PANDUAN ASAS MENYEDIAKAN LAPORAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN (MENGIKUT FORMAT EPRD

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Bahagian %a$a&an Kan'#ngan  Proses Penerangan Ditulis dalam satu muka surat !on"oh Pen#$isan Isi kandungan surat Penghargaan Abstrak 1.0 Refleksi P & P yang lalu 1 2.0 Isu Keperihatinan .0 !b"ektif Ka"ian .1 !b"ektif Am .2 !b"ektif Khusus #.0 Kumpulan $asaran %.0 Pelaksanaan Ka"ian %.1 &in"auan masalah %.2 Analisis &in"auan Masalah %. &indakan yang di"alankan %.# Pelaksanaan &indakan Dan Pemerhatian %.#.1 Pelaksanaan Akti'iti 1 %.#.2 Pelaksanaan Akti'iti 2 %.% Refleksi Ka"ian (.0 )adangan Ka"ian $eterusnya *ibli+grafi ,ampiran Penghargaan  Pihak yang terlibat dengan ka"ian tindakan terutamanya di peringkat sek+lah -endaklah mengandungi . &u"uan Kumpulan sasaran /+kus ka"ian tindakan &in"auan a0al Perlaksanaan ka"ian Dapatan Ditulis dalam satu perenggan dan satu muka surat dan single spa1ing. Di1adangkan menggunakan /+nt 2310 dan "enis tulisan Arial3&ah+ma
Ka"ian ini di"alankan untuk menentukan dan mengatasi masalah4masalah yang dihadapi +leh pela"ar &ingkatan # semasa menyelesaikan persamaan serentak dalam dua anu 5satu linear dan satu tak linear6. $eramai 20 +rang pela"ar tingkatan # dan se+rang guru terlibat dalam ka"ian ini. Peran1angan tindakan dif+kuskan kepada penguasaan kemahiran penyusunan semula persamaan linear7 permudahkan ungkapan algebra7 penambahan dan pen+lakan pe1ahan algebra7 pemfakt+ran ungkapan kuadratik dan menyelesaikan persamaan kuadratik. &in"auan a0al telah dilaksanakan melalui semakan ker"a rumah murid7 u"ian bulanan7 peperiksaan penggal dan u"ian pra. -asil tin"auan menun"ukkan murid tidak mahir dalam penyusunan semula persamaan linear7 permudahkan ungkapan algebra7 penambahan dan pen+lakan pe1ahan algebra7 pemfakt+ran ungkapan kuadratik dan menyelesaikan persamaan kuadratik. ,ima sesi penga"aran dan pembela"aran 5#04(0 minit setiap sesi6 telah di"alankan dalam temp+h 8 minggu iaitu pela"ar bela"ar kemahiran yang tersebut di atas melalui m+del k+nkrit dan m+dul latihan berpandu se1ara kumpulan. Keputusan u"ian p+s telah menun"ukkan peningkatan prestasi pela"ar. Pela"ar lebih berminat bela"ar kemahiran seperti pengembangan ungkapan algebra dan pemfakt+ran dengan menggunakan m+del k+nkrit. M+dul latihan berpandu telah membantu pela"ar untuk mengatasi masalah mereka. Penga"aran dan pembela"aran kemahiran asas untuk menyelesaikan masalah persamaan serentak dalam dua anu 5satu linear dan satu tak linear6 perlu diperkukuh pada peringkat sek+lah menengah rendah. Penggunaan m+del k+nkrit b+leh membantu pela"ar memahami k+nsep matematik ini.

Muka

A(s"ra)

 1. 2. . #. %. (. 

*+ Re,$e)si Penga-aran 'an

+ Is# Ke/eriha"inan Masa$ah Ka-ian 0+ O(-e)"i. AKTI6ITI 1 ( U-ian !e/a" Kira Fa)"a Asas Dara( 4 0 &ini" ) 1) Akti'iti ini sama seperti akti'iti 2 dan . 2+. Ka-ian $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan $pt. 4) &emp+h masa mereka habis men"a0ab direk+dkan. $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan 2+0+* A)"i3i"i4a)"i3i"i 5ang 'i-a$an)an $ebanyak empat akti'iti telah diran1ang untuk membantu meningkatkan kemahiran men1+ngak fakta asas darab dalam kalangan murid4murid kumpulan sasaran saya. Maklumat mungkin telah diper+leh melalui pemerhatian dalam bilik dar"ah semasa murid3pela"ar memberi resp+ns kepada s+alan4s+alan anda7 pemeriksaan buku latihan7 sesi temu bual7 melalui s+al selidik atau u"ian pra dan lain4lain $emua data yang terkumpul dimasukkan dalam "adual mengikut ta"uk4ta"uk yang ditetapkan tetapi bukan semua maklumat dapat diguna pakai dalam ka"ian. &uliskan semua akti'iti7 bahan4 bahan dan 1ara anda membuat pemerhatian untuk mengu"i keberkesanan tindakan3akti'iti yang anda telah "alankan ke arah meningkatkan kemahiran pela"ar bagi menangani masalah yang anda sedang ka"i. 2) Permainan ini dilaksanakan mengikut k+nsep permainan d+min+ tetapi dalam permainan ini padanan adalah kepada s+alan fakta asas darab dengan hasil darabnya atau sebaliknya. 2) $+alan )epat Kira /akta Asas Darab ini diu"i sehingga 2 9 2. Kh#s#s 1+ K#&/#$an Sasaran $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan 2+ Pe$a)sanaan Ka-ian 2+* Tin-a#an Masa$ah  -uraikan se1ara terperin1i 1ara4 1ara anda mengumpul maklumat. 3) Murid4murid dikehendaki men"a0ab semua s+alan tersebut dalam masa minit. dalam m. Akti'iti4akti'iti tersebut ialah. AKTI6ITI * ( Per&ainan Do&ino Fa)"a Asas Dara( ) 1) Akti'iti ini merupakan akti'iti berkumpulan yang melibatkan pendekatan dua dalam satu iaitu bela"ar dan bermain dalam satu masa. $et s+alan yang diberi kepada murid4murid 2) Murid4murid dikehendaki men"a0ab semua s+alan dalam masa # minit. ( U-ian !e/a" Kira Fa)"a Asas Dara( 4 2 &ini" ) 1) Akti'iti ini merupakan akti'iti bertulis. AKTI6ITI .s %1 & %2 $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan $eperti di dalam kertas 1adangan a+ O(-e)"i. Ana$isis Tin-a#an Masa$ah  2+0 Tin'a)an Di-a$an)an Yang  . A& ( O(-e)"i. 3) &emp+h masa mereka habis men"a0ab direk+dkan.Pe&(e$a-aran La$# . 3) Murid4murid dikehendaki men"a0ab s+alan tersebut dalam masa % minit. 3) $elepas men"alankan akti'iti ini7 murid4murid diberi akti'iti berbentuk indi'idu. AKTI6ITI 0 ( U-ian !e/a" Kira Fa)"a Asas Dara( 4 1 &ini" ) 1) Akti'iti ini sama seperti akti'iti 2. 2) $+alan4s+alan yang sama diberikan kepada murid4murid. Murid4murid diberi satu set s+alan yang mengandungi (0 s+alan.

