2009 VCE Photonics Workshop Draft program

To be organised by the Australian Institute of Physics (Victorian Branch) Education Committee, with the assistance of Craig Anderson from eongatha !econdary College Draft 2009 Program "#$$%m !%ea&er# '#$$%m Practical acti(ities# Three grou%s ) three labs, forty minutes in each lab *#$$%m Pi++as and soft drin& *#',%m ecture on a%%lications of Photonics# -#"$%m .inish Speakers: Practical Activities La ! /0 Bottle of ight (TI1 and Critical angle) 20 3%tical 4a(eguide demonstrator set "0 5a&ing a sim%le 6o%tical fibre7 and e8%loring some of its %ro%erties '0 ight ma&es its esca%e ,0 5odern o%tical fibre

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Attenuation in o%tic fibre Estimating !emiconductor Band 9a% using E:s aser to Audio 1ecei(er 3%tical Voice in&

La 2 /$0 !%ectrosco%ic studies /"0 5easuring the 4a(elength of a aser using //0 5easuring the s%eed of light using a C: microwa(es /'0 Interference using a C: and a :V: /20 5easuring the thic&ness of a hair using a laser La " /,0 Ciderhouse 4a(elength :i(ision 5ulti%le8ing (4:5) &it acti(ity /*0 !en&o &it acti(ity == = E8%lanation %ro(ided by demonstrator == >otes will be with the e?ui%ment0 E?ui%ment for acti(ities / ) <, // ) /' was su%%lied by eongatha !econdary College0 #$P%&'A(' ) LASE& L#*+' CA( ,E +A-A&D%.S :o not bend down so that your head is le(el with the laser beam0 aser light is %otentially ha+ardous to your eyes, so ne(er loo& directly into the beam0 'he prac gro/ps are: A0 ab /, then 2 @ " B# ab 2, then " @ / C# ab ", then / @ 2

!0 ,ottle of Light
1i re optics ) total internal reflection ) critical angle In /;-$, before members of the %restigious British 1oyal !ociety, Aohn Tyndall showed how a light beam could be guided in an arcing stream of water, Tyndall shined a bright light into a hori+ontal %i%e leading out of tan& of water0 Then, when the water was allowed to flow out and downward in an arc, light rays tra(eled inside the water until they were bro&en u% by the water stri&ing a collection %an0 4ith the hel% of a drin& bottle and a laser %ointer you will du%licate this e8%eriment0 4hat it shows# A Beam of laser light can be tra%%ed inside a stream of water by total internal reflection0 This is the a?uatics e?ui(alent of a fibre o%tic cable0 Bow it wor&s# A stream of water flows from a hole in the side of a drin& bottle (figure /)0 The critical angle of '<$ is such that total internal reflection will occur in the stream e(en when it is reduced to almost a tric&le0 Im%erfections in the stream (and scattering agents added) allow some of the light to esca%e, and the effect is seen as a s%ar&ling waterfall0 The water reser(oir is a 2 drin& bottle, and the stream emanates from a hole Cust abo(e the base section (about ;cm from the bottom)0 To ensure a smooth flow a hole larger than , mm is cut in the %lastic and a %iece if clear ta%e stuc& across it D the hole being made using a regular hole %unchE this a(oids unclean edges that occur when the %lastic is cu and then thin wall %roduces a more laminar flow0 .igure / Total internal reflection within stream of water

:irect the stream of water onto a white tile in the sin&, so you can see if the water o%tical fibre really wor&sF :iscussion# The inde8 of refraction of water is /0"", and thus the critical angle for a waterGair interface is sin)/ (/G/0"") H '<$0 !o long as the water stream does not bend at too shar% an angle, light tra(eling along the length of the stream stri&es the waterGair interface at an angle greater than '<$ with res%ect to the normal to the interface and is this totally reflected0

20 %ptical Waveg/i2e: Demonstrator Set
#ntro2/ction This &it, when used with a aser %ointer, dramatically and (isually demonstrates the ability of a sim%le o%tical element to tra% light inside the element with (ery little light loss0 The o%tical elements that you will use to demonstrate this %rinci%le are optical wave guides. (The term o%tical wa(e guide is synonymous with the more common term )o%tical fibre0) Iou will better understand what these terms mean when you com%lete the acti(ities in this &it0 The result of shining a laser beam inside these two distinctly different wa(e guide sha%es may sur%rise you0 The &it contains two o%tical wa(e guides made from s%ecially formulated %olymerGacrylic material0 3ne guide is a straight bar that will show you how light wa(es are tra%%ed inside the bar by a %rocess &nown as total internal reflection0 Iou will learn that (ery little light esca%es from the inside of the bar0 The second bar of material Jis cur(ed0 Bow does cur(ature affect the %assage (and %ossible loss) of lightK Iou will learn that light can tra(el through o%tical light guides e(en when the light has to negotiate bends0 This wa(e guide %ro%erty of being able to bend light u% and down is a (ery useful %ro%erty of fibre o%tic communications systems, as used by long distance tele%hone com%anies0 E3/ipment (ee2e2: • straight o%tical light guide, /$B 8 2$4 8 2"$ mm • cur(ed o%tical light guide, /$B 8 2$4 8 2"$ mm • aser %ointer that %roduces (isible light0 Demonstrations: /0 Lsing your thumb and forefinger of one hand, aim the laser %ointer in a safe direction away from %eo%le or 0reflecti(e surfaces0 20 Turn the laser %ointer on, then %osition the %ointer and straight o%tical light guide as shown below0

