Lecture 22 – Dead Loads, Live Loads & Load Combinations

Dead Loads Dead loads include the weight of the physical structure and the non-movable materials and objects attached to the structure. They are considered to be permanent loads. Building codes are of little use in the determination of dead loads – they must be hand-calculated. Many references exist tabulating the typical weights of building materials, such as the Architectural Graphic Standards, AISC Manual, etc. Typically, dead loads are determined on a “pounds per square foot” basis.
Materials: Ceilings: Channel suspended acoustical ½” gypsum drywall Plaster & lath Flooring: Concrete, normal weight per 1” thickness Precast concrete, 6” plank, no topping ¾” plywood subfloor Steel decking, 1½” Walls & Partitions: (per height of wall) 4” brick 8” concrete block CMU 12” concrete block CMU 2x4 wood stud w/ ½” GWB both sides 4” metal stud w/ ½” GWB both sides 4” lightweight CMU block w/ ½” GWB both sides Roofing Materials: Built-up EPDM Concrete roof tile Copper Shingles, asphalt Shingles, wood Tile, clay Tile, cement ribbed Slate, 3/16” – ¼” Slate, 3/8” – ½” Finish Materials: Gypsum wallboard, ½” Tile, glazed wall 3/8” Quarry tile, ¾” Hardwood flooring, 25/32” Vinyl tile, 1/8” Terrazzo, 1”, 2” in stone conc. Insulation & Waterproofing: Batt, blankets per 1” thickness Rigid insulation
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Weight (lb. per sq. ft.) 1.5 2 8 12.5 40 2.5 2.5 40 55 85 8 6 26 6.5 9.5 2 2.8 2.5 16 - 20 16 7 - 9.5 14 - 18 2 3 9 4 1.5 25 0.3 1.5

Example 1 GIVEN: The steel-framed floor structure as shown below, to be used as an office building. The construction is indicated and dead loads can be found from the table above. The floor-to-floor height = 12’-0” REQUIRED: Determine the total dead load of the floor construction on a pounds-per-square foot basis. 32’-0” W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W24x94 6” dia. std. wt. pipe col (typ.)

Floor construction: 4” conc. over 1½” metal deck ¾” quarry tile floor finish Partitions - 2x4 metal stud walls w/ ½” GWB both sides Acoustical hung ceiling below beams Mechanical/Electrical allowance = 5 psf Add – up all superimposed dead loads as follows: 4” concrete slab 4” @ 12.5 psf/inch = 50 psf 1½” metal deck……….…….………..= 2.5 psf ¾” quarry tile ………….……………..= 9 psf Partitions……………….……………. = 20 psf (per 1607.5 of the IBC) Acoustical hung ceiling…..………….= 1.5 psf Mechanical/Electrical……..…………= 5 psf Sub-total = 88 psf Determine the dead load of structural steel beams and columns: 4 – W18x35 x 32’-0” long ……………………………= 4480 lbs. 2 – W24x94 x 21’-0” long ……………………………= 3948 lbs. 4 – 6” std. wt. stl. cols @ 18.97 plf x 12’-0” long ….= 911 lbs. Sub-total = 9339 lbs. Taking this weight and dividing by the area → 9339 lbs/(32’ x 21’) = 13.9 psf Added together, the total Dead Load = 88 psf + 13.9 psf = 101.9 psf

Lecture 22 - Page 2 of 9

3@7’-0” = 21’-0”

W24x94

Floor Live Loads From the IBC, a Live Load is defined as “Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.” Examples of things contributing to live loads include people, furniture, moveable equipment, and anything else that does not remain permanently stationary. IBC Section 1607 specifies prescribed minimum live loads. Table 1607.1 lists these prescribed minimum live loads based upon anticipated occupancy. The architect or engineer-of-record is free to INCREASE these loads as he/she deems necessary – however these loads CANNOT BE DECREASED except under Section 1607.9 where a formula is given that may be used to reduce the live loads.

L = L0 (0.25 +

15 K LL A T

)

when KLLAT > 400 ft2 where: L = Reduced design live load per square foot of area supported by the member L0 = Unreduced design live load per square foot per Table 1607.1 < 100 psf KLL = Live load element factor per Table 1607.9.1 AT = Tributary area in square feet Example 2 GIVEN: The same floor system as shown in Example 1. REQUIRED: Determine the reduced live load, L, (if applicable) for the design of the interior W18x35 filler beams, the W24x94 girder and the corner columns. a) Interior filler beams: From Table 1607.1 use L0 = 50 psf (office) From Table 1607.9.1, use KLL = 2 for interior beams Trib. Area AT = (7’)(32’) = 224 ft2 KLLAT = (2)(224 ft2) = 448 ft2 > 400 ft2 → live load reduction allowed.

