CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes CRIMINAL LAW 1 June 17, 2011

Page 1 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

Introduction to Criminal Law
Q: What is criminal law? CRIMINAL LAW – branch of law which defines crimes, treats of their nature and ro!ides for their unishment Q: "u ose Con#ress enacted a iece of le#islation, and an$ !iolation of that law, enalt$ will be a$ment of dama#es, is that criminal law? Q: "u ose the form of enalt$ will be confiscation of license, is that criminal law?

Q: %ow will $ou define a crime? &what articular act constitutes the crime &what are the elements of the acts Q: What is criminal rocedure? CRIMINAL 'R(C)*+R) – bod$ of rules that enforces or re#ulates criminal law, ro!ides for the ste s in the rosecution and,or con!iction of an accusedQ: Is there an$ difference between criminal law and criminal rocedure? .esQ: What are the differences? CRIMINAL LAW &substanti!e &/)N)RALL. ros ecti!e, R)1R(AC1I2) unless fa!orable to the accused, ro!ided accused is not a habitual delin3uent &onl$ comes from the le#islati!e or law5ma6in# bod$7 ne!er from the e8ecuti!e or 4udiciar$ CRIMINAL 'R(C)*+R) & rocedural,remedial & ros ecti!e, 0+1 CAN

0)

a

lied

&can be romul#ated b$ the 4udiciar$ &in fa!or of the ends of substantial 4ustice

Q: who is a habitual delin3uent? A erson who within a eriod of 9: $ears from the date of his last release or con!iction of the crimes of 1) serious or less serious physical injuries, 2) robo, 3)hurto 4)estafa or 5) falsification, he is found #uilt$ of an$ of said crimes a third time or oftener ;Art <=, r c> Q: "u ose accused is a %*, will there be ros ecti!e or retroacti!e a lication of criminal law?

Q: Is criminal law the same as the R'C? .es

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page + of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: What is a crime? /eneric term used to refer to a wron#doin# unished either in R'C or under a s ecial law Q: Who has the ower to enact laws? Con#ress ;Le#islati!e> Q: Is the ower of Con#ress absolute? No- 1here are limitations- It should not !iolate the constitution Q: We call our enal code, the R)2I")* ')NAL C(*), wh$, which enal code was re!ised? 1he " anish 'enal Code Q: %ow was it re!ised? &A committee was formed ursuant to Administrati!e (rder No- ?@ b$ the *e artment of Austice&1he committee was formed on (ct 9B, 9B=C &1he committee was com osed of Anacleto *iaD ;head>7 Quintin 'aredes7 Ale8 Re$es and Mariano *e Ao$a Q: %ow did the re!ision come about? &the R'C contains ro!isions of the " anish enal code, +" 'enal Code and "C decisions of the 'hili ines before the creation of the R'C Q: What are the sources of criminal law? &Re!ised 'enal Code &" ecial 'enal Laws enacted or assed b$ the 'hili ine Commission, 'hili ine Assembl$, 'hili ine Le#islature, National Assembl$, 0atasan# 'ambansa, Con#ress of the 'hili ines &'enal 'residential *ecrees issued durin# Martial Law ;onl$ because the 'resident at that time had le#islati!e ower, but #enerall$, the )8ecuti!e branch cannot issue )( or '' that are enal in nature> &" anish 'enal Code &+" 'enal Code ;we co ied the ff crimes from the +" 'enal Code: estafa, mal!ersation, etc> Q: Who has the ower to define crimes? 1he "tate Q: Wh$ does the "tate has the ower to define crimes? 0ecause of its olice ower- 1he ri#ht to rosecute and unish crimes is !ested in the so!erei#n ower, which is the Eili ino eo leQ: When did the R'C too6 effect? Aan 9, 9?F= Q: Wh$ is there a lon# la se of time in the effecti!it$ and a ro!al of the R'C? "o that '% will be familiariDed with the new ro!isions of the R'C

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Q: Who a ro!ed the R'C? +" 'resident Q: What are the theories in criminal law? Classical, 'ositi!ist, Mi8ed

Page 3 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

CLA""ICAL 5the ob4ecti!e is retribution 5 the em hasis is on the crime 5consistent with the sa$in# Gan e$e for an e$e, a tooth for a toothH 5 man has free will to do or not to do 5 the criminal liabilit$ arises from 6nowled#e and freedom 5man is a rational bein# 5e8am le: RA ?FC= ;%uman "ecurit$ Act of =::C> '("I1I2I"1 5the ob4ecti!e is reformation 5the em hasis is on the criminal 5belie!es that crime is a social henomenon 5sees man as a moral,human bein# 5man b$ nature is #ood 5man is e8 osed to en!ironment where man is com elled to do a crime 5e8am le: RA ?F@@ ;Au!enile Austice and Welfare Act of =::<> 'robation Law of 9?C< Indeterminate "entence Law MII)* 5combines the classical and the ositi!ist 5a lied classical theor$ for heinous crimes 5a lies the ositi!ist for economic and social crimes Q: What do we a l$ in the 'hili ines? Mi8ed- (ur s$stem is a little bit of classical and a little bit of ositi!ist- 1he R'C is classical and recent laws enacted b$ the le#islature are ositi!ist in natureQ: What is the de#ree of roof needed to con!ict an accused of a criminal char#e? 'roof be$ond reasonable doubt Q: Is this absolute? NoIn the crime of treason, '0R* is not the onl$ re3uirement- 1here is a re3uirement of the = witness rule Q: Ma$ a erson be con!icted b$ reason of the s irit of the law? No- (nl$ b$ the lan#ua#e of the law- It should be clear and in case of doubt, it should be fa!orable to the accused-