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Iou should now see the laser beam reflecting off the to% and bottom surfaces of the light guide in a +igM+ag %attern0 Change the angle between the laser beam and the end face of the acrylic bar0 >otice how the laser beam continues to bounce u% and down inside the light guide0 :o you understand why these are called o%tical light guidesK !till aiming the laser %ointer into the end of the straight wa(e guide, note that the laser beam bends slightly as it enters the guide0 This bending of light is a &nown scientific %henomenon, and it can be e8%lained by understanding what is called the refractive index of materials0 !ee the section titled N3%tical .ibre TheoryN for e8%lanation0 >ow re%lace the straight bar with the cur(ed light guide0 !hine the laser beam into either end and obser(e the light beam tra(elling around the cur(e0 1eturn all the &it items to their %ro%er storage containers soJ you andGor others can re%eat the acti(ity as you wish0

S/mmar4 In the %receding ste%s you conducted a hands)on demonstration of the essentials of o%tical wa(e guide technology that are critical to o%eration of fibre o%tic cable and communications systems0 The J%henomenon of light reflecting off a fibreJs internal surfaces is technically &nown as Ntotal

internal reflectionN, In the %ractical world, fibre o%tic light guides used in communications a%%lications are round in sha%e because there is %otential for a small amount of light to be lost at the corners, if the guide is rectangular in sha%e0 Early in this manual we described the nearly Nloss) lessN transmission of light0 In fact, by intent, the o%tical light guides in this &it are not lossless0 .or demonstration %ur%oses, we %ur%osely mi8ed a s%ecia/ material in the acrylic to scatter the light0 This was to aid in yiewing the laser beam as it tra(els or bounces down the wa(e guide0 This design is by no means ideal for transmitting the ma8imum amount of light the greatest distance, but it hel%s you see first)hand how light is reflected down the o%tical wa(eguide0 Also &ee% in mind that when we measure or (iew any energy source such as light, (oltage or electrical current, we must 6ta%7 a small amount of that energy0 Therefore, there is no such thing as a loss)less energy measurement0 %ptical 1i re 'heor4 .ibre o%tics is the most ra%idly growing %ortion of o%tics study in the world0 It has grown so dramatically that some %eo%le may not thin& of it as e(en being %art of the o%tics field0 In terms of data communications they could be right, because fibre o%tic communications utili+es electronic and laser technology, in addition to o%tical fibre0 The illustration, left, de%icts the construction of basic communication o%tical fibre, with concentric layers of materials called the core and cladding0 These materials are bonded to each and are always com%osed of different materials because they must ha(e different refracti(e inde8es0 4ith the wa(e guides contained in this &it the cladding layer is air0 The acrylic bars are the cores0 In o%tical fibres, the outer material always has a lower refracti(e inde8 than the inner layer0 Visuali+e a light ray ) tra(elling at a s%ecific angle ) as it stri&es the boundary between higher and lower refracti(e inde8 materials0 As the light ray enters the lower refracti(e inde8 material, it bends away at an increased angle, as shown0 If the entry angle of the light ray increases, e(entually the e8iting ray will be %arallel to the hori+ontal boundary between the materials0 Any further increases in the angle of the incident (entry) ray will actually cause the light rays to reflect bac& into the material with larger refracti(e inde8 ) the core0 This reflection is commonly called Ntotal internal reflectionN and is the basis for the theory of how light tra(els through o%tical fibre0 Because the cladding layer surrounds the core, the light is confined to two dimensions and tra(els lengthwise (also NreboundingN from side to side) from one end of the fibre to the other0 Total internal reflection is essentially Nloss)lessN reflection0 >o light is lost at each successi(e reflection within the fibre, which ma&es this conce%t (ery suitable for transmitting light o(er long distances0 Any minor loss of light in o%tical fibre is caused %rimarily by im%urities in the core material0 Commercial a(ailable o%tical fibre is usually made from glass or %lastic0 $aterial Val/e Air /0$$$2< 4ater /0"" 9lass /0' D /0; !ilicon "0, Acrylic /0'< :iamond 20$ 3%tical fibres can carry many times more information ) faster and o(er longer distances ) than con(entional co%%er wire, and it is far less (ulnerable to electromagnetic interference0 3ther

ad(antages of fibre o%tics include ease of installation and the ability to transmit data with e8tremely low error rates0 3%tical fibre also does not Nattract lightning stri&es, since it is not electrically conducti(e0 Table /0 1efracti(e indices of some common materials

"0 $aking a Simple 5%ptical 1i re5 an2 e6ploring some of the properties of optical fi re
%vervie7 In this acti(ity you will construct a sim%le light guide using water and a length of (inyl tubing0 The water and (inyl tubing will act as the core, while air will act as the cladding or boundary layer0 The e8%eriment will demonstrate how effecti(e e(en a sim%le light guide is for cou%ling energy from a light source to a detector0 Iou will also obser(e how the light guide can carry light Naround NEl cornerN with relati(ely little loss com%ared to when light tra(els in a straight line $aterials re3/ire2 • 2$cm length of /2mm tubing • A Tain data logger and Phototransistor light %robe • A aser %ointer0 • • band 4ater, a %lastic transfer %i%ette0 !mall s?uares of %lastic and a rubber