. Ditulis dalam bentuk perenggan i.ang &elah Di"alankan $e1ara Keseluruhan 2.4) &emp+h masa mereka habis men"a0ab direk+dkan.% Refleksi Ka"ian (.0 Pelaksanaan Akti'iti 2 %. ii.0 &uliskan rumusan anda.angkah4langkah hendaklah diterangkan se1ara terperin1i . Refleksi b6 -uraikan apa4apa yang difikirkan guru dari segi keberkesanan akti'iti atau kegagalan akti'iti 2 dan sebab4sebab ini ter"adi 16 -uraian dalam bahagian ini bergantung kepada "umlah akti'iti yang telah di"alankan i. o Pelaksanaan &indakan dan Pemerhatian3 Penilaian  -uraikan 1ara pelaksanaannya Pelaksanaan Akti'iti 1 i. Refleksi &entang Pr+ses P & P . !leh sebab ka"ian yang telah saya "alankan . $eperti yang terdapat di dalam kertas 1adangan tetapi 1ara penulisan diubah dengan menggunakan ayat pelap+ran. Refleksi Ka"ian &erhadap Pela"ar a 6 -uraikan keberkesanan tindakan anda dengan menggunakan data3maklumat yang telah anda kumpulkan 5seperti u"ian pas1a atau u"ian4u"ian lain6 b6 &erangkan perubahan tingkah laku pela"ar melalui pemerhatian.0 -uraikan perasaan guru terhadap keberkesanan ka"ian yang telah di"alankan. Refleksi  -uraikan apa4apa yang difikirkan guru dari segi keberkesanan akti'iti 1 atau kegagalan akti'iti dan sebab4sebab keadaan ini ter"adi i. Pemerhatian a6 Anda b+leh membuat "adual pemerhatian dan3atau huraikan apa4apa yang dapat dilihat dari segi perubahan sikap 5resp+ns6 pela"ar terhadap akti'iti 27 resp+ns guru dan perkara4perkara lain yang mungkin anda "angkakan. )adangan Ka"ian $eterusnya Ka"ian tindakan seterusnya yang akan saya "alankan ialah berkaitan dengan isu <<< Atau . Refleksi Ka"ian &erhadap :uru 1. )adangkan isu seterusnya yang anda akan ka"i. iii. ii. Pemerhatian  $ediakan "adual pemerhatian dan3atau huraikan apa4apa yang dapat dilihat dari segi perubahan sikap dan rep+ns pela"ar terhadap akti'iti 17 dan perkara4 perkara lain yang mungkin anda "angkakan. 16 &erangkan perubahan em+si pela"ar yang telah dikumpul melalui temu bual & s+al selidik 5sekiranya ada6 ii.

% less+ns 0ere 1arried +ut by using the :enre Analysis appr+a1h. &hus7 this resear1h f+1uses +n enhan1ing the studentsB speaking skills in &ask A7 that is the Indi'idual Presentati+n.*ibli+grafi   *ahan ru"ukan yang anda gunakan hendaklah di1atatkan pada ruangan ini. 5128=6 Language Interaction Patterns in Lessons Featuring Mathematical Investigations. *r+0n7 &. PhD thesis7 >ni'ersity +f $+uthampt+n Dunn7 &. $age .ampiran i. &hr+ugh the +bser'ati+ns7 it 0as seen that the students 0ere ha'ing diffi1ulty in fulfilling the t0+ tasks4 &ask A 5Indi'idual Presentati+n6 and &ask * 5:r+up Dis1ussi+n6. In this task7 the students need t+ be able t+ ha'e the skills +f stating and "ustifying their p+ints +f 'ie0. &here 0ere 8 students 0h+ 0ere in'+l'ed. !ONTO% LAPORAN KAJIAN TINDAKAN (DI %ANTAR KE PPD 7 MENGIKUT FORMAT EPRD) EN%AN!ING STUDENTS8 SPEAKING SKILLS IN STATING AND JUSTIFYING POINTS OF 6IE9 BY GENRE ANALYSIS APPROA!%+ *y -"h -afi?a Aini *te -" -assan Maktab $ultan Abu *akar @+h+r *ahru A(s"ra:" &his resear1h 0as 1arried +ut t+ assist the students in enhan1ing their speaking skills in resp+nding t+ &ask A in their M>A& $peaking &est by using the :enre Analysis appr+a1h. &h+usand !aks7 )A. Menyusun senarai bahan ru"ukan mengikut ab"ad. . $+al selidik atau bahan4 bahan s+k+ngan yang digunakan dimasukkan di dalam ruangan ini.ess+ns 'ia . Aarly +bser'ati+ns had been 1arried +ut thr+ugh speaking e9er1ises in 1lassr++ms. $tudents sh+0 their understanding and p+siti'e attitude t+0ards parti1ipating in all the a1ti'ities 1arried +ut in the less+ns. tidak ber"aya7 maka saya akan menggunakan tindakan 3 akti'iti4akti'iti lain untuk menangani isu ini. 5122=6 Michel Foucault and the Politics of Freedom.