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

.1. olitical affiliationQ: Is this rule absolute? No. the$ shall be released because there is no more reason for the accused to ser!e sentence =. / 2ina Acosta *+. authorit$ and so!erei#nt$ has been offended has the ri#ht to unish the offenderQ: Is the territorialit$ absolute? No. Maximo Amurao Q: What are the 6inds of re eals? 9.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .non retroacti!it$> )8ce tion: fa!orable to the accused )8ce tion to the e8ce tion: accused is a habitual delin3uent Q: Can $ou #i!e an e8am le of a treat$ that is an e8ce tion to the #eneralit$ J territorialit$ rinci les of criminal law? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1he e8ce tions are: 9. '* 9B<< was artiall$ re ealed b$ RA B=?@. / year +.. nationalit$.Laws of referential a ine territor$.1./ in 0a1u *+.1reaties =. which reduced the sentence for ille#al ossession of firearms.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes June 21.. lication Q: What is the territorial characteristic of criminal law? (nl$ crimes committed within the 'hili ine territor$ ma$ be rosecuted before 'h court Q: What is the rationale behind this? A crime is an offense a#ainst the di#nit$."elf5re ealin# 5deemed re ealed u on the e8 iration of the date s ecified b$ the law 5the law dies a natural death 5e8am le: RA 9C:: . thus 3ualif$in# Robin 'adilla for arole F.in terms of enalt$> 5e8am le: the case of Robin 'adilla.1he e8ce tions are: 9. the case shall be dismissed 5for those ser!in# sentence.Laws of referential a lication Q: (ther characteristic of criminal law? 'ros ecti!e .-.Anti5"ub!ersion Law> and Rent Control Law Q: What is the eneral characteristic of criminal law? Criminal Law is bindin# on all ersons who li!e or so4ourn in the 'hili re#ardless of race.Absolute or )8 ress 5the effect is decriminaliDation 5the obliteration of a crime 5for endin# cases. 2011 Page 9 of 138 Atty. authorit$ and so!erei#nt$ of the 'h territor$7 and onl$ the state in which the di#nit$.1reaties =.'artial or Im lied 5the crime is still unishable. but modified .

when it is a threat to the securit$ of the 'hili ines. these includes: 9.-. Na!$. / year +. Maximo Amurao Q: Wh$ is 2EA an e8ce tion? /eneralit$ – because e!en if the accused so4ourn in the 'hili ines. / 2ina Acosta *+..1. the accused will not be rosecuted in h courts Q: Who are the arties to 2EA? +" and '% Q: who are co!ered b$ the 2EA? +" militar$ ersonnel +" ci!ilian ersonnel connected to the +" militar$ o erations in the 'hili ines Q: Who is a +" militar$ ersonnel? militar$ members of the +nited "tates Arm$. Air Eorce..a#ainst the ro ert$ of the +" NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Is he is art of the +" ersonnel Q: What are the t$ es of 4urisdiction in 2EA? )8clusi!e and Concurrent Q: What do $ou mean b$ e8clusi!e J concurrent 4urisdiction? )8clusi!e – e8clusi!e of other courts7 !ests 4urisdiction on one court Concurrent – both countries ha!e 4urisdiction Q: When is it e8clusi!e? '% ha!e e8clusi!e 4urisdiction – crimes unishable under '% laws but not unishable under +" laws+" ha!e e8clusi!e 4urisdiction 5 crimes unishable under +" laws but not unishable under '% lawsQ: When is it concurrent? Crimes unishable both under '% and +" lawsQ: 0ut. a> treason b>es iona#e c>sabota#e )IC)'1: &crime committed b$ a +" ersonnel a#ainst the ro ert$ and securit$ of the +" – 'h has no 4urisdiction. Marine Cor s. e!en if 4urisdiction is concurrent./ in 0a1u *+.. and Coast /uard Q: Is the American Red Cross ersonnel co!ered b$ the 2EA? .1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 2EA Page : of 138 Atty. when will '% ha!e rimar$ 4urisdiction? &'hili ine authorities shall ha!e the rimar$ ri#ht to e8ercise 4urisdiction o!er all offenses &!specially. the accused will not be rosecuted in h courts 1erritorialit$ – because e!en if the accused committed the crime in the 'hili ines.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .es.