What to 2o8 5a&e sure the Tain data logging e?ui%ment is on, use the %rogram J3%tic fibreJ and set it to JrunJ0 4e are not going to use the e?ui%ment as a loggerE we will sim%ly obser(e the screen dis%lay0 3bser(ing all safety re?uirements, ha(e one team member hold the %hototransistor light %robe and the other shine the laser 0%ointer at the %robe0 !tart (ery closely together and slowly mo(e the %ointer and %robe a%art0 >ote the readout on the com%uter0 >ow, because we will be wor&ing with water, and the %robe is not water tight, we will wra% the %robe in %lastic0 To %ro(e the %lastic does not absorb or scatter the light re%eat the e8%eriment abo(e0 Insert the %robe in the end of the %lastic tube0 Bold the tube straight and shine the laser at the %robe down the tube0 3bser(e the screen dis%lay0 Bow does the light le(el com%are with Cust shining the laser at the %robeK OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 4hilst shining the laser down the tube, slowly bend the tube and note what ha%%ens to the light being transmitted to the %robe0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Carefully fill the tube with water using the %i%ette0 Try not to get bubbles and fill the tube fully0 !eal the end with %lastic and a rubber band0 Bolding the tube straight, shine the laser through the water and onto the %robe0 Com%are the light le(els to those when the tube was em%ty0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 4hilst shining the laser down the tube of water, slowly bend the tube and note the le(el of light being transmitted to the %robe0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Change the angle of the laser and note the light intensity at the %robe0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

90 Light makes its Escape
The light carrying portion of an optical fibre must be protected In this acti(ity you will obser(e how changing the o%tical density (refracti(e inde8) of the material surrounding the o%tic fibre will affect the fibreJs light)transmitting ability0 $aterials re3/ire2 aser %ointer Plasticine Acrylic fibre !mall %iece of white card Petri dishes of water and %araffin oil $etho2 3B!E1VE A!E1 !A.ETI P1ECALTI3>! 4BI E :3I>9 TBI! P1AC Insert the fibre into the end of the laser %ointer0 3bser(e the amount of light transmitting along the fibre by holding the card to the end of the fibre0 9ently bend the fibre into a JLJ sha%e and obser(e the amount of light transmitted by the fibre0 !lowly immerse the bent %art of the fibre into the water in the %etri dish0 As you immerse the fibre in the water, obser(e the amount of light coming out the end of the fibre using the card0 Can you see light esca%ing from the fibreK 4here does the light goK 1e%eat in the %araffin dish0 Turn the laser off0 &es/lts As the bottom of the fibre is immersed, the amount of light coming out the far end of the fibre decreases0 Iou should be able to see light esca%ing from the fibre by loo&ing at the bottom of the dish0 Disc/ssion The decrease in light from the fibre end is caused by the change in o%tical density outside the 0 fibre when it is di%%ed in water0 The o%tical density of water is closer to that of the fibre than the o%tical density of airE therefore, it doesnJt tra% light as well0 4hen the light in the fibre encounters the water, some of it esca%es and tra(els to the bottom of the %an0 The L)sha%e in the o%tic fibre increases the amount of light esca%ing when it is immersed in water0 The correct term for o%tical density as we ha(e a%%lied it really is Nrefracti(e inde8N or inde8 of refraction0 The refracti(e indices of the three materials that you wor&ed with in this e8%eriment are shown in the table below0 Iou might now as&# 4hat good are o%tical fibres if their ability to transmit light can be affected by conditions around themK If this were actually the case, they would not be (ery useful0 5ost fibre o%tics used for commercial a%%lications are manufactured with a coating around the central light)carrying %ortion so that e8ternal conditions do not affect them0 This coating is called NcladdingN while the central Nlight)carryingN %ortion is called the NcoreN0 A fibreJs cladding always has a lower refracti(e inde8 than the core0 4ater# /0"" acrylic (%lastic) /0', air# /0$$

:0 $o2ern %ptical fi re
Commercial fibre is very pure and has a protective ‘cladding’ The acrylic fibre used in %re(ious e8%eriments carries light from one end to the other, but it doesnJt really do a (ery good Cob0 To transmit light long distances, commercial o%tical fibres must be com%osed of ultra %ure trans%arent materials0 .or e8am%le, some commercial o%tical fibre material is so %ure that the light lost when tra(elling through a one &ilometre length is more than <$ %ercent of the light which Jentered the fibre0 In the illustration is a basic o%tical fibre, with concentric layers of core and cladding0 T he fibre you will use In this e8%eriment contains a central Nlight carryingN core and a (ery thin (/$ µm) cladding layer to tra% the light inside0 (The cladding is also trans%arent0 Iou %robably wonJt be able to distinguish it from the core0) $aterials &e3/ire2 aser %ointer Plasticine 3%tic fibre !mall %iece of white card Petri dish full of water and %araffin oil 3B!E1VE A!E1 !A.ETI P1ECALTI3>! 4BI E :3I>9 TBI! P1AC 4e are going to re%eat the last e8%eriment, but using %ro%er o%tic fibre, rather than Cust a length of %lastic fibre0 Insert the o%tic fibre into the end of the laser %ointer0 3bser(e the amount of light transmitting along the fibre by holding the card to the end of the fibre0 9ently bend the fibre into a JLJ sha%e and obser(e the amount of light transmitted by the fibre0 !lowly immerse the bent %art of the fibre into the water in the trough0 As you immerse the fibre in the water, obser(e the amount of light coming out the end of the fibre using the card0 Can you see light esca%ing from the fibreK 4hy notK 1e%eat in the %etri dish full of %araffin0 Turn the laser off0 &es/lts As the bottom of the o%tic fibre is immersed, the amount of light coming out the far end of the fibre stays the same0 Iou should not be able to see light esca%ing from the fibre when loo&ing at the bottom of the trough0 Disc/ssion ight is transmitted from one end of the fibre to the other because light is being Jguided by the central fibre core and tra%%ed inside by the outer cladding layer0 ight intensity doesnJt change when you di% the fibre in the water because the refracti(e inde8 (o%tical density) immediately surrounding the central core doesnJt change as it did in %re(ious e8%eriment0 The cladding layer remains constant and acts as an o%tical shield between the fibre core and the water0 The fibre you Cust finished e8%erimenting with is made of %lastic0 It is one of the two most commonly used materials in commercial o%tical fibres0 The other material is glass D commonly called 6silica7 in the technical community0

