the ocean.Mixtures are absolutely everywhere you look. If you are new to the idea of mass. Salt is made up of the elements sodium and chloride. Most things in nature are mixtures. Elements are chemically joined. but their fundamental 7 .

 Substances . If the chemical structure changed. whereas mixtures are composed of substances not chemically bonded together.Substances cannot be separated without breaking chemical bonds.chemical structure does not change when they enter the mixture. 8 . it would be called a reaction.

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oxygen(nonmetals). silicon. aluminium. a small amount of natural transformation of one element to another also occurs in the decay of radioactive elements as well as other natural nuclear processes. from carbon to the very heaviest elements. silicon. gold. and lead (metals). and non-metals. iron. which blast these elements into space. metalloids. copper. arsenic (metalloids). 10 . proceeded by stellar nucleosynthesis. are thought to have been produced by various cosmic processes during the Big Bang and cosmic-ray spallation. The high abundance of oxygen. Production of heavier elements. and these were made available for later solar system and planetary formation byplanetary nebulae and supernovae. helium and smaller amounts of lithium. which is the number of protons in its atomic nucleus. beryllium and boron. Familiar examples of elements are carbon.Elements A chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of a single type of atom distinguished by its atomic number. Elements are divided into metals. mercury. While most elements are generally stable. The lightest chemical elements. and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. including hydrogen.

). Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles— usually anucleus of protons and neutrons. intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds. which are called diatomic molecules or polyatomic molecules. they consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. etc. salts held together by ionic bonds. S8. All objects we see with the naked eye are composed of atoms. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure.Compound A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. or complexes held together bycoordinate covalent bonds. and a cloud of 11 . The term often refers to a substance (often a particle) that has rest mass. even if they consist of molecules that contain only multiple atoms of a single element (such as H2. Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds. Matter Matter is a loosely defined term in science (see definitions below).

a chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. are not considered matter. Mixtures are the one product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances like elements and compounds. It cannot be 12 . Mixtures In chemistry. such as its melting point. and colloids. By contrast. However. Typically. suspensions." and their interactions contribute to the effective volume of the composite particles that make up ordinary matter. a mixture is a material system made up of two or more different substances which are mixed but are not combined chemically. since fundamental particles such as quarks and leptons (sometimes equated with matter) are considered "point particles" with no effective size or volume.orbiting electrons. Nevertheless. Despite that there are no chemical changes to its constituents. not all particles with rest mass have a classical volume. even a blend of them). massless particles. A mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances on which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions. science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. may differ from those of the components. Some mixtures can be separated into their components by physical (mechanical or thermal) means. quarks and leptons together make up "ordinary matter. such as photons. without chemical bonding or other chemical change. Substance In chemistry. the physical properties of a mixture. Azeotropes can be considered as a kind of mixture which usually pose considerable difficulties regarding the separation processes required to obtain their constituents (physical or chemical processes or. so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup. because they have neither rest mass nor volume.

gold. such as light and heat. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water. liquid. tap water may contain small amounts of dissolved sodium chloride and compounds containing iron. and thus they are not "substances" in this regard. i. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon). table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose).e. simple or seemingly pure substances found in nature can in fact be mixtures of chemical substances. Forms of energy. are not considered to be matter. Chemical reactions convert one chemical substance into another. or plasma and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature orpressure. For example. without breaking chemical bonds. 13 . or plasma. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. Chemical substances exist as solids. It can be solid. gases.separated into components by physical separation methods. However. liquids. calcium and many other chemical substances. it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. gas.

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