while dri!in#./ in 0a1u *+.child abuse cases> RA ?9<K .0)CA+") Con#ress is onl$ immune from arrest not from rosecution Q: What else? RA CK – 'ublic International Law NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1his is a crime a#ainst ersonal securit$ Q: /i!e an e8am le of Laws of 'referential A lication that is local in nature? Constitution &immunit$ suit of resident &absolute immunit$ of Con#ress for ri!ile#e s eeches &Con#ress immune from libel N(1): Art <.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes =. ra ed a woman.1he re3uest for wai!er ma$ be re4ected if the crime is of articular im ortance RA ?<K? . Maximo Amurao Q: "u ose +" militar$ ersonnel was dri!in# at Ro8as 0l!d to deli!er a confidential letter to the +" embass$. the +" wrote a letter for $ou to wai!e 4urisdiction.a#ainst the securit$ of another militar$ ersonnel K. will it ros er? No.Not in the erformance of official duties Q: "u ose = Eili ino citiDens wor6in# as +" militar$ ersonnel in the '% had a 3uarrel. what will $ou /enerall$.Committed in the erformance of official dutiesQ: "u ose one ni#ht +" militar$ ersonnel went to the bar.1he re3uest for wai!er cannot be re4ectedQ: Is this rule absolute? No.1.heinous crime> RA C<9: . 9?BC Consti is not an e8ce tion. which court has 4urisdiction? +".a#ainst the ro ert$ of another militar$ ersonnel @.committed in the erformance of official duties Page . he run o!er a edestrian.dan#erous dru#s> Q: "u ose +" militar$ ersonnel committed 6idna in#.CitiDenshi is immaterial.a#ainst the securit$ of the +" F. who has 4urisdiction? '% courts..1. "ec 99. of 138 Atty. the '% has to wai!e 4urisdiction u on re3uest of +"..Eili ino 9 shoots Eili ino =. after drin6in# and bein# so ti s$.'ro ert$ of another militar$ ersonnel Q: "u do? ose $ou are a 4ud#e. who has 4urisdiction? +".11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-.2EA co!ers onl$ criminal as ect Q: 9 +" marine stole the wallet of another +" marine.Who has 4urisdiction? +"..What is im ortant is attachment to the +" militar$ Q: "u ose the one who was in4ured filed a ci!il case for dama#es. / 2ina Acosta *+. / year +. which court has 4urisdiction? '%.

$ou 4um ed o!er the fence of +" embass$. e!en thou#h doc6ed in the '% is considered an e8tension of the territor$ of that countr$ Q: su ose the warshi of +" is doc6ed at "ubic.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .of 138 Atty.Is there an$ crime committed? .'h #o!ernment>? )8tradition Q: su ose a Eili ina le#all$ married had se8ual intercourse with an American at the 'h embass$. $ou brou#ht $our #f to her arents.Ma$ the officers arrest $ou. etc. and then ra ed her. ambassadors. $ou shut a erson at Ro8as 0l!d.Warshi rule )mbass$ Rule – same as warshi rule Q: "u ose one da$..1he$ are not e8em t from criminal liabilit$ because the$ re resent the business. $ou went to "ubic with $our #f.Warshi is an e8tension +" territor$ Q: su ose after ra in# her. commercial mercantile interests of their countr$ of ori#in- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1. commercial mercantile of their countr$7 while. while $ou are inside the +" embass$? NoQ: What is then the remed$ of the officers . brou#ht her to the shi . but she cannot be rosecuted under 'h courts because of the embass$ ruleQ: who else is e8em t..1. / 2ina Acosta *+. will $ou be rosecuted? No. one da$. when the olice officers were runnin# after $ou.immune from criminal rosecution? )8ecuti!e directors of W%( Members of the Constitutional Commission Austices of "u reme Court Q: %ow about consular officials? 1he$ are not co!ered.Will $ou be rosecuted? No.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page .-.es.1he crime of adulter$. chiefs of "tate. arrested or unished b$ the law of the countr$ where the$ are officiall$ assi#ned: Ambassadors "o!erei#n or other chief of "tate Ministers leni otentiar$ or minister residents Char#e dLaffairs *omestic "er!ants of ersons mentioned N(1): Consuls and other consular officials are not e8em t from criminal liabilit$ because the$ re resent the business. / year +../ in 0a1u *+.re resent the olitical interests of their countr$ of ori#inWAR"%I' R+L) 5warshi of another countr$. Maximo Amurao *i lomatic immunit$ and cannot be sued.

within 'h territor$. / 2ina Acosta *+.-..1.es.1he crime is committed in '% territor$ It is not im ortant whether car#o shi is re#istered or not. and there #ot married..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 8 of 138 Atty. ma$ he be rosecuted? .Now its Marina and CA0 Q: *oes '% include warshi ? No.1.Is the man liable for an$ crime? .0ecause the crime is committed in Mala$sian waters MArt =.%e is liable for bi#am$.Which court? Mala$sia. who has 4urisdiction? '%. 9 crew member committed homicide a#ainst another. a married man with his new #f went on hi#h seas... because crime committed in 'h territor$.1erritorialit$ rinci le> Q: "u ose that car#o shi tra!ersed throu#h international waters then reached the waters of Mala$sia. then $ou hired an unre#istered motorboat.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . it is )I1RA1)RRI1(RIALI1. ar 9 a lies onl$ if the shi is in international waters Q: "u ose $ou li!e in a coastal town.unre#istered motorboat Q: su ose in the same motorboat.because he contracted a second marria#e> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. will $ou be liable? No.es. because he is not a reco#niDed di lomatic re resentati!e of his countr$ to the 'hili ines- "rticle 2 M ar 95K of Art = is not an e8em tion to the territorialit$ rinci le. Maximo Amurao Q: "u ose Ambassador of Aa an to the +" committed a crime in the 'hili ines. then $ou shoot $our #f because $ou are so de ressed because of recitations in criminal law re!iew. / year +..airshi be a 'h shi ? It must be re#istered in accordance with 'h laws Q: Wh$ not re#ister in 0ureau of Customs? 1he law re3uirin# re#istration in 0ureau of Customs had been re ealed.N Q: 1he first instance in Art =? "hould commit an offense while on 'h shi or airshi Q: What is 'h shi or airshi ? "hi re#istered with MARINA Airshi re#istered with Ci!il Aeronautics 0oard Q: What are the re3uirements in order a shi ./ in 0a1u *+. 9 crew committed homicide a#ainst another crew. then $ou went to intLl waters.Warshi has different rule Q: "u ose a car#o shi in QueDon #oin# to Mala$sia. ar 9 ceases to a l$ if the shi is in the territor$ of forei#n countr$ MArt =.