;0 Atten/ation in %ptic 1i re
Attenuation is the loss of o%tical signal as it tra(els along the o%tic fibre0 !e(eral factors can cause attenuation, but it is generally categori+ed as either intrinsic or e8trinsic0 Intrinsic attenuation is caused by substances inherently %resent in the fibre, whereas e8trinsic attenuation is caused by e8ternal forces such as bending0 The attenuation coefficient α is e8%ressed in decibels %er &ilometre and re%resents the loss in decibels %er &ilometre of fibre #ntrinsic Atten/ation Intrinsic attenuation results from materials inherent to the fibre0 It is caused by im%urities in the glass during the manufacturing %rocess0 As %recise as manufacturing is, there is no way to eliminate all im%urities0 4hen a light signal hits an im%urity in the fibre, one of two things occurs# It scatters or it is absorbed0 Intrinsic loss can be further characteri+ed by two com%onents# 5aterial absor%tion and 1ayleigh scattering0 $aterial A sorption 5aterial absor%tion occurs as a result of the im%erfection and im%urities in the fibre0 The most common im%urity is the hydro8yl (3B)) ion, which remains as a residue des%ite stringent manufacturing techni?ues0 &a4leigh Scattering As light tra(els in the core, it interacts with the silica molecules in the core0 1ayleigh scattering is the result of these elastic collisions between the light wa(e and the silica molecules in the fibre0 1ayleigh scattering accounts for about <* %ercent of attenuation in o%tical fibre0 If the scattered light maintains an angle that su%%orts forward tra(el within the core, no attenuation occurs0 If the light is scattered at an angle that does not su%%ort continued forward tra(el, howe(er, the light is di(erted out of the core and attenuation occurs0 :e%ending on the incident angle, some %ortion of the light %ro%agates forward and the other %art de(iates out of the %ro%agation %ath and esca%es from the fibre core0 !ome scattered light is reflected bac& toward the light source0 This is a %ro%erty that is used in an o%tical time domain reflectometer (3T:1) to test fibres0 The same %rinci%le a%%lies to analysing loss associated with locali+ed e(ents in the fibre, such as s%lices0 !hort wa(elengths are scattered more than longer wa(elengths0 Any wa(elength that is below ;$$ nm is unusable for o%tical communication because attenuation due to 1ayleigh scattering is high0 At the same time, %ro%agation abo(e /-$$ nm is not %ossible due to high losses resulting from infrared absor%tion0 Looking at &a4leigh Scattering 1ayleigh scattering (named after ord 1ayleigh, who first described it) is the scattering of light by %articles much smaller than the wa(elength of the light0 It occurs when light tra(els in trans%arent solids and li?uids, but is most %rominently seen in gases0 1ayleigh scattering of sunlight from %articles in the atmos%here is the reason why the light from the s&y is blue0 4e are going to e8%lore the %henomenon of 1ayleigh scattering0 The materials we will use are • A Bodson ight Bo8 • !ome glue stic&s to simulate o%tic fibre • Blac& ta%eE clear ta%e • A small %iece of white card Lsing the wide slit, modified with ta%e to the height of a glue stic& shine the light into one end of a glue stic& and hold the other end of the glue stic& a%%ro8imately one centimetre from the white

card0 >otice that the end of the glue stic& closer to the light bo8 is a different colour than the end nearer the white card0 >otice the colour of the circle on the white card0 Place two glue stic&s end to end, and attach them together with the clear ta%e0 1e%eat the in(estigation and notice any difference in the colours along the glue stic&s and in the coloured circle on the white bac&ground0 Continue to attach more glue stic&s with the clear ta%e and to notice the changes in colour and Intensity along the glue stic&s and in the colour circle0 It is unli&ely you will get transmission along more than two glue stic&s0 The change in colour along the glue stic&s is caused by 1ayleigh scattering0 4hich colour is closest to the light bo8 Place a blue filter in the light bo80 Bow far does the light tra(el along the glue stic&K Change the filter to a red filter0 Bow far does the light tra(el nowK %ther relate2< /t essentiall4 immaterial information The light bo8 emits white light0 The glue stic& scatters the blue light out of the light beam more than the yellow or the red light0 Because the first colour, to be scattered is blue, the end of the glue stic& nearest the light bo8 a%%ears blue and the other end is yellow to orange)red0 The glue stic& scattering model offers a demonstration of why the s&y is blue and sunsets are red0 The s&y is blue because blue light is most readily scattered from sunlight in the atmos%here, Cust as blue light was most readily scattered from white light in the glue stic&s0 If blue light was not scattered in the atmos%here, the sun would loo& a little less yellow and a little whiter and the rest of the s&y would be blac&0 At sunset, the sun is low near the hori+on, and light tra(els through a greater thic&ness of atmos%here before reaching your eyes than it does when the sun is higher in the s&y0 Aust as the light tra(elling along the glue stic&s got redder as the length of the glue stic& %ath got longer, so the sunset is red when the atmos%heric %ath through0 which the sunlight tra(els gets longer0 The scattering that %roduces the red sunset may be enhanced by %ollution or other atmos%heric conditions0 E6trinsic Atten/ation E8trinsic attenuation can be caused by two e8ternal mechanisms# macrobending or microbending0 Both cause a reduction of o%tical %ower0 If a bend is im%osed on an o%tical fibre, strain is %laced on the fibre along the region that is bent0 The bending strain affects the refracti(e inde8 and the critical angle of the light ray in that s%ecific area0 As a result, light tra(elling in the core can refract out, and loss occurs0 A macrobend is a large)scale bend that is (isible, and the loss is generally re(ersible after bends are corrected0 To %re(ent macrobends, all o%tical fibre has a minimum bend radius s%ecification that should not be e8ceeded0 This is a restriction on how much bend a fibre can withstand before e8%eriencing %roblems in o%tical %erformance or mechanical reliability0 The second e8trinsic cause of attenuation is a microbend0 5icrobending is caused by im%erfections in the cylindrical geometry of fibre during the manufacturing %rocess0 5icrobending might be related to tem%erature, tensile stress, or crushing force0 i&e macrobending, microbendlng causes a reduction of o%tical %ower in the glass0 5icrobending is (ery locali+ed, and the bend might not be clearly (isible on ins%ection0 4ith bare fibre, microbending can be re(ersible0

