Lab Report

Instrumentation & Measurements

Relay Operation

Submitted by:
Muhammad Shaheryar Ahsan (11-ENC-97) Mir Walid Tariq (11-ENC-91) Farhan Nasir (11-ENC-73)

University of Engineering & Technology, TAXILA

single-throw): TPST (triple-pole. SPDT. single-throw): . DPDT.Title: Relay Operation Theory: Switch: The device which is used to make or break the connections in electric or electronic circuits. DPST. TPST etc SPST (single-pole. single-throw): DPDT (double-pole.double-throw): DPST(double-pole. Different Types of switches are available eg: SPST. single-throw): SPDT (single-pole.

when there is no current relay is de-energized there is a air gap in magnetic circuit. If the set of contacts were closed when the relay was not energized. . Now if we pass an electric current through a coil. In this case one of the contacts is open and other one is closed. there will be no magnetic field around the coil so contacts will move to their original positions. a moveable iron armature. and one or more sets of contacts. then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection. magnetic field will be generated around the coil which activates the movable contacts either make or break according to the circuit construction. When the current through the coil is switched off. and vice versa if the contacts were open.Relay: A relay is simply a switch that rather than being operated by hand. When a direct current is applied across the coil terminals of relay to activate. it is operated by a coil of wire which generates a magnetic force when an electrical Current passes through it. we placed a diode across the coil to dissipate the energy from the decreasing magnetic field at deactivation. Armature is linked to one or more moving contacts . which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. A simple relay is made up of coil wrapped around a soft iron core which is helpful in low reluctance path for magnetic flux.

Circuit diagram: For simple relay operation fig(a) For Relay Change over switch operation fig(b) .

Pull in voltage (V): voltage required to cause the relay to operate.Procedure: We perform two operations of relay: (a) As a simple Relay operation : When relay coil energizes its moving contacts will close or open & device will operate according to the circuit. Pull out Voltage(V): Voltage across the coil at the instant when relay deactivates. . (b) Connect the circuit according to fig (a) and the fig (b). Pull out Current(I): Current from the coil when the relay goes to deactivate. Change over switch : Principle: When one device (source (wapda)) stops working other device (source (UPS)) automatically starts. and pull out current. pull in current.And measure the pull in voltage. Pull in Current (I): Minimum current required to make the relay close from fully open. pull out voltage.

91Ω Conclusion: From this experiment it is concluded that relay is used for switching.67V Pull in current=26.4mA Coil Resistance=V/I=290.88Ω Case(b): (Change Over switch) Pull in voltage =7.2 mA Coil Resistance=V/I=295.92V Pull out current=6.74V Pull in current=26.53Ω Pull out voltage=1. we can use ups automatically by using relay(when light goes on wapda will operate & when light goes off ups will operate automatically)change over switch.6mA Coil Resistance=V/I=287.Observations & Calculations: Case(a): ( simple relay operation) Pull in voltage =7.9V Pull out current=6. .41Ω Pull out voltage=1.6mA Coil Resistance=V/I=290. by using relay we can control multiple devices.