February 2011 Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 5 MC0085 – Ad anced !

peratin" Systems (#istributed Systems) –
Assi"nment Set – 1 ($0 Mar%s)
1. Explain the following: A) Features of a Message Passing System B) Buffering Ans: A) Features of a Messa"e &assin" System A Message passing system is a subsystem of the istribute operating system whi!h shiel s the etails of !omplex networ" proto!ols from the programmer. #t enables pro!esses to !ommuni!ate by ex!hanging messages an allows programs to be written b y using simple !ommuni!ation primiti$es su!h as Sen an %e!ei$e. #nterpro!ess !ommuni!ation basi!ally re&uires information sharing among two or more pro!esses. Features: 'he features of s goo message passing system are ( a) Simpli!ity 'he message passing system shoul be ( ) ) ) easy to use easy to e$elop new appli!ations that !ommuni!ate with the existing ones able to hi e the etails of un erlying networ" proto!ols use

b) Effi!ien!y ) Shoul re u!e the number of message ex!hanges ) A$oi the !osts of establishing an terminating !onne!tions between the same Pair of pro!esses for ea!h an e$ery message ) ) Piggyba!" a!"nowle gements with the normal messages Sen a!"nowle gements sele!ti$ely

r ere ) eli$ery: Messages are re!ei$e by all re!ei$ers in an or er a!!eptable to the appli!ation Sur$i$ability: /uarantees messages will be eli$ere !orre!tly in spite of failures e) Flexibility ) #P.generally Se&uen!e numbers of the messages are use for this purpose) ) -orre!tness ) Atomi!ity: Messages sent to a group of pro!esses will be eli$ere to all of them . 'he message passing system shoul itself be portable.!) %eliability ) Shoul han le no e an lin" failures ) *ormally han le by a!"nowle gements+ timeouts an retransmissions ) Shoul han le upli!ate messages that arise ue to retransmissions . #t shoul be possible to . ) .i.r none of them. f) Se!urity ) Message passing system shoul be !apable of pro$i ing se!ure en )to)en !ommuni!ation ) ) ) Support me!hanisms for authenti!ation of the re!ei$ers of a message by a sen er Support me!hanisms for authenti!ation of the sen er by its re!ei$ers Support en!ryption of a message before sen ing it o$er the networ" g) Portability 'here are two ifferent aspe!ts of portability in a message passing system a. some may not re&uire atomi!ity+ others maynot re&uire or ere eli$ery+ et!) ) #P.primiti$es shoul be flexible to permit any "in of !ontrol flow between !ooperating pro!ess+ in!lu ing syn!hronous an asyn!hronous sen an re!ei$e.proto!ols shoul be flexible to !ater to the $arious nee s ifferent appli!ations .e.

'ypi!ally+ the ata is store in a buffer as it is retrie$e from an input e$i!e . Single message buffer ( A buffer to hol a single message at the re!ei$er si e is use . Buffers are typi!ally use when there is a ifferen!e between the rate at whi!h ata is re!ei$e an the rate at whi!h it !an be pro!esse + or in the !ase that these rates are $ariable+ for example in a printer spooler. 'hese four types of buffering strategies are gi$en below ( *o buffering ( #n this !ase+ message remains in the sen er1s a exe!utes the !orrespon ing re!ei$e.easily !onstru!t a new #P. 'he appli!ations written by using the primiti$es of the #P. b. ') 'ufferin" #n !omputing+ a buffer is a region of memory use to temporarily hol ata while it is being mo$e from one pla!e to another.proto!ols of the the message passing system shoul be ma e portable. Buffers !an be implemente in either har ware or software+ but the $ast ma0ority of buffers are implemente in software. 'his re&uires heterogeneity while esigning a message passing system. 'his may re&uire the use of external ata representation format for the !ommuni!ation ta"ing pla!e between two or more pro!esses running on !omputers of ifferent ar!hite!tures. 'wo other !ommonly use buffering strategies are single message an finite) boun + or multiple message buffers.su!h as a "eyboar ) or 0ust before it is sent to an output e$i!e .fa!ility on another system by reusing the basi! esign of the existing message)passing system. 'he syn!hronous an asyn!hronous mo es of !ommuni!ation !orrespon to the two extremes of buffering: a null buffer+ or no buffering+ an a buffer with unboun e !apa!ity. #t is use for implementing syn!hronous !ommuni!ation be!ause in this !ase an appli!ation !an ha$e only one outstan ing message at any gi$en time 2nboun e ( -apa!ity buffer ( ress spa!e until the re!ei$er .su!h as a printer).

E$en in homogeneous systems+ it is $ery iffi!ult to a!hie$e this goal as) a) An absolute pointer $alsue has no meaning . #t is not possible in heterogeneous systems in whi!h the sen ing an re!ei$ing pro!esses are on !omputers of ifferent ar!hite!tures. Finite)Boun Buffer ( 2se for supporting asyn!hronous !ommuni!ation.-on$enient to support asyn!hronous !ommuni!ation. 'his $iolates the semanti!s or asyn!hronous sen . e!o ing of a message ata ( .more on this when we tal" about %P-). 3owe$er+ it is impossible to support unboun e buffer. b) 4ifferent program ob0e!ts+ su!h as integers+ long integers+ short integers+ an !hara!ter strings+ o!!upy ifferent storage spa!e. 3ere+ it is a simple matter for the re!ei$ing pro!ess to !he!" the type of ea!h program ob0e!t in the message be!ause of the self) es!ribing nature of the !o e b) 2ntagge representation 'he message !ontains only program obn0e!ts+ no information is in!lu e in the message about the type pf ea!h program ob0e!t. 'hese representations !an be use for en!o ing an a) 'agge representation 'he type of ea!h program ob0e!t as well as its $alue is en!o e in the message. Buffer o$erflow !an be han le in one of the following ways ( a) 2nsu!!essful !ommuni!ation: Sen returns an error message to the sen ing pro!ess+ in i!ation that the message !oul not be eli$ere to the re!ei$er be!ause the buffer is full. 'his will also result in !ommuni!ation ea lo!". ata be!ause the !o e ata format is ata forms. So from the en!o ing of these ob0e!ts+ the re!ei$er shoul be able to i entify the type an si5e of the ob0e!ts. b) Flow) !ontrolle !ommuni!ation: 'he sen er is blo!"e until the re!ei$er a!!epts some messages. 3ere+ the re!ei$ing ob0e!t shoul ha$e a prior "nowle ge of how to e!o e the re!ei$e not self) es!ribing. A message ata shoul be meaningful to the re!ei$ing pro!ess. 'hat is+ that the stru!ture of the program shoul be preser$e while they are being transmitte from the a ress spa!e of the sen ing pro!ess to the a ress spa!e of the re!ei$ing pro!ess.

'he untagge representations are use in S2*1s 64% format an tagge representation is use in Ma!h istribute operating system .