=0 Estimating Semicon2/ctor ,an2 *ap /sing LEDs
% >ective# 3bser(e (isible light)emitting diodes ( E:Js) in sim%le electrical circuits, and relate the com%osition of semiconductor materials with their beha(iors0 Estimate the band ga% of a semiconductor material0 &evie7 of Scientific Principles# Colored light can be %roduced in a number of ways0 3n the one hand, ordinary incandescent light bulbs may be used with filters that select out a %ortion of the com%lete color s%ectrum that is emitted from the glowing wire filament0 3n the other hand, the familiar orange)red glow of neon lights is generated by electrically ioni+ing (ery small amounts of gases inside sealed glass tubes0 E:Js contain neither a wire filament nor any gases0 The light emitting %ortion of a solid state diode is ?uite small so you will need a magnifying glass to see it clearly0 E(en though the diode may be enclosed in a colored %lastic lens, the lens is not the cause for the color of the light obser(ed0 In E:Js, electrical energy is con(erted into light energy0 The (oltage re?uired to switch on the E: is %ro%ortional to the energy of the light emitted from that E:0 Also by com%aring the color of the light with a chart of the (isible light s%ectrum, it is %ossible to assign a wa(elength to the color of each E:0 Lsing this wa(elength, a sim%le calculation can be made to a%%ro8imate the energy of the electron transition ta&ing %lace at the Cunction in the diode0 The colored light (made u% of %hotons) is being %roduced by electrons that are rela8ing across the energy ga% in the semiconductor material0 The re(erse %rocess may also be obser(ed in which light shining on a diode can be con(erted into electrical energy0 Applications: E:Js are (ery common and are fre?uently used as indicator lam%s0 4hen the light goes on, electricity is flowing0 4hether it is a com%act disc %layer, electric guitar am%lifier, com%uter, monitor, or (ideo game module, we always loo& for the little colored light to let us &now it is wor&ing0 As common as they are, howe(er, most %eo%le ha(e no idea how E:Js %roduce their bright, colored lightE they sim%ly e8%ect it to ha%%en0 'ime# 3ne hour0 (5ore time is re?uired if students will be assembling the circuits themsel(es)0 $aterials an2 S/pplies: Each student grou% will need# • (ariable %ower su%%ly (at least $)* V:C) with leads • one %anel containing se(eral different (isible E:Js (see note /) • digital multimeter (:55) and test leads with small alligator cli%s • magnifying lens • <V battery and sna% connector, • '-$$ ohm resistor • E: soc&et (see note 2) • small, bright flashlight *eneral Safet4 */i2elines: • :o not stare long at any of the brightly lit E:Js0 • !ome of the wires may ha(e shar% edges0 • :o not gras% any bare wires or connections with your hands0 • Be sure the %ower su%%ly is set for $)* V (:C)0 Turn it off when not in use0

Proce2/re: /0 3btain a %anel containing se(eral different (isible E:Js0 20 Connect the %ower su%%ly $)*V :C to the %anel leads0 "0 Connect the :55 across the circuit, and set it for :C0 '0 4ith the %ower su%%ly at its lowest setting, turn it on0 ,0 !lowly dial u% the (oltage until and effect is noticed at one of the E:Js0 *0 Continue to slowly dial u% (oltage until you ha(e obser(ed all the E:Js (do not let the (oltage reading on your :55 e8ceed 20,V)0 -0 >ow slowly dial the (oltage bac& down, and obser(e the E:Js0 ;0 1e%eat ste%s ,)-0 1ecord the (oltage at which you obser(e each E: to go on and off0 <0 4ith all E:Js on and shining brightly, com%are their colors with a chart of the (isible light s%ectrum0 3r (iew the lighted E:Js with a calibrated s%ectrosco%e0 1ecord the wa(elength in nanometers of the color that matches each E:0 /$0 Turn off the %ower su%%ly, and disconnect only its %ositi(e lead from the circuit0 ea(e the :55 on and its leads in %lace across the E: circuit0 //0 4ith the room dar&ened, shine a small, bright flashlight on each of the E:Js in the %anel0 1ecord the ma8imum (oltage that you read from the :55 for each E:0 /20 3btain a <V battery and sna% connector with a%%ro%riate resistor and soc&et0 Insert a green light E: in the soc&et with the long leg on the red side0 !hine it directly o(er and against each of the E:Js in the %anel0 1ecord the ma8imum (oltage for each that you read from the :550 /"0 1e%eat ste% /2 re%lacing the green E: with a red E:0 1ecord the (oltage readings0 I'0 Test what ha%%ens when an E: is %laced in the soc&et bac&wards0 /,0 Lsing a magnifying glass, ma&e two scaled drawings of an E:))one from the to% and one from the side0 Indicate on your drawings where the light is %roduced0 Data an2 Anal4sis: LED '/rn %n Colo/r Wavelength of light emitte2 Energ4 of light emitte2 ,an2 gap of material Composition of material