married man> be liable for an$ crime? No.. and $ou rinted 0a#on# Li unan notes . liable? ./ in 0a1u *+. Currenc$ Note.1.-. carried shabu. crimes committed in that area are triable in that other countr$.es.. $ou went to a resort. re#istered in 'anama. who has 4urisdiction? 'h courts. $ou had $our hone$moon7 will $ou .Not concubina#e because mere se8ual intercourse not unishable. which court has 4urisdiction? 'h courtsQ: "econd instance in Art =? Art = ar =#hould for e or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the $hilippine Islands or obli ations and securities issued by the %o&ernment of the $hilippine Islands Q: what ma$ be the sub4ect of for#er$? An$ coin.In that resort. unless the crimes committed ha!e endan#ered the eace and securit$ of that countr$7 the em hasis is on the nationalit$ of the !essel7 4urisdiction lies where the merchant !essel is re#isteredM1he '% adheres to the )n#lish rule Q: Car#o shi . obli#ations and securities issued b$ the /o!ernment of the 'hili ine Islands Q: "u ose $ou ha!e a rintin# ress in 1aiwan.0ecause 0a#on# Li unan notes are not le#al tender Q: "u ose coins withdrawn from circulation.Crime committed in manila Q: Car#o shi . $ou li!e to#ether in a condo in Manila. crimes committed in that area are not triable in that countr$. / year +.martial law>.1he law does not distin#uish.It sa$s AN.es. Maximo Amurao rinci le. liable? No. it must be under scandalous manner Q: su ose after $our hone$moon. will $ou be liable? .1. / 2ina Acosta *+. C(IN NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Concubina#e Cohabitation7 li!in# in a se arate home as husband and wife Q: What are the = rules? )n#lish Rule – !essel is in the territor$ of another countr$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . re#istered in 'anama while in Manila. 9 crew member shoot the other crew member..1he crime was Q: su ose after the weddin# ceremon$. unless the crimes committed in!ol!e urel$ internal matters within the !essel7 the em hasis is on the territorialit$ of the !essel7 where the !essel is found Erench Rule – !essel is in the territor$ of another countr$.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 0+1 he cannot be rosecuted because of the territorialit$ committed outside 'h territor$- Page < of 138 Atty. where there is a bi# rece tion.

ambassador> liable? . liable? .b$ direct ro!ision of the law. """. a#ent or subordinate official.b$ a ointment b$ com etent authorit$ Q: "u ose '% ambassador to /erman$ was #i!en +"* =::. of 138 Atty.es..%e is liable for mal!ersation of ublic funds. / year +. or b.::: to his number = in /erman$. bonds of the 0"' M(bli#ations and "ecurities of /"I"...Is he . lotto tic6ets.1.%e ma$ be rosecuted in 'h courts%e was in custod$ of the mone$ b$ reason of his official functions Q: "u ose our AE' hi#h officials were tas6ed to scout for firearms abroad.::: as a fund to reno!ate the '% embass$ buildin# in /erman$.follow5u > )!en if the act of acce tin# the bribe was committed abroad. par. should commit an offense in the e(ercise of their functions Q: who is a ublic officer? )see "rt 2*3) &ta6in# art in the erformance of ublic functions in the #o!ernment. Maximo Amurao Q: #i!e e8am les of obli#ations and securities of /'I 1reasur$ bills.%e used onl$ +"* K:.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Q: "u ose in $ou tam ered a lotto tic6et.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ./ in 0a1u *+.es.b$ o ular election. or erformin# in said #o!ernment or in an$ of its branches ublic duties as an em lo$ee. Landban6 are not of the /'I because the$ ha!e their own charter Q: an$ other instance? Art 2. and while the$ are ne#otiatin# with forei#n com anies abroad.1he$ are liable for briber$Q: . 4 'hile bein public officers or employees.es. of an$ ran6 or class7 and &that his authorit$ to ta6e art in the erformance of ublic functions or to erform ublic duties must be – a.1. these com anies inserted +"*9::: in the ro osal folder in antici ation that their com an$ will be chosen b$ AE' to be the su lier of our firearmsMa$ these AE' officials be liable? .-. or c.::: for the reno!ation. / 2ina Acosta *+. those who counterfeited the items are criminall$ liable e!en if the$ did not introduce the counterfeit items Q: an$ other instance? Art 2. and #a!e the +"/ 9K:. will the$ still be liable? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. e!en if the$ were not the ones who counterfeited the obli#ations J securities Mon the other hand. par 3 #hould be liable for acts connected with the introduction into these islands of the obli ations and securities mentioned in the presidin number Mthose who introduced the counterfeited items are criminall$ liable.Lotto tic6et is obli#ations and securities issued b$ the /'I Page 1.