anguage as their se1+nd language in speaking and 0riting. -alf +f the 1lass e'en paused t++ freCuently 0hen they resp+nded. ii.i: O(-e:"i3es &his study 0as 1arried +ut t+ meet the f+ll+0ing spe1ifi1 +b"e1ti'es. 8 students 0ere 1h+sen and gr+uped int+ t0+ different gr+ups. As part +f M>A& e9aminati+n7 the students are reCuired t+ be able t+ present and "ustify their p+ints +f 'ie0 f+rmally. $+me +f them e'en paused as l+ng as 0 se1+nds during their resp+nses. &hey sh+0ed diffi1ulty e'en t+ 1+me up 0ith +ne "ustifi1ati+n t+ the t+pi1s gi'en and 1+uld n+t reas+n +ut their ans0ers. &hey 0ere 1urrently the students +f >pper $i9 /+rm 5200%6 0h+ 0+uld be sitting f+r M>A& e9aminati+n in @uly 200%. *+ Re. E+t +nly that7 they paused a l+t during their resp+nses. Alth+ugh it is a natural phen+men+n t+ pause 0hile 'erbally resp+nding due t+ the thinking pr+1ess indulged by the brain7 the students paused t++ l+ng. Due t+ the predi1ament +f gi'ing e'en "ust +ne "ustifi1ati+n 0ith n+ e9planati+n7 the students 0ere unable t+ g+ bey+nd the first minute in presenting their resp+nses. &+ assist the students in pr+du1ing three "ustifi1ati+ns f+r the +pini+n gi'en7 i'. &he studentsB limited e9perien1e t+ the patterns +f similar resp+nses in the target language 0+rsen the s1enari+. &his situati+n did n+t help the students in their perf+rman1e at all. $in1e the students in the 1lass 0ere m+stly +f th+se 0h+ had a1hie'ed =D G 2:7 and +nly a small number 0ith * G () in their 1112 Anglish Paper in $PM 200 7 I 1arried +ut the +bser'ati+n and treatment +n the students 0h+ 0ere +f the t0+ 1riteria. -+0e'er7 my students dem+nstrated their inability t+ perf+rm the tasks 0ell. &+ make the students a0are +f the time limit +f their resp+nses G 2 minutes +nly7 '.+Resear:h Fo:#s &he resear1h f+1used +n the speaking skills 0hi1h are 1ru1ial f+r the students t+ perf+rm &ask A in M>A& $peaking &est. Fith the an9iety that a11+mpanies them thr+ugh+ut the M>A& $peaking &est sessi+n7 the students 0+uld e9perien1e intimidati+n in preparing and resp+nding t+ the task. &he time fa1t+r is 1ru1ial as in the a1tual M>A& $peaking &est7 students are +nly gi'en 2 minutes t+ perf+rm &ask A and the students need t+ be able t+ state and "ustify suffi1ient p+ints +f 'ie0 0ithin the time limit. (+ S/e:i. &heir resp+nses 0+uld be 1learer and thus help the students t+ be m+re f+1used in deli'ering their p+ints +f 'ie0. 0+ Resear:h O(-e:"i3es a+ Genera$ O(-e:"i3e &+ tail+r a m+re effe1ti'e less+n f+r +ral 1+mmuni1ati+n by applying the :enre Analysis appr+a1h in instilling the +ral skills +f the genre +f stating and "ustifying p+ints +f 'ie0 in the learnersB resp+nse t+ the tasks similar t+ &ask A in M>A& $peaking &est. 1+ Targe" Gro#/ /+r this a1ti+n resear1h7 the sub"e1ts 0ere purp+si'e7 pers+nally hand4pi1ked7 abiding the 1riteria set. &hat 0as 0hy they res+rted t+ "ust state +ne "ustifi1ati+n.:enre Analysis appr+a1h sh+uld be 1arried +ut m+re +ften as it gi'es a 1learer guideline t+ the students in mastering Anglish . &he first gr+up7 the medi+1re7 1+nsisted +f th+se 0h+ a1hie'ed * G () in their 1112 . &his resear1h 0as essential as it 0+uld assist the students t+ be m+re 1+nfident in perf+rming the task gi'en. &his 1aused them n+t t+ kn+0 the best 0ay t+ present their resp+nses t+ the tasks gi'en. . (2D +f them resp+nded bel+0 #0 se1+nds. &his is a 1lear indi1ati+n that the students 0ere fa1ing a seri+us pr+blem in gi'ing7 0hat m+re "ustifying their p+ints +f 'ie0. &+ guide the students +n e9pl+ring and identifying the stru1ture +f the genre +f stating and "ustifying p+ints +f 'ie0 0ith the guidan1e +f the tea1her7 iii. *asi1ally7 less than %D +f the students 0+uld g+ bey+nd stating the first "ustifi1ati+n t+ the tasks gi'en despite freCuent reminders and pr+mpts during the a1ti'ities. &hey sh+0ed la1k +f 1+nfiden1e during speaking less+ns.$e:"ion on Pre3io#s Tea:hing an' Learning I +bser'ed that the students 0ere ha'ing diffi1ulties in gi'ing their +pini+ns and gi'ing reas+ns t+ supp+rt their +pini+ns. &heir passi'e resp+nses 0ere als+ la1k +f e9planati+ns t+ the "ustifi1ati+n that they pr+du1ed. &+ highlight and assist the learners in a1Cuiring the salient linguisti1 features in'+l'ed in presenting their resp+nses t+ the tasks similar t+ &ask A in M>A& $peaking &est. $+7 eCuipping the students 0ith speaking skills 'ia :enre Analysis appr+a1h 0+uld help t+ minimi?e their ner'+usness as it prepares the students 0ith the 1+mm+n stru1tures used in their resp+nse.