?/estions: /0 In what order do the E:Js light when the (oltage is increased slowly from +eroK 20 Place the E:Js in order according to increasing wa(elengths0 "0 4hat is the relationshi% between the lists in ?uestions one and twoK '0 .rom your obser(ations, what &ind of mathematical relationshi% e8ists between the numerical (alues for electrical energy ((olts) and the wa(elength of the colored light emittedK ,0 4hat effect does the white light source ha(e on the E:JsK 4hyK *0 4hich color of E: caused a (oltage reading in e(ery E: on the %anelK -0 4hich color of E: caused a (oltage reading in only one E: on the %anelK ;0 E8%lain your answers to ?uestions si8 and se(en by discussing the relationshi% between energy and color of light0 <0 In which E: is the diode com%osed of a material with the largest band ga%K /$0 Calculate the bandga% for the material in each diode in units of electron (olts (eV) by using the e?uation E H /2'$ G λ 4here λ is the wa(elength of light in nanometers (/$)< meters)0 //0 Com%are the (alues calculated with a list of semiconductors and their band ga%s0 4hich materials do you belie(e are %resent in the E:Js that you usedK

@0 Laser to A/2io &eceiver
E?ui%ment >eeded# • 5odulated aser • Audio !ource • aser)Audio 1ecei(er Procedure# /0 Choose a flat, le(el surface about *$ ) /2$ cm in si+e0 20 Collect all the items listed in the NEPLIP5E>T >EE:E:N section abo(e0 "0 1e(iew the Rules for Laser Safety '# Position the laser and the recei(er as shown in .igure /0

,0 *0 -0 ;0

.igure /0 !ide (iew of the laser and audio recei(er Turn on the e?ui%ment0 :im the room lights to hel% you obser(e the laser beam0 Position the recei(er in line with the laser so the beam stri&es the audio recei(er close to the %hotodetector access hole0 5anually align the beam with the optical in%ut (%hoto diode) of the audio recei(er0 Turn on the sound source or micro%hone using the switch0 Turn the 3>G3.. (olume &nob on the audio recei(er to the /2 oJcloc& %osition0 The %ilot light (yellow E:) on the audio recei(er should now be lit, showing that it is on0

.igure 20 Close u% (iew of the alignment laser beam to recei(er a%erture <0 /$0 //0 isten for sound to come out of the audio recei(er0 If you do not hear sound on the first attem%t, turn u% the (olume control cloc&wise on the audio recei(er0 If you reach ma8imum (olume and still do not hear sound, realign the laser beam with the audio recei(er0 4hen you ha(e the audio recei(er and thelaser %ro%erly aligned you should easily hear sound from the recei(er0 A lens can be used to focus the di(erged beam bac& down to increase the signal strength0 Try this and obser(e the resulting increase in (olume0

Puestions# /0 4e want to ma&e a laser transmitter that can reach the 5oon ("0;2 8 /$; m from earth)0 Assuming that this recei(er needs 2 8 /$)* watts of light to re%roduce the audio signal, what %ower laser would be re?uired if a lens of diameter / m is used to focus the light onto the %hoto transistorK Assume beam di(ergence of $0,Q0 >eglect atmos%heric effects0 20 If we were to use our laser (/0* milliwatts) how many %hotons would this detector on the 5oon recei(e e(ery second0 Assume that the wa(elength is *"$ nm0

90 %ptical Voice Link
!ands"#n $ntroduction to %ibre #ptics Communications Preface 'he %ptical Voice Link is a pro>ectAoriente2 intro2/ction to optical fi re comm/nications0 E6periments an2 Activities /0 9ras% the o%tical fibre near its ti% with your thumb and forefinger0 Point it toward a light source and different coloured obCects, while obser(ing the other end of the fibre0 >ote the changes in brightness in that end as you mo(e the other end around, or co(er its ti% with a finger0 :o any colours seem to transmit better than othersK OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 20 Bolding the fibre about $0, mm from this %age, mo(e it left to right across the heading of this section0 4hat changes do you obser(e in the brightness at the other end of the fibreK OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Push the momentary switch on the transmitter board to energise this assembly0 The red E: should light0 If not chec& the battery0 :o you see a %eriodic signal on the oscillosco%e dis%lay when humming or whistlingK If)you change the %itch does the %eriod of measured signal on the oscillosco%e changeK OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

