10/4/13

1
ulrecL CurrenL lundamenLals
LL101
CurrenL and Charge
• Cne elecLron carrles a charge of 1.6 \ 10
-19
c.
• A ßow raLe of 1 c per s ls a currenL of 1 A.
• 1he formal relauon of currenL Lo Lhe ßow of
charge ls
• Pere, O
1
ls Lhe LoLal charge LhaL ßows ln a
ume t
1
.
!
I =
dQ
dt
Q
1
= i t ( )dt
0
t
1
"
CurrenL and Charge
• As an analogy, charge ls llke waLer aLoms and
currenL ls llke waLer ßowlng Lhrough a plpe.
CurrenL and Charge
• WaLer ls lncompresslble and does noL geL
used up ln a plpe.
• lf a plpe has a [uncuon, Lhe raLe of waLer
enLerlng Lhe [uncuon ls Lhe same as Lhe raLe
of waLer exlung Lhe [uncuon.
CurrenL and Charge
• 1he lndesLrucublllLy of elecLrlc currenL ls
expressed qulLe nlcely by klrchhoñ's CurrenL
Law (kCL).
• º1he sum of all currenLs enLerlng a node ls
equal Lo Lhe sum of all currenLs exlung a
node".
• lf we asslgn arblLrarlly a negauve slgn Lo Lhe
currenLs exlung a node and deñne Lhem as
enLerlng, we geL anoLher verslon of kCL.
CurrenL and Charge
• º1he sum of all currenLs enLerlng a node ls
zero".
!
I
n
n=1
N
" = 0
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2
ConducLors, lnsulaLors,
SemlconducLors, and SuperconducLors
• ConducLors are maLerlals Lhrough whlch
elecLrlc currenLs ßow relauvely easlly.
• Sllver, copper, gold, alumlnum are among Lhe
besL conducLors.
• An elecLrlc currenL movlng Lhrough a wlre ls
llke waLer ßowlng ln a rlver.
ConducLors, lnsulaLors,
SemlconducLors, and SuperconducLors
• lnsulaLors are maLerlals whlch do noL conducL
elecLrlclLy.
• Ceramlcs, glass, plasuc, rubber, dry paper, alr,
and vacuum are good lnsulaLors.
• 1he walls of Lhe plpes ln our waLer model are
lnsulaLors.
ConducLors, lnsulaLors,
SemlconducLors, and SuperconducLors
• SemlconducLors are maLerlals llke slllcon and
germanlum and are relauvely poor conducLors
unul Lhey are doped wlLh Lrace quanuues of
oLher maLerlals such as arsenlc, phosphorus,
or boron.
ConducLors, lnsulaLors,
SemlconducLors, and SuperconducLors
• SuperconducLors are very speclal maLerlals
LhaL, when cooled below Lhelr crlucal
LemperaLure become perfecL conducLors.
• 1hey have appllcauons ln super magneLs
(medlclne, moLors, LransporLauon)
volLage
• ln our waLer model, volLage becomes waLer
pressure.
• 1he ßow of waLer Lhrough a plpe ls relaLed Lo
Lhe pressure dlñerence from one end Lo Lhe
oLher.
volLage
• 1he currenL LhaL ßows Lhrough a wlre wlll be
proporuonal Lo Lhe poLenual dlñerence beLween
Lhe Lwo ends of Lhe wlre.
• A volLage source such as a bauery always has Lwo
Lermlnals. 1he raLed volLage ls measured
beLween Lhese Lwo Lermlnals.
• ln order for a currenL Lo ßow, a compleLe paLh,
called a clrculL, made wlLh wlres and oLher
elecLrlcal componenLs musL be connecLed
beLween Lhe Lwo Lermlnals.
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3
volLage
• A pump ls used Lo clrculaLe Lhe same waLer.
volLage
• 1he unlL of Lhe volLage ls Lhe volL.
• 1he volLage of componenLs connecLed ln
serles add up.
volLage
• 1hls ls formallzed by klrchhoñ's volLage Law:
• As we follow any loop ln a clrculL ln a speclñc
dlrecuon, some volLages across componenLs
wlll be negauve, some posluve, buL when we
ñnlsh Lhe loop, Lhe sum wlll be zero.
!
V
n
= 0
n=1
N
"
volLage
Þower
• 1he raLe aL whlch energy changes ls called
power.
• 1he unlL of measure for elecLrlcal power ls
Wau.
• Þower depends on boLh volLage and currenL.
!
P = IV
Þower
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4
Lnergy
• When a charge moves Lhrough an elecLrlc
ñeld, lL converLs energy from one form Lo
anoLher.
• A charge movlng Lhrough a bauery converLs
chemlcal energy Lo elecLrlcal energy.
• A charge movlng Lhrough an elecLrlcal ñeld ln
a vacuum converLs poLenual energy Lo klneuc
energy.
Lnergy
• 1he energy ls glven by,
• u ls Lhe energy ln !oules, O ls Lhe charge ln
Coulombs, and v ls Lhe volLage ln volLs.
• LlecLrlc uullLy companles blll us ln kW hours.
• 1kW-h = 3.6 mllllon !oules.
!
U = QV
Lnergy
• 8emember LhaL
!
P =
dU
dt
P =
d QV ( )
dt
=
dQ
dt
V = IV
I =
dQ
dt
8eslsLance
8eslsLance
• 1he relauonshlp beLween volLage and currenL
on a reslsLance ls glven by
• 8 of a wlre ls glven by
!
V = IR
!
R = "
L
A
8eslsLors
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8eslsLors 8eslsLors
• lor a waLer model, reslsLance ls analogous Lo
a sponge or a consLrlcuon ln a plpe.
• 1he reslsLance of Lhe sponge depends on lLs
denslLy, cross secuonal area, and lengLh.
8eslsLors
• Serles reslsLors
+ V2 - + V1 -
R1 R2
!
R
tot
=
V
tot
I
=
IR
1
+ IR
2
I
= R
1
+ R
2
8eslsLors
• Þarallel reslsLors
+ V -
R1
R2
I1
I2
Itot
8eslsLors
• Þarallel reslsLors
I
tot
= I
1
+ I
2
V = I
1
R
1
= I
2
R
2
= I
tot
R
tot
I
1
=
V
R
1
, I
2
=
V
R
2
, I
tot
=
V
R
tot

1
R
tot
=
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
volLage ulvlders
Vout
-
+
+
-
V1
R1
R2
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volLage ulvlders
I =
V
1
R
1
+ R
2
V
out
= IR
2
V
out
=V
1
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
1hevenln LqulvalenL ClrculLs
• 1he volLage dlvlder ls useful when Lhere ls no
load.
• lf we connecL anoLher reslsLor across v
oot
, Lhe
volLage wlll change.
• Pow do we model such a clrculL?
• 1he 1hevenln equlvalenL clrculL can represenL
any collecuon of uC volLage sources and
reslsLors wlLh a slngle source and reslsLor.
1hevenln LqulvalenL ClrculLs
• uo noL connecL any load Lo Lhe clrculL and ñnd
Lhe ouLpuL volLage. Call Lhls Lhe open clrculL
volLage, v
Oc
.

• ShorL clrculL Lhe ouLpuL node Lo ground. Call
Lhls Lhe shorL clrculL currenL, l
5c
.
• v
1b
= v
Oc
.
• k
1b
= v
Oc
/l
5c
.