ii+ O(ser3a"ion &he students seemed t+ shrink in an9iety 0hen they heard fr+m me that they 0+uld ha'e t+ perf+rm speaking presentati+ns. &he first +ne 0as a spee1h presentati+n 0here the students 0ere gi'en t0+ 0eeks t+ prepare a spee1h +n a title +f their +0n 1h+i1e and present their pie1e 0ithin t0+ minutes. "he Pro($e& i+ O(ser3a"ion &he reas+n f+r the +bser'ati+n 0as t+ see h+0 keen the students 0ere 0ith speaking presentati+ns. ii+ Tes"s In the indi'idual spee1h7 the students did n+t present 1learly. '+ Ana$5sis o.+0 Anglish Pr+fi1ien1y 5. :enre Analysis appr+a1h 0as used in assisting the students. &he a1ti+ns 0ere as bel+0. &he students 1ame int+ the r++m and 0ere seated in f+urs. Aa1h gr+up 0as 1alled int+ the r++m at different time and they 0ere n+t able t+ hear +ther gr+upsB perf+rman1e.i:a"ion In 1+lle1ting the data7 I used 2 appr+a1hes. $peaking presentati+ns 0ere d+ne t0i1e a m+nth and the studentsB resp+nse 0ere n+t en1+uraging. A'en 0ith t0+ 0eeks preparati+n time gi'en7 s+me e'en said that they 0ere n+t ready t+ perf+rm their spee1h 0ith the title +f their +0n 1h+i1e. During the presentati+ns7 it 0as n+t their 1+n1ern 0hether the listeners 1+uld either hear +r understand them. &hus7 I used the :enre Analysis appr+a1h in +rder assist the students t+ resp+nd t+ the task gi'en better. In their m+1k test7 the students "ust tend t+ g+ straight t+ the main issue being stated 0ith+ut dealing 0ith the intr+du1ti+n and t+pi1 intr+du1ti+n. &he se1+nd gr+up in'+l'ed th+se 0ith . 2+ A:"ion I&/$e&en"a"ion In +rder t+ +'er1+me the pr+blems fa1ed by the students in resp+nding t+ &ask A7 1ertain a1ti+ns 0ere taken. &he se1+nd test 0as a m+1k +f M>A& $peaking &est 0hi1h 0as 1arried +ut e9a1tly as h+0 it 0+uld be 1arried +ut during the real test.AP6 0h+ +nly managed t+ a1hie'e =D G 2: in their 1112 Anglish Paper in $PM 200 . &hey als+ did n+t use up the 0h+le t0+ minutes pr+'ided and this sh+0s that they had bad time management. e+ Resear:h Me"ho'o$og5 *ased +n the +bser'ati+ns and tests d+ne7 it 0as 1lear t+ me that the students 0ere +bli'i+us +f the stru1ture that they need t+ f+ll+0 in +rder t+ present their resp+nses. t+ understand the 'ariety and 1+rre1t usage +f the transiti+nal 'erbs. &heir resp+nses 0ere als+ la1k +f the use +f salient linguisti1 features thus de1reased the impa1t +f f+rmality. A fe0 e91eeded the t0+ minutes 0hile the rest did n+t e'en t+u1h the first minute. /+r gr+up presentati+ns7 alth+ugh they kne0 that they sh+uld n+t ha'e the same speaker as their sp+kesmen7 they did try t+ tri1k me in asking the same pers+ns t+ represent their gr+ups. iii+ Tes"s As it is +nly thr+ugh tests that 0e are p+ssible t+ see studentsB real ability7 t0+ tests 0ere 1arried +ut. &he stages +f the a1ti+n resear1h taken are as bel+0. It 0+uld be imp+ssible t+ see any +ne +f them t+ '+lunteer t+ be their gr+upBs sp+kesman7 0hat m+re t+ g+ first during presentati+ns. &hey 0ere als+ unable t+ use the transiti+nal signals 1+rre1tly and 0ith 'ariety in their resp+nses. :+ Pro($e& I'en"i. &hey 0+uld "ust state 0hat they had t+ Cui1kly and be satisfied 0ith that. &his 1+uld als+ be seen in their m+1k M>A& $peaking &est. a.Anglish Paper in $PM 200 . &hey al0ays ans0ered the ann+un1ements +f speaking assignments 0ith gr+ans. In indi'idual presentati+ns7 they 0ere 'ery relu1tant t+ '+lunteer t+ perf+rm first. >sually they 0ere the +nes identified as ha'ing the best speaking skills 1+mpared t+ the +thers in the gr+up. t+ be a0are +f the reCuired stru1ture7 b. . Instead +f gi'ing three reas+ns t+ "ustify their 'ie0s +r +pini+ns7 they "ust ga'e +ne and 0ere satisfied 0ith it. &hey mumbled their 0+rds and 0ere n+t interested t+ ensure that their listeners 1+uld understand them.