"0 '0

Insert the %re%ared fibre end through the cinch nut and into the connector until the core ti% seats against the moulded lens inside the de(ice %ac&age0 !crew the connector cinch nut down to a snug fit,0 loc&ing the fibre in %/ace0 .igure /0 Cross)section of fibre o%tic E: and cable0 ,0 Turn the recei(er switch on and turn it cloc&wise to about the midway %osition0 Press the momentary switch on the transmitter and s%ea& into the micro%hone0 Iou should hear your (oice from the s%ea&er at the recei(er end0 (If a high)%itched sound is %roduced by the recei(er when %ressing the momentary switch, reduce the (olume at the recei(er0) :escribe the ?uality of your (oice re%roduction at the recei(er0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Assuming that this recei(er needs 2 8 /$)* watts of light to re%roduce the audio signal, the transmitter launches ,$ 8 /$)* watts of %ower into the fibre and the fibre has / dB of attenuation %er meter, determine the ma8imum length of cable that can be installed between transmitter and recei(er and still function %ro%erly0



4ith the transmitter and recei(er assemblies as far a%art as %ossible, adCust the gain of the recei(er to as high as %ossible without the recei(er %roducing a high)%itched s?ueal when the transmitter momentary)switch is closed0 Ba(e somebody touch the transmitter micro%hone to a mechanical cloc& while holding down the momentary switch0 Can you hear the gears inside the cloc& mo(ing, through the recei(er s%ea&erK 1e%eat this e8%eriment with an electric cloc& OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO


:isconnect the fibre from the transmitter, lea(ing the fibre connected to the recei(er0 Turn the (olume on the recei(er switch to ma8imum0 Bold the transmitter end of the fibre u% to a fluorescent light0 4hat do you hearK The noise you hear is ,$ B+, the fre?uency of the 2'$ (olt ,$ B+ AC in%ut0 The fluorescent light is %ulsingE it is not actually NonN all the time0 1e%eat this %rocedure, holding the fibre close to an incandescent light bulb0 4hat do you hear nowK :escribe the difference0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

Circ/it %peration 5ost fibre o%tic transmitters ty%ically ha(e an am%lifier or buffer, dri(er, o%tical source, sometimes an o%tical connector or interface0 The transmitter in this &it also has an acoustic micro%hone for con(erting sound wa(es to an electrical signal, and re?uires a nine)(olt battery with holder to %ro(ide electrical %ower0 .igure 2 shows the schematic of the circuits contained on the transmitter %rinted wiring board of this &it0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

!00 Spectroscopic st/2ies
An im%ortant %ro%erty of light is its fre?uency (or wa(elength)0 The (arious methods used to generate light can create ?uite different ranges of fre?uencies (which your eyes detect as colours)0 A useful instrument to in(estigate light is one that can s%lit light u% into its constituent wa(elengths D a s%ectrosco%e0 #n this activit4 4o/ 7ill /se spectroscopes to e6amine vario/s light so/rces0 There are two ty%es of s%ectrosco%e that you will useE one is a hand)held cardboard bo8, and the other is a fibre)cou%led com%uterised de(ice0 5a&e sure that you s%end some time using each of these0 +an2Ahel2 spectroscope BCcar2 oar2 o6DE To e8amine a light source, loo& into the s%ectrosco%e through the circular hole at one end whilst %ositioning ensuring as much light as %ossible is entering the small slit at the other end0 9lance across to the scale inside the bo8 to see what coloursGwa(elengths are %resent in the light0 1i reAco/ple2 spectroscope B/sing the comp/terE To e8amine a light source, %lace it so that light is incident on the end of the fibre (the fibre end is held in a metal mount)0 The instrument is ?uite sensiti(e, so you do not need to %ut the light source too close to the fibre end0 Lse the mouse to control the s%ectrum that is gra%hed on the com%uter0 Lse the s%ectrosco%es to e8amine and describe the following light sources# • light from a fluorescent tube (i,e, the room lights) OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO • OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO light from a light bulb (RordinaryS bulb or a coloured bulb) OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO • OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO light from (arious light)emitting diodes ( E:s)0 In %articular, what seems unusual about the light from a RwhiteS E:K OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO • OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO light from the mercury atomic (a%our lam%0 Is it similar to any of the other light sources that you ha(e e8aminedK OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