Adulter$ !lements+ &1hat the woman is married .Pee in# a mistress in the con4u#al dwellin#b.es..adultery Q: ma$ the American citiDen bf be liable for an$ crime? .%a!in# se8ual intercourse under scandalous circumstances with a woman who is not his wifec. / 2ina Acosta *+. he cannot be liable. / year +./ in 0a1u *+. rosecuted before 'h courts because Abalos has nothin# to do with O1) .itle /ne of 0oo1 .Can he be rosecuted for concubina#e? No. he must 6now her to be marriedQ: Last instance? Art 2.1hat as re#ards the woman she must 6now him to be married Q: Can the '% ambassador use immunit$ from suit as a defense a#ainst '% courts? No Q: '% ambassador.'h embass$ is an e8tension of 'h territor$ .1. had se8ual intercourse with her American bo$friend in the comfort room of '% embass$.es.1hat the man must be married=.::: in relation to the O1)? Is there a crime committed? Ma$ he be liable? Crime – anti #raft J corru t ractices act 0+1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1.Crime was committed outside '% Crime was not in relation to official functions !lements of concubina e+ 9.wo of this Code2 Q: /i!e e8am le of crimes a#ainst national securit$? 1reason.es. China recei!ed +"*K:. Maximo Amurao . a6i alamera lan# si$a>. he recei!ed the mone$ not in connection with his official functionQ: "u ose the '% ambassador to Australia is le#all$ married..1hat he committed an$ of the followin# acts: a. es iona#e.Cohabitin# with her in an$ other laceF..or what crime . married.e!en if marria#e subse3uentl$ declared !oid> &1hat she has se8ual intercourse with a man not her husband&1hat as re#ards the man with whom she has se8ual intercourses.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 11 of 138 Atty. cons irac$ to commit treason Q: %ow about rebellion? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Ma$ he be rosecuted? . because the act was committed in relation or while the AE' are in dischar#e of their official functionsQ: "u ose Chairman Abalos .comelec> while la$in# #olf in "han#hai.-. defined in .1herefore. par 5 #hould commit any of the crimes a ainst national security and the law of nations.

Intent MALL M+"1 0) 'R)")N1 IN (R*)R 1( INC+R CRIMINAL LIA0ILI1. lac6 of foresi#ht.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes No.It is not under the Re!ised 'enal Code NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .Crime a#ainst ublic order Q: e8am le of !iolation of the law of nations? Anti – terror law Crimes a#ainst humanit$ /enocide Q: what are the = 6inds of irac$? 'irac$ under the R'C 'irac$ under '* KF= Page 1+ of 138 Atty. / year +.-.culpa>Q: What is dolo? What is cul a? 1here is deceit when the act is erformed with deliberate intent and there is fault when the wron#ful act results from im rudence.2oluntar$ a.rebellion is crimes a#ainst ublic order Q: crimes committed b$ the MILE? No.0ecause irac$ under '*KF= is committed within '% waters "rticle 3 Q: What are felonies? Acts and omissions unishable b$ law are felonies .Ereedom b.1. / 2ina Acosta *+. Q: Is ille#al ossession of bladed wea on a felon$? No. Maximo Amurao Q: what does Art = co!ers? 'irac$ under R'C onl$./ in 0a1u *+.dolo> but also b$ means of fault .delitos>Q: What do $ou mean b$ G unishable b$ lawH 'unishable b$ the R'C Q: how felonies are committed? Eelonies are committed not onl$ be means of deceit .R'C F.Intelli#ence c..Act or omission =. ne#li#ence.1. or lac6 of s6illM2iolations of R'C – felon$ M2iolations of s ecial enal law – offenses M!iolations of ordinance – misdemeanor ..minor infraction of the law> Q: What are the re3uisites of felon$? 9.

it must also be done with dolo or culpa2 3If you do not ha&e freedom.Amurao Lecture %i#hli#hts: 3. you will not be liable2 3"ctus non facit reum.1. imbecility. Maximo Amurao Att$..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 13 of 138 Atty.art 12 . but you did not rape her. a felony is already committed2 . if you ha&e in your mind that you will rape this beautiful lady. / 2ina Acosta *+.art 12 .reedom . nisi mens sit rea )an act of a criminal should be coupled by a criminal mind) 3It does not mean that if an act or omission is punished under the 5e&ised $enal Code.or e(ample.. arricide.o be considered as a felony there must be an act or omission4 a mere ima ination no matter how wron does not amount to a felony2 3"n act refers to any 1ind of body mo&ement that produces chan e in the outside world2 . minority .hese are amplified in the some pro&isions of the 5$C./ in 0a1u *+. arson Q and so onQ Q: #i!e e8am les of Mala rohibita Anti Eencin# Law 0ouncin# Chec6 Law Ille#al 'ossession of Eirearms Anti %uman 1raffic6in# Law NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.insanity. / year +.-. murder.1.o be considered a felony. the act is not &oluntary4 the act is not a felony 3.art 12 .by mere accident w7out fault or intent to cause harm 38ista1e of fact is a &alid defense Q: What are the differences between MALA IN ") and MALA 'R(%I0I1A MALA IN ") &intent is essential &#ood faith is a !alid defense &honest mista6e of fact is a defense & unishable under R'C &condemned b$ societ$ &act done must be criminal intent MALA 'R(%I0I1A &intent is not essential &#ood faith is not a !alid defense &honest mista6e of fact is not a defense & unishable under s ecial laws &in4urious to ublic welfare &it is sufficient that the rohibited act was done Q: #i!e e8am les of Mala In se? R'C – homicide. li1e6 Intelli ence .under compulsion of some irresistible force4 fear of reater injury Intent .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ..