i'. A1ti'ity 1 G In'estigating and identifying the stru1tures +f resp+nding t+ &ask A. Aa1h student 0as gi'en t0+ minutes t+ present their resp+nses. A1ti'ity # G Pra1ti1ing +n using 1+rre1t transiti+nal signals f+r the "ustifi1ati+ns +n 'ari+us t+pi1s. #. !n1e the students 0ere seated7 I distributed the task. Real Audi+ Player A 1+mputer b. A m+1k M>A& $peaking &est. A1ti'ity 2 G An Audi+ )D +f re1+rded sample ans0ers f+r &ask A. . . Instruments used. Student PT A 1 B 2 C 1 D 1 E 1 F 1 G 1 H 1 Fith referen1e t+ the $i94*and Assessment )riteria set by the Malaysian A9aminati+ns )+un1il7 all e91ept +ne +f them 0ere in *and 17 that is the l+0est. Ta($e *. &he students 0ere seated 0ith pairs fa1ing ea1h +ther. Pre and p+st tests 4 A digital audi+ re1+rder. A sample ans0er. d. d. &hey 0ere gi'en the same task and f+ll+0ed the same pr+1edure. i+ O(ser3a"ion &he studentsB e'aluati+n 1an be seen in the table bel+0. &hey 0ere gi'en a set +f test 0hi1h all+0ed me t+ ha'e a sampling +f their sp+ken dis1+urse. A1ti'ity 1 G An audi+ )D +f a re1+rded sample ans0er f+r &ask A. /i'e less+ns 0ere 1arried +ut and they 0ere a. &hey 0ere als+ re1+rded and e'aluated. !n1e the first gr+up had finished 0ith the task7 an+ther gr+up 0as 1alled in. A1ti'ity 2 G Pra1ti1ing brainst+rming f+r "ustifi1ati+ns +n 'ari+us t+pi1s 0ithin 2 minutes f+r ea1h. a. &hey 0ere 1ateg+rised int+ three different 1ateg+ries 5the mediocre and the ones with low English proficiency 6. A1ti'ity % G A 1+py +f a m+1k M>A& $peaking &est.+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. /reCuen1y )he1klist 1. 2. A1ti'ity G P+0er P+int presentati+n +f a sample dial+gue. A1ti'ity % G Pra1ti1ing resp+nding t+ &ask A in gr+ups +f f+urs 0ithin the time limit +f 2 minutes f+r the preparati+n7 and t0+ minutes +f indi'idual presentati+n. I re1+rded their resp+nses and e'aluated them by using the si94band assessment 1riteria set by the Malaysian Examinations Council. A1ti'ity G :+ing thr+ugh 'ari+us transiti+nal signals and the 1+rre1t usage. &he bands a1hie'ed by the students. A1ti'ity # 4 An e9er1ise f+r pra1tising the use +f transiti+nal signals. Pre Tes" 1. All instruments used 0ere prepared by me and I pers+nally graded the students myself. iii. &he trans1ripti+ns f+r the sample ans0ers. ii. I t++k the pla1e as +ne +f the assess+rs. e. b. 1. %. e.i. &he students 0ere gi'en 2 minutes t+ prepare their resp+nses. f. &he students 0ere put int+ 2 gr+ups +f f+urs. A list +f transiti+nal signals and a task sheet f+r 1ateg+rising the signals based +n their pr+per usage. A pre4test 0as 1arried +ut in +rder t+ identify studentsB initial le'el +f 1+mpeten1y and ability in resp+nding t+ &ask A. A:"ion an' O(ser3a"ion i+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. &his 0as t+ pre'ent the +ther gr+up fr+m preparing their resp+nses bef+rehand. An e9er1ise f+r brainst+rming +f the "ustifi1ati+ns +n 'ari+us t+pi1s. Aa1h gr+up 0as asked t+ enter the r++m in their respe1ti'e gr+ups 0ith+ut the presen1e +f the +ther gr+up. . A p+st test 0as 1arried +ut t+ identify the effe1ti'eness +f the a1ti'ities 1arried +ut in helping t+ enhan1e the studentsB speaking skills in resp+nding t+ &ask A.

1a #.. Ta($e . Gra/h *.++king at the m+'es 1arried +ut7 the re1+rd +f their resp+nses 1an be seen bel+0.2 4. &he students 0ere en1+uraged t+ dis1uss the differen1e and determine the 1hanges needed t+ be made t+ their f+rmer stru1ture.++king at the m+'es made7 ab+ut %2D had been negle1ted. &hey did n+t "ustify their reas+ns and th+se skills need t+ be highlighted t+ them. I played it again and asked them t+ 1+mpare their stru1ture t+ the +ne +n the )D. Playba1k 2 G!a"# 2: The number of responses made by student in Playbac 1 Eumber +f resp+nse gi'en by the indi'idual students. A'ery time a student ga'e his +r her resp+nse7 I marked the 1he1klist in +rder t+ see the freCuen1y. $+7 this highlights that the students did n+t ha'e the skills t+ present their resp+nses f+r the task 0ell. 2. .5 25 0 25 50 2 1 1 2 # #.2a 4. &he M+'es 1+'ered by ea1h student .5 62. Playba1k % # Eumber +f resp+nse A * ) D A / : $tudent A * ) D A / : $tudent 2 1 A 2 Gra/h 1.3a 5 6 greeting state situation state role state opinion justification 1 explanation of justification 1 justification 2 explanation of justification 2 justification 3 explanation of justification 3 summarise end       A      B   C   D  E F G H % 50 37. I asked the students t+ brainst+rm the stru1ture +f the resp+nse suitable f+r &ask A in a M>A& $peaking &est and listed the stru1ture +n the b+ard. &his 0as a 1ru1ial part as the sub"e1tsB understanding +f the stru1ture +f the target genre. a % M+'es ( ii+ Re.!nly +ne managed t+ be in the 2nd band. i+ O(ser3a"ion G!a"# 3: The number of responses each made by each student in Playbac 2 8 Eumber +f resp+nse gi'en by the indi'idual students. Playba1k 1 8 = ( % # Eumber +f resp+nse 8 = ( = Eumber +f resp+nse gi'en by the indi'idual ( students.5 8 = Eumber +f $tudents ( % #                       25 100 75 12. &he number +f resp+nses made by # 1 ea1h student in Playba1k * ) Eumber +f resp+nse D A / 2 : 1 $tudent % . &he M+'es 1+'ered by ea1h student. I played the re1+rding +f a sample ans0er f+r the task and asked the students t+ "ust listen.1 4. . #. &his 0as the stage 0here Riggenba1hBs 512226 si9 steps 0ere integrated and adapted7 1.5 12.1a 4. %. (. Students Mo es 1 2 3 4 4. #. 8. I asked the students t+ signal me t+ st+p f+r e'ery m+'e the speaker made7 name the m+'es and 1+mpare the m+'es t+ the stru1ture that they had brainst+rmed earlier. =. A:"i3i"5 * &his 0as the first stage +f the less+ns 0hi1h 0as 1arried +ut 0ith the sub"e1ts.$e:"ion /r+m the assessment made7 it 0as 1lear that all +f the students 0ere 0ith l+0 1+mpeten1y. . &he matter be1ame 0+rse as they 0ere als+ sh+0ing pr+blems in 1+nstru1ting senten1es and s+me 0ere gr+ping f+r 0+rds.3 4.2 #. ii+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. &he students 0ere again asked t+ signal me t+ pause the playba1k and name the m+'es made.1 #.2a#. I distributed a 1+py +f the task 0hi1h resp+nse they 0ere g+ing t+ listen t+. After the students had agreed t+ the ne0 stru1ture7 the re1+rding 0as played again.