!!0 $eas/ring the Spee2 of Light /sing $icro7aves
E3/ipment: • A microwa(e o(en, • A ruler • Thermal %a%er (from an old fashioned fa8 roll) • !ome dam% %a%er towel $etho2 1emo(e the turntable from the microwa(e and re%lace the glass %late0 Place a layer of dam% %a%er towel on the %late, and lay a %iece of fa8 %a%er o(er it0 The water in the %a%er towel is what will heat u%, causing the fa8 %a%er to discolour at the Jhot s%otsJ0 Beat until it Cust starts to discolour) about 2$ seconds, de%ending on the %ower of the o(en0 The hot)s%ots will show u% as blac&ish blobs ) choose the a%%ro8 centre of the blobs0 The distance between the hot s%ots is half the wa(elength of the microwa(esE and the fre?uency of the microwa(es will often be %rinted on the bac& of the o(en0 3ur microwa(e has a fre?uency of 2',$ megahert+0 The s%eed of light is e?ual to the wa(elength multi%lied by the fre?uency of an electromagnetic wa(e (microwa(es and (isible light are both e8am%les of electromagnetic wa(es +o7 it 7orks: 4hen you turn on your microwa(e o(en, electrical circuits inside start generating microwa(es ) electromagnetic wa(es with fre?uencies (which weJll call 6f7 later) around 20', gigahert+ )0 2',$$$$$$$ B+0 These wa(es bounce bac& and forth between the walls of the o(en, the si+e of which is chosen so that the %ea&s and troughs of the reflected wa(es line u% with the incoming wa(es and form a 6standing wa(e70 If you %luc& a guitar string, youJll set it (ibrating0 Lsually, you will e8cite the 0first harmonic0 ) a standing wa(e that has the string stationary at the bridge and the fret, and (ibrating bac& and forth in the centre0 4ith effort, you might be able to e8cite the second harmonic (try %luc&ing the string in o%%osite directions T of the way in from either end), then youJll see the string (ibrating bac& and forth, with the centre stationary0 This %attern has three nodes or %oints with no dis%lacement away from rest (thereJs a useful mnemonic ) a >3:e has >3 :is%lacement)# the ends and the centre, and two anti)nodes# T and U of the way along its length0 There are infinitely many modes, one for each %ositi(e integer, with more and more nodes between the fret and the bridge0 A full wa(e is sha%ed li&e a 6sine function7 going from +ero to a ma8imum bac& through +ero to a negati(e ma8imum and bac& to +ero again ) li&e the second harmonic in the figure on this %age0 !o you can see that the distance between the ma8imum dis%lacements of the wa(e is one half the wa(elength0 The /st, 2nd and <th harmonics0 The field is strongest where the wa(e has the highest am%litude The electromagnetic field inside the microwa(e beha(es in roughly the same way ) e8ce%t the (ibrations are in 6the electromagnetic field70 4here the (ibrations are greatest (the anti nodes), you will see the greatest heating, but at the nodes, the %a%er will only change colour slowly as heat diffuses into those areas0 Thus, the distance between the melted regions (8) is e?ual to the distance between the antinodes, and e?ual to half the wa(elength (λ)

!o, the detailed calculation to find the s%eed of light (c) is c H λ = f H 2 = 8 = f0

!20 $eas/ring the 'hickness of a hair /sing a Laser
4BE> L!I>9 TBE A!E1 BE CA1E.L >3T T3 A 1E. ECT I>T3 PE3P EJ! EIE!0 34 TBE A!E1 I9BT T3

By ta&ing measurements from the diffraction %attern %roduced when a laser hits a hair we can measure the thic&ness of the hair0 The laser we are using has a wa(elength λ, of *", nanometres0 Position one of the three hairs that has been mounted on a wooden slide in the slide holder and %lace this at least / metre from the screen0 5easure the distance :E between the hair and the screen0 Point the laser at the hair and adCust the lasers %osition until a clear diffraction %attern is obser(ed on the screen0 This will be easier if the room is not well lit0 5easure the distance 8, between two nodes0 (If se(eral nodes are (isible you may measure the distance across se(eral and then di(ide by the a%%ro%riate number gi(ing greater accuracy) .ind the thic&ness of the hair d, using d H :λG80 1e%eat for the other two hairs and one of your own0 Distance D +air A +air , +air C %7n +air Distance 6 'hickness 2


Iou can also find the thic&ness by %lacing each slide into a %roCector and %roCecting an image of the hole and the hair onto/he screen0 5easure the thic&ness of the image of the hair and the diameter of the image of the hole0 The hole is <0, mm in diameter0 Calculate the magnification achie(ed hence find the diameter of the hairs0 Diameter of image +air A +air , +air C %7n +air $agnification 'hickness of hair image 0 'hickness of hair

!"0 $eas/ring the Wavelength of a Laser .sing a CD
The s%acing between trac&s on a C: is /0* µm0 This can be used to determine the wa(elength of a laser0 Position the C: about /, cm from a wall and shine the laser onto the C:0 1ecord the distance from the C: to the wall (:) and the distance between the two closet ma8ima on the wallGscreen (8)0 BE CA1E.L >3T T3 A 34 TBE A!E1 I9BT T3 1E. ECT I>T3 PE3P E!J EIE! : H OOOOOO mm 8 H OOOOOOOO mm





Calculate the a%%ro8imate wa(elength of the laser light using# λ H (8d)G(2:) 0where d H the s%acing on a C: (/0* µm)0

!90 #nterference /sing a CD an2 DVD
AI5# To measure the inter)trac& s%acing on a C: and :V: BACV913L>: The s%acing of the trac&s of a C: and a :V: is small enough so that they act as diffraction gratings0 By measuring how laser light is scattered by these gratings, we can determine the inter) trac& s%acing using the formula for IoungJs :ouble !lit e8%eriment# d sin θ H &λ where d H s%acing between slits θ H angle & H order of the minimum ($, /, 2, 000) λ0 H wa(elength

E?.#P$E(' !emiconductor laser for the light source C: and :V: 1ingstands 5eter stic& P&%CED.&E • 5ount the laser and the C: on ringstands as shown, such that the reflected light from the C: returns directly to the laser0 4ith the light off you will se the interference ma8imum as shown0 • 5easure the distance to the wall, and the distances to each of the interference ma8ima using the centre laser s%ot as a reference0 d )2 d )/ & H )/ d/ &H/ &H2 d2

& H )2

laser &H$

C:G:V: aser and C: mounted on 1ingstands • • • • • • • Com%ute the angles (from the measurements) for each of the interference ma8ima0 9ra%h the data using sin θ H & (λGd) :o a linear regression on the line sin θ (ersus & 0 The slo%e of this line is .λ/d Com%ute d, the s%acing between the trac&s on the C:0 :o the error analysis0 Com%are to the Iiterature (alue and com%ute a %ercentage error0 1e%eat the entire %rocess for a :V:0