1ransient 'ossession not liable Althou#h I was in ossession.Amurao> morta#ed m$ firearm to $ou for F: da$s. "till not liable because I ha!e no intent.1ransient ossession Q: "u ose I . althou#h I ha!e no license to osses. / year +. then the man throw his -@K caliber. $our bf had to answer the call of nature. ma$ $ou be liable for ille#al ossession of firearms? No. Maximo Amurao Q: "u ose $our bf is a olice officer.Amurao>7 any bodily mo&ement tendin# to roduce some effect in the e8ternal world . then the firearm fell on $our hands. 9 da$ while $ou were ha!in# $our date in Luneta 'ar6. days 5e&ised $enal Code R enalties are stated in terms of de rees. so he handed to $ou his istol. months.1.. while $ou were holdin# it.indi!isible R death and ublic censure b.att$. ma$ $ou be liable for ille#al ossession? No. and on the =:th da$.Re$es> Omission – means inaction7 the failure to perform a ositi!e dut$ which one is bound to do7 there must be a law re3uirin# the erformance of an act and unishin# the omission7 e#.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Anti %i4ac6in# Lac6 Page 19 of 138 Atty. and this is an e8ce tion to mala rohibita Q: "u ose the olice officers are runnin# after a man.whether it is an offense or a felony> #pecial $enal Laws R enalties are stated in terms of years. in terms of the application of penalties.has F eriods7 what eriod to a l$ is de endent on the a##ra!atin# and miti#atin# circumstances resent in the case> $ nalti s un# r th R$C %in # sc n#in& or# r in t rms o' # &r *eath or Ca ital 'unishment 5 indi&isible ( NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+. the officers arrested $ou...-.es./ in 0a1u *+.di!isible .arbitrar$ detention7 mis rision of treason punishabl b! th R "is # $ nal Co# MWhen there is a conflict between special penal laws and the Revised Penal Code. ma$ $ou be liable for ille#al ossession? .1here is animus ossendi an act or omission Act – any physical mo&ement of the bod$ . what to follow? MWhat is im ortant is the definition and the classification of the act . $ou were around the corner and $ou e8tended $our arms.1. there was a raid in $our house. with death as the hi hest penalty7 classified as indi&isible or di&isible a.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .

-.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Reclusion 'er etua .RA ?F@@> .@>T Alibi – used in defense sa$in# that the act or omission was not done at all7 intends to dispro&e the e(istence of an act or omission7 wea est defense7 can easil$ be fabricated7 e#.Art-99. act is not !oluntar$.b> freedom – under the com ulsion of some irresistible force SArt-9=.b> freedom – no freedom. / 2ina Acosta *+..=:$rs J 9da$ – @:$rs> Reclusion 1em oral . therefore.2iDconde case – WebbLs alibi R he ar#ued that he was in the +" when the crime ha ened.C>T . he could not ha!e 6illed the !ictims. no criminal liabilit$7 e#.K>T7 fear of #reater in4ur$ SArt-9=.children 9K $rs old J below are e8em t from criminal liabilit$ . nisi mens sit rea – an act of a criminal should be cou led b$ a criminal mind the defense of honest mista e of fact 5 the act done b$ the accused would ha!e constituted: .o fault or intent to cause harm SArt-9=.c> intent – b$ mere accident w.Amurao> Page 1: of 138 Atty. no criminal liabilit$ .1.<>T7 failure to erform an act re3uired b$ law when re!ented b$ some lawful or insu erable cause SArt-9=.b> an absolutor$ cause SArt-=@C. intent .1.)8em tin# Circumstances> is am lified b$ the im ortance of the element of !oluntariness: .<$rs J 9da$ – 9=$rs> 'rision Correccional di&isible or *estierro .. Maximo Amurao voluntary 5 the concurrence of intelligence.9mo J 9da$ – <mos> Arresto Menor .9=$rs J 9da$ – =:$rs> 'rision Ma$or .<mosJ9da$ – <$rs> Arresto Ma$or . / year +. R'C> 5 in all instances R no criminal liabilit$7 no ci!il liabilit$ .a> intelli ence – no intelli#ence. freedom.a> a 4ustif$in# circumstance .9da$ – F:da$s> Eine 'ublic Censure – indi&isible th acts #on shoul# b voluntary .=JF>T .9>T7 minorit$ SArt-9=.(rte#a> Mall should be present in order to incur criminal liabilit$ ./ in 0a1u *+.a> intelli#ence – insanit$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .c> intent – essential to a felon$7 rosecution has to ro!e intent7 ood faith is a defense "rticle 12 of the 5$C .imbecilit$ SArt-9=..=>T NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. claimin# that he is innocent "ctus non facit reum.