I distributed the trans1ripti+n +f the re1+rdings played. . 10. &hey 0ere asked t+ attempt the t+pi1s +ne by +ne. I asked the students t+ identify and label the te9t types f+r the f+ur trans1ripts gi'en. &his all+0ed them t+ be a0are +f the err+rs that they had d+ne in their resp+nses and at the same time7 the students 0ere able t+ share their resp+nses. 12. &hey 0+uld refer t+ their friends 0h+ 0ere m+re 1+mpetent bef+re they gi'e their ans0ers. Fhen the 0eaker +nes gained m+re 1+nfiden1e in parti1ipating7 the better +ne had a1tually ga'e them the 1han1e t+ resp+nd. 2. (. I asked them t+ refer t+ the trans1ript again and l++ked at h+0 the +pini+ns 0ere e9pressed.$e:"ion It 0as g++d f+r the students +f mi9ed abilities t+ g+ thr+ugh the sessi+ns t+gether. I listed their ans0ers +n the b+ard. %. A:"i3i"5 . I kept the time7 "ust gi'ing them 2 minutes t+ prepare their ans0ers bef+re they 0ere asked t+ gi'e their resp+nses. At this p+int7 the students used the kn+0ledge gathered in the first stage and labelled the te9t types a11+rdingly t+ the samples pr+'ided. 11.During the brainst+rming sessi+n7 the 0eaker students 0ere at first m+re t+ the Cuiet side and all+0ing the better +nes t+ take 1harge 5 refer to Graph 6. &hen7 they 0ere gi'en stimuli t+ pra1ti1e the language features that they had identified 1. I asked the students t+ gi'e +ther 0ays t+ state +pini+ns and I 0r+te them +n the b+ard. -+0e'er7 after the re1+rding 0as played f+r a fe0 times and they had familiarised themsel'es 0ith the resp+nse7 a fe0 started t+ take part in signalling and naming the m+'es 5refer to Graph ! " #6. . iii+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. I 0ent thr+ugh the list +f samples +n e9pressi+ns used t+ state +pini+ns 0ith the students. 2. &he se1+nd stage +f the appr+a1h reCuired me t+ e9p+se m+re samples +f the same genre t+ the students. #. 8. After ea1h t+pi1 0as dis1ussed7 I 0ent thr+ugh the resp+nses and asked the students t+ 1+rre1t the resp+nses if there 0ere any grammati1al err+rs. I dis1ussed the labelling 0ith the students. I did the same 0ay f+r t0+ m+re re1+rdings. I asked the students t+ pra1ti1e gi'ing +pini+ns by using the phrases 0hi1h they had learnt earlier. I played a sample ans0er +f the similar genre +n1e. I listed their resp+nses +n the b+ard. I distributed a hand+ut +n stating +pini+ns. &hat 0as the phase 0hen the students 0ere able t+ enri1h their kn+0ledge +n the genre being analysed. &he 0eaker +nes als+ had the better +ne t+ refer t+ and that als+ helped in gi'ing them m+re 1+nfiden1e t+ parti1ipate in the dis1ussi+ns. It 0as als+ interesting t+ see h+0 the better +ne did n+t try t+ d+minate the dis1ussi+ns. I asked them t+ 1he1k if all the m+'es they had menti+ned 0ere 1+rre1t and in +rder. I asked the students t+ re1all and list the te9t types f+r the genre +f stating and "ustifying p+ints +f 'ie0. =. &he better +ne g+t the dis1ussi+n started and the 0eaker +nes s++n "+ined in. I asked the students t+ listen t+ the re1+rding +n1e again7 and signal the m+'es. ii+ Re.