L = L0 (0.25 +

15 K LL A T

)

L = 50 psf (0.25 +

15 448

) = 47.9 psf

Lecture 22 - Page 3 of 9

b) Edge girders: From Table 1607.1 use L0 = 50 psf (office) From Table 1607.9.1, use KLL = 2 for edge beam w/o cant. slab Trib. Area AT = ½(32’)(21’) = 336 ft2 KLLAT = (2)(336 ft2) = 672 ft2 > 400 ft2 → live load reduction allowed. L = L0 (0.25 + 15 K LL A T 15 672 ) = 41.4 psf )

L = 50 psf (0.25 + c) Corner columns:

From Table 1607.1 use L0 = 50 psf (office) From Table 1607.9.1, use KLL = 4 for ext. column w/o cant. slab Trib. Area AT = ¼(32’)(21’) = 168 ft2 KLLAT = (4)(168 ft2) = 672 ft2 > 400 ft2 → live load reduction allowed. L = L0 (0.25 + 15 K LL A T 15 672 ) = 41.4 psf )

L = 50 psf (0.25 + Handrail Loads

Section 1607.7 dictates loads on handrails, guards, grab bars and vehicle barriers. These loads must be carried throughout the entire assembly and into the supporting structure. In particular, the minimum design loads on handrails (excluding vehicle barriers) is: Uniform load = 50 PLF acting at the top applied from ANY direction or Point load = 200 lbs acting at the top applied from ANY direction

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Roof Live Loads In general, design loading on roofs comes from snow. However, in areas where snow is not extreme, the minimum prescribed roof live load is: Lr = LoR1R2 in units of PSF where: Lr = roof live load in pounds per square foot of horizontal projection Lo = unreduced roof live load per Table 1607.1 R1 = 1.0 for AT < 200 ft2 = 1.2 – 0.001(AT) for 200 ft2 < AT < 600 ft2 R2 = 1 if F < 4 = 1.2 – 0.05F if 4 < F < 12 = 0.6 if F > 12 F = the number of inches rise per foot slope on sloped roof = rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32 for arch or dome roof Example 3 GIVEN: The flat-roof framing plan from the previous examples. Assume the building is to be located in southern Florida. REQUIRED: Determine the minimum design roof live load, Lr for the interior W18x35 filler beam, the exterior girder and the corner columns. a) From IBC Table 1607.1 → use roof live load Lo = 20 psf b) Interior filler beam: The tributary area, AT = 7’(32’) = 224 ft2 → R1 = 1.2 – 0.001AT = 1.2 – 0.001(224 ft2) = 0.976 R2 = 1 → since the roof is flat, F < 4 Lr = LoR1R2 = 20psf(0.976)(1) Lr = 19.5 psf

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c) Exterior girder: Tributary area , AT = ½(32’)(21’) = 336 ft2 → R1 = 1.2 – 0.001AT = 1.2 – 0.001(336 ft2) = 0.864 R2 = 1 → since the roof is flat, F < 4 Lr = LoR1R2 = 20psf(0.864)(1) Lr = 17.3 psf d) Corner column: Tributary area , AT = ¼(32’)(21’) = 168 ft2 < 200 ft2 → R1 = 1.0 Lr = LoR1R2 = 20psf(1)(1) Lr = 20 psf

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Load Combinations Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be designed to resist the most critical effects of combinations of loads in accordance with either the Allowable Stress Design Method or the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Method (or referred to as the “Strength” method) as prescribed in Section 1605.1: Allowable Stress Design Method: D D+L D + L + (Lr or S or R) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R) 0.6D + W 0.6D + 0.7E where: D = Dead loads L = Live loads Lr = Roof live loads S = Snow loads E = Earthquake (seismic) loads W = Wind loads R = Rain loads
Load & Resistance Factor Design Method:

1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (f1L or 0.8W) 1.2D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S 0.9D + (1.0E or 1.6W) f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads > 100 psf, and for parking garage live load f1 = 0.5 for other live loads f2 = 0.7 for roof configurations that do not shed snow off the structure f2 = 0.2 for other roof configurations

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Example 4 GIVEN: The roof framing plan as shown below. Loads are indicated as follows: 25’-0” W14x22 W16x26 W16x26 W14x22 6” dia. std. wt. pipe col (typ.)

• • • • • •

Superimposed roof dead load “D” (not including beam weight) = 17 psf Roof live load “Lr” = 20 psf Roof snow load “S” = 38 psf Roof earthquake load “E” = N/A Roof wind load “W” = -11 psf (NOTE → a negative number indicates uplift) Roof rain load “R” = 31 psf (NOTE → this is 6” of water @ unit wt. = 62.4 pcf)

REQUIRED: 1) Determine the maximum uniform load on the W16x26 steel beam considering the 6 load combinations above assuming “Allowable Stress Design” methodology. Do not consider reduction in live load. 2) Determine the maximum moment on the W16x26 beam using the maximum uniform load obtained in Part 1. D = 6’(17 psf) + 26 plf = 128 plf L = 0 → since L is considered a floor live load Lr = 6’(20 psf) = 120 plf S = 6’(38 psf) = 228 plf E = 0 → since building is located in a non-seismic zone W = 6’(-11 psf) = -66 plf R = 6’(31 psf) = 186 plf
Lecture 22 - Page 8 of 9

3@6’-0” = 18’-0”

W24x62

W24x62

Make a Table as shown: Load Comb.
D D+L D + L + (Lr or S or R) D + (W or 0.7E) + L + (Lr or S or R)

Uniform Load (PLF):
128 plf 128 plf + 0 = 128 plf 128 plf + 0 + (228 plf) = 356 plf

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