that the act done would ha!e been lawful had the facts been as the accused belie!ed them to be 2..isc rnm nt – abilit$ of the accused to determine ri ht from wron -. Maximo Amurao R )uisit s 'or honest mista e of fact as a # ' ns * 1.R-0-R 1O R-2-/ 3OO4( 1.1.9> doubt in the identit$ of the accused .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .Amurao>.ladron 5 there was sufficient warnin# on the art of accused7 accused was ac3uitted 2! "# v! $pego 5 accused 6illed her brother5in5law in fear of bein# ra ed7 #uilt$ of homicide %! People v! &anis 5 olicemen 6illed the wron# erson w. / year +.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes . Cuenca v! People 5 Cuenca was ac3uitted b$ the "C from the crime of ille#al ossession of an unlicensed firearm7 it is said that the "C erred in its decision .Amurao> 5 the mo&in power which im els one to action for a definite result .o warnin#7 #uilt$ of murder '! People v! (ayambao 5 accused 6illed his brother5in5law thin6in# he was an outlaw 5 brother5in5law acted as if he #oin# to attac67 accused was ac3uitted Moti" 5 special reasons that impel the accused to act .c ptions to th & n ral rul on malum prohibitum crim s %$L-A/.=> two conflictin# !ersions of the crime 5 moti!e is established b$ the testimon$ of the witness 5 lac6 of moti!e ma$ be an aid in showin# innocence . that the intention of the accused in erformin# the act should be lawful 3./ in 0a1u *+. that the mista6e must be without fault or ne#li#ence. of 138 Atty.-.. / 2ina Acosta *+.carelessness on the art of the accused Cas s on hon st mista+ o' 'act* 1! "# v! $h Chong . People v! )andicho 5 con!icted b$ the trial court7 decision re!ersed b$ the Court of A eals 5 the CA held that con!ictin# the accused would be sacrificin# substantial 4ustice for mere technicalit$ NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Re$es> 5 not an essential element of a felon$ 5 e!idence of moti!e is necessary only in case of: .1.landmar6 case> 5 Ah Chon# 6illed friend 'ascual thin6in# he was a thief. ..Amurao> 2.c> an in!oluntar$ act Page 1.

0. there should be animus posidendi or 9intent to possess: "rticle 4 Conce t of ro8imate cause – in4ur$ inflicted Q: What is ro8imate cause? $ro.imat caus is that cause which sets into motion other causes and which unbro6en b$ an$ efficient su er!enin# cause roduces a felon$ without which such felon$ could not ha!e resulted As a #eneral rule. / 2ina Acosta *+. who is liable? Robbers Immediate cause – heart failure NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. mere transient possession of unlicensed firearm 5 not criminall$ liable 5 in the crime of ille al possession of unlicensed firearm.of 138 Atty./ in 0a1u *+. a assen#er ran awa$.1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1.. C hold u a bus.Who is liable? A0C Q: %old u in a nearb$ #rocer$ store. assen#er died. Maximo Amurao 3. the offender is criminall$ liable for all the conse3uences of his felonious act. if the felonious act is the ro8imate cause of the felon$ or resultin# felon$A ro8imate cause is not necessaril$ the immediate cause. for an accused to be criminall$ liable. old man e!entuall$ died. People v! *allare 5 case was about the dela$ of the issuance of the license 5 the accused con!icted b$ the trial court7 decision re!ersed b$ the CA 5 the CA held that the blame should be ut on the #o!ernment not on the a licant of the license 4.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . / year +.1his ma$ be a cause which is far and remote from the conse3uence which sets into motion other causes which resulted in the felon$Imm #iat caus – infection Q: What is efficient inter!enin# cause? )fficient Inter!enin# Cause – interru ted the natural flow of e!ents leadin# to oneLs death &2ictim is under no obli#ation to submit to medical treatment to reduce or miti#ate the liabilit$ of the accusedQ: A.-. old man suddenl$ colla sed seein# the commotion.1. hit b$ the car.. althou#h not intended.

Qualified seduction or ra e b$ #ra!e abuse of authorit$ Q: What is an im ossible crime? Q: /i!e the case of Intod Q: /i!e the elements of im ossible crime !is5U5!is facts of Intod Q: /i!e the case of '' ! Aacinto? Q: do $ou a#ree with the decision? Q: %ow is theft committed? Q: Is it an element that the accused should ma6e or actuall$ rofit? No Q: Ma$ a erson be liable if he did not commit a crime? .es.-. under a scandalous manner Q: both sin#le.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 18 of 138 Atty. will $our answer be the same? No./ in 0a1u *+..Will $ou be liable? No.ou committed adulter$ Q: Man married.1here is no crime Q: If the student is under 9B $ears old.Liable for concubina#e.1his time there is a crime.Im ossible crime.. the woman had heart attac6. Maximo Amurao Q: "u ose Att$ Amurao durin# recit. / 2ina Acosta *+. while doin# the act.es. man is a teacher.1.es.Concubina#e is not committed Q: If under a tree in Luneta? . had a se8ual intercourse with a sin#le woman. hit the table and massi!e bleedin#.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . is amurao liable? No. $ou colla sed.Recit is not a crime Q: su ose because of $our wron# answers.Amurao committed slander Q: Is it wron# to lo!e a married erson? No. dead on arri!al.es. will $ou be liable? . the woman had heart attac6. liable? No. died. / year +...As lon# as it does not #o be$ond that oint Q: "e8ual intercourse with a married woman. woman is a student. liable? . amurao shouted defamator$ words. sub4ecti!el$ – there is a crime Q: What is the enalt$? Arresto Ma$or or a fine ran#in# from =:: to K:: NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1echnicall$ no crime.1.