:raph % ab+'e sh+0s that e'en :r+up 2 1+uld manage t+ identify m+st +f the te9t types in the genre. I asked the students t+ use the transiti+nal signals that they had dis1ussed earlier t+ present their reas+ns 0hi1h they had d+ne in the pre'i+us a1ti'ity. I listed d+0n the signals menti+ned by the students. 1. &he labelling +f the te9t type als+ helped them t+ see the seCuen1e +f the resp+nses that they needed t+ f+ll+0 0hen they had t+ pr+du1e their resp+nses later. Fhen they 0ere gi'en the trans1ript +f the re1+rded resp+nses7 they managed t+ label the te9t types. A9p+sing them t+ the re1+rded resp+nses als+ made them realised that they needed t+ 0+rk +n their speed and pr+nun1iati+n t++. &hey said that they al0ays had the tenden1y t+ keep using the same e9pressi+ns t+ state their +pini+ns and reas+ns7 . After that7 I dis1ussed the % 1ateg+ries 0ith the students. I asked the students t+ l++k at the trans1ripti+ns again and l++k f+r the transiti+nal signals that the speaker used in gi'ing her reas+ns. ii+ Re. I distributed a hand+ut +n 'ari+us transiti+nal signals. Alth+ugh the pr+1ess +f identifi1ati+n t++k up a l+ng time7 0ith my 1areful guidan1e7 the students felt it 0as 0+rth d+ing it as it made them underst++d the lay+ut +f the resp+nses better. 2. (. $eeing the resp+nses in 0ritten f+rm helped them t+ see the distin1ti+n +f the te9t types better.i+ O(ser3a"ion Gra/h 2. =. &he students 0ere m+re a0are +f the 1h+i1es that they had. -a'ing the printed trans1ript als+ helped the students t+ be a0are +f the salient linguisti1 features f+r the pr+du1ti+n +f the genre. I 1alled +ut the students t+ e9press their resp+nses 'erbally +ne by +ne and all+0ed the peers t+ help. #. &hen7 I asked the students t+ refer t+ the f+ll+0ing e9er1ise +n the use +f transiti+nal signals in supp+rting +pini+ns.$e:"ion $in1e the sp+ken dis1+urse is dynami1 and is m+re diffi1ult f+r them t+ f+ll+0 the fl+0 +f ideas7 they needed m+re time t+ listen t+ the re1+rding and identify the te9t types. A:"i3i"5 0 After pra1ti1ing the e9pressi+ns f+r stating +pini+ns7 the third stage m+'ed t+ the less+n +n the use +f transiti+nal signals in stating reas+ns f+r +pini+ns and "ustifi1ati+ns. As the result7 the students als+ benefited as they learnt the right pr+nun1iati+ns7 int+nati+ns and thus had a g++d s+ur1e f+r pra1ti1e. I asked the students t+ 1lassify the listed signals int+ % 1ateg+ries. A9p+sing the students t+ a nati'e4like re1+rding is essential as they did n+t ha'e en+ugh 1+nta1ts 0ith g++d samples +f authenti1 ans0ers by the nati'e speakers. . i3+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. i+ O(ser3a"ion At this stage the students 0ere e9p+sed t+ 'ari+us 0ays +f using transiti+nal signals in e9pressing +pini+ns and reas+ns t+ "ustify the p+ints +f 'ie0. &he number +f resp+nses made by ea1h student in A1ti'ity 2 2 8 = ( % # 2 1 1 2 # % ( = 8 In the se1+nd a1ti'ity7 the students 0ere e9p+sed t+ m+re listening a1ti'ities +f the re1+rded resp+nses. %.

&he students 0+rked +n pr+du1ing a 1+mplete resp+nse7 based +n the te9t types . 3i+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. &hey said that they 0ere able t+ 'ary their e9pressi+ns in stating their +pini+ns and reas+ns7 and the e9er1ise +n the e9pressi+ns helped them t+ be m+re a0are +f the 2 minutes and had t+ f+r1e themsel'es in presenting their ans0ers 0ithin the time limit. I 1alled the students +ne by +ne t+ gi'e their resp+nses. 1. A:"i3i"5 1 At this stage the students 0ere already e9p+sed t+ 'ari+us 0ays in e9pressing +pini+ns and reas+ns t+ "ustify the p+ints +f 'ie0. E+0 the students need t+ put their kn+0ledge int+ pra1ti1e 0ithin the time limit +f 2 minutes f+r ea1h statement gi'en. &he students 0ere m+re a0are +f the 1h+i1es that they had. O(ser3a"ion Gra/h . .$e:"ion M+re pra1ti1es 0+uld be a great help t+ the students. &his als+ helped them t+ be a0are +f the different usage +f transiti+nal signals and the right 0ay +f using them. &hus7 during the real test7 they 0+uld be m+re a0are +f the 2 minutes pr+'ided. A:"i3i"5 2 &his 0as the last stage7 stage % 0here the students had t+ put int+ pra1ti1e +f 0hat they had learnt in the e9er1ise f+1using +n situati+ns similar t+ &ask A in M>A& $peaking &est. I distributed $A& 1 t+ gr+up 1 and asked them t+ read the task. 2. I asked the students t+ attempt +ne statement at a time. i+ I distributed a hand+ut +n statements. I listed their ans0ers +n the b+ard. &h+ugh they 0ere uneasy and felt disturbed f+r ha'ing t+ pr+du1e their resp+nses 0ithin 2 minutes7 it 0+uld be a blessing in disguise as they 0+uld be a11ust+med t+ it. I timed them and instru1ted them t+ st+p at the end +f the se1+nd minute. I en1+uraged the peers t+ 1+rre1t resp+nses 0ith err+rs 0ith my guidan1e. ii+ Re. 3+ I&/$e&en"a"ion o. &he number +f resp+nses made by ea1h student in A1ti'ity # 2 8 Number of response = ( % # 2 1 1 2 # % Student ( = 8 At this stage7 the students 0ere able t+ use their kn+0ledge +n the e9pressi+ns and transiti+nal signals in pr+du1ing their resp+nses. #. 1.. &hen7 I timed them 2 minutes f+r them t+ prepare their resp+nses.and the e9er1ise +n the e9pressi+ns and the appli1ati+n that they made in the e9er1ises helped them t+ be m+re 1+nfident in using +ther e9pressi+ns t++. I asked the students t+ sit in their respe1ti'e gr+ups. ii+ Re.$e:"ion As the saying g+es7 pra1ti1e makes perfe1t7 the students being a'erage and 0eak +nes really gained m+re 1+nfiden1e after umpteen pra1ti1e +f using transiti+nal signal f+r 'ari+us situati+ns. 2.

2 #.1 4. Aa1h gr+up 0ere gi'en the 1han1e t+ pra1ti1e 2 sets ea1h.5 Eumber +f $tudents 100 8 = ( % # 2 1     50 0 37. #. g+ Re.+ S#gges"ion . &he resear1h sh+uld f+1us +n 0ays t+ highlight the essential features +f managing dis1ussi+ns and the pr+per 0ays t+ 1arry them +ut7 and help the 0eak students t+ understand and be able t+ 1arry +ut dis1ussi+ns pr+perly. %.1a #. Fith the ample +ral pra1ti1es 1arried +ut by the students7 they had gained m+re 1+nfiden1e and thus7 helped them t+ pr+du1e their resp+nses in better senten1es.3 4.2a#.1 #. . ii+ Re. -+0e'er7 0ith a l+t +f dis1ussi+ns and +ral pra1ti1es7 the students f+und that they 0ere m+re 1+nfident in gi'ing their ans0ers. A'en :r+up 2 0+uld '+lunteered t+ gi'e their ans0ers first and this sh+0ed that they had gained their 1+nfiden1e n+t "ust in preparing the resp+nses7 but als+ in presenting them al+ud in 1lass.1a 4.$e:"ion Eaturally7 the students 0ere shy t+ be heard by their friends.$e:"ion on "he Resear:h At first7 the students f+und it diffi1ult t+ 1+me up 0ith en+ugh +pini+ns and reas+ns 0ithin the t0+ minutes gi'en. Fith that7 I pers+nally suggest that there sh+uld be an+ther resear1h in helping these 0eak students in the se1+nd task in the M>A& $peaking &est7 that is &ask *. i+ t+ 0hi1h they 0ere e9p+sed t+ and the language features 0hi1h they had +bser'ed and pra1tised in the pre'i+us a1ti'ities. In this task7 the students are reCuired t+ be able t+ manage dis1ussi+ns. I managed t+ highlight and fa1ilitate the students t+ pr+du1e their resp+nses in the 1+rre1t te9t types and use the appr+priate linguisti1 features.. After the dis1ussi+n7 it 0as the se1+nd gr+upBs turn.2 4. O(ser3a"ion G!a"# 7: The !o"es co"ered by the students H           Ta%&e 2: The !o"es co"ered by the students Students Mo es 1 2 3 4 4. -+0e'er7 0ith persuasi+ns and en1+uragements7 many 0ere able t+ present their resp+nses better. It is 1ru1ial espe1ially f+r the 0eaker students in gaining the salient linguisti1 features. -+0e'er7 after the feedba1k and dis1ussi+n sessi+n7 &able 2 and :raph = sh+0 that they managed t+ take the e9er1ise p+siti'ely. I re1+rded and timed ea1h memberBs resp+nse. #. In the se1+nd r+und resp+nding t+ their se1+nd set7 the students 0ere m+re 1+nfident and 1+uld gi'e better resp+nses.5 $7. a % M+'es ( I 1+uld see that at first the students 0ere Cuite un1+mf+rtable t+ gi'e their resp+nses 0ith the +ther gr+up 0at1hing and listening.2a 4.3a 5 6 greeting state situation state role state opinion justification 1 explanation of justification 1 justification 2 explanation of justification 2 justification 3 explanation of justification 3 summarise end             A      B         C        D      E      F      G      % 100 100 100 100 37.or F#"#re Resear:h &his resear1h +nly f+1used +n the indi'idual resp+nse t+ the speaking task. &hen7 members +f the gr+up t++k turn t+ present their resp+nses. (. .5 100 1 2 # #.5 12. I ga'e them their task and repeated the same pr+1edure 0hi1h I 1arried +ut 0ith the first gr+up. &he :enre Analysis Appr+a1h has all+0ed the students t+ be a0are +f the te9t types and the salient linguisti1 features 0hi1h be1+mes the crutch t+ these 0eak students t+ pr+du1e their resp+nses t+ the task gi'en. After the gr+up presented their resp+nses7 the +ther gr+up 0ere asked t+ gi'e their 1+mments and I guided the dis1ussi+n sessi+n.

7 &an7 A. $hah Alam. Pears+n Malaysia $dn..1+m $0ales7 @. &he Internati+nal -+use @+urnal +f Adu1ati+n and De'el+pment Issue April 122=.330002. $elang+r. 5122=6 Genre 0nalysis. /ederal Publi1ati+ns.htm Eg7 K..7 and Ali7 M. )ambridge >ni'ersity Press.Pustaka $ar"ana $dn *hd. 512206 Genre 0nalysis ( English in 0cademic and . Iale7 A. >$A.0 way out of the C$L1/E1+0C . In.anguage7 register and genre. A11ess date De1ember 107 200# at. 512226 /iscourse 0nalysis in the Language Classroom.eader. 5200#6 %ext M$E%2 0 Complete Guide.esearch +ettings. 520026 Malaysian $niversity English %est &M$E%' ( Course)oo* . $elang+r . 5200#6 +tudy +*ills for the Malaysian $niversity English %est . R+berts7 P. Martin7 @.riting. Deakin >ni'ersity. @+urnal f+r )+llege &ea1hing7 I+l. 000.B in A)& #187 Language +tudies.d+1 $mith7 :. . Malaysian A9aminati+ns $yndi1ate.#2L. )ambridge.M. Ii1t+ria.Bi($iogra/h5 . 000. Children .ih0+rld.g+'.). 5128#6 H. >ni'ersity +f Mi1higan Press.K. *hd.im7 @.m+e. http.1+m3ih"+urnal3genreKanalysisKpaulKr+berts.my3Jlp3spmKlpm. Riggenba1h7 -. $. 2th @anuary7200% at. A11ess date @anuary 17200% at.Cuestia. et al. 5122=6 Learning to +pea* and +pea*ing to Learn . #%. A11ess date.