Ealsification of commercial document.the act of committin suicide results to others bein injured R punishable under "rt24)1) because althou#h not intended. that is not his wife.-. but was dishonored. the de osited the chec6.1heft of 6e$ un# taman# sa#ot NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. 4 %1( 1.. the in4ur$ was caused b$ means of culpa.1.our room mate 6u6unin $un# 4ewelr$ na nasa cabinet na na6a5loc6. there is a mista e in the blow 5 also 6nown as aberration ictus 5 not a defense in a criminal case7 not e!en a miti#atin# circumstance 3.9> contem lates that there should be a felony being committed 5 em hasis is not on the mere wron ful act7 it should constitute a felony 5 e#. then the doer of the ori#inal act can be held liable -''ici nt Int r" nin& Caus – interrupted the natural flow of e!ents leadin# to oneLs death Q: What is im ossible crime? What is the reason for unishin#? "u ress criminal ro ensit$ Q: "u ose son for#ed si#nature of his father in a chec6. / year +. the in+urious result is greater than that intended 5 also 6nown as praeter intentionem Article @. there is a mista e in the identity of the !ictim 5 also 6nown as error in personae7 or napa 1amalan 5 not a defense in a criminal case7 not e!en a miti#atin# circumstance 2.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .imat Caus 5 there is a chain of causes from an ori#inal act that results to an in4ur$ 5 if the result can be traced bac1 to the ori inal act.9> does not apply if the act committed constitutes a crime punishable by special law • Concubina e 5 instances 5 a husband brin#in# home a woman./ in 0a1u *+. ta os wala ala $un# 4ewelr$ dun sa cabinet. Maximo Amurao Caus s 5hich ma! pro#uc a r sult #i'' r nt 'rom that 5hich th o'' n# r int n# #.. as cont mplat # in Art.Eor#er$ is a crime a#ainst ublic interest /i!e the elements of for#er$ Q: . which can constitute a felon$ Article @. to the con4u#al dwellin# 5 ha!in# se8ual intercourse under scandalous circumstances 5 cohabitation7 li!in# in a se arate home as husband and wife $ro..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes M+rbano case Q: what is the ne#li#ence committed b$ Aa!ier? Page 1< of 138 Atty. im ossible crime? No. / 2ina Acosta *+.1. is this im ossible crime? No.

a> if the wound is mortal R accused is criminally liable..1.s death alon# with the disease ii.1he actions of the deceased when he still wor1ed without waitin for his wound to heal was an efficient inter&enin cause .the wound. / year +. Maximo Amurao %b( unrelated to the wound.. because the uns1illed treatment < infection are efficient inter&enin causes &In "rbano v! ./ in 0a1u *+.s death A mortal wound is a contributing factor when: i.is.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-. When the death was caused b$ an infection of the wound due to the uns illed medical treatment from the doctors: . because the disease not associated with the wound. e#brain tumor %c( a combined force with the wound.$C. his wound #ot infected with tetanus which caused his death.s> R accused is criminally liable.are sufficient to cause &ictim. because the mortal wound is a contributin factor to the &ictim.s>. thus the accused is not liable for his death an$moreQ: What is the purpose for unishin# an im ossible crime? 1he purpose of unishin# an im ossible crime is to pre&ent or suppress the criminal tendency of the accused NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. of 138 Atty. because the uns1illed treatment < infection are not efficient inter&enin causes mortal wound V uns1illed medical treatment onl$ R accused is criminally liable because the mortal wound naturally led to the death of the !ictim .s> R accused is criminally liable Page +..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Mwoman lan# an# wede for forcible abduction Instanc s 5h n th r is a pro. the wound caused b$ accused +rbano was alread$ treated and was in the normal process of healin which is in a ro8imatel$ @wee6s7 but because deceased Aa!ier did not wait for the wound to heal and still wor6ed b$ fishin#.the mortal wound was caused b$ actions committed by the accused 2.s> R accused is not criminally liable.s.b> if the wound is slight R accused is not criminally liable.imat caus an# 5h n th r is non When there is an intervening disease and the disease is: %a( closely related to the wound.1. / 2ina Acosta *+.

the assen#er 4um ed of and died. will be liable? .es. because of fear.. there is no crime #ubjecti&ely.es. then $ou colla sed and died. ra e was reclassified as a crime against persons. 2011 Q: Who incurs criminal liabilit$? Q: What is a ro8imate cause? Q: if there is a crime intended and a crime committed is different. which is a crime a ainst property.es.1here is still threat NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.=> of the R'C because the 4th element7re=uisite was not satisfied1he acts of the accused of shootin# at the house and dama#in# the same.. Maximo Amurao • 'ersons found #uilt$ of im ossible crimes are sentenced to arrestor ma$or . can constitute as malicious mischief. what is the e8tent of criminal liabilit$? 1he lesser enalt$ will be im osedIf the crime intended has a lesser enalt$. then that will be char#ed Q: "u ose $ou will rob a 4ee ne$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . that the act erformed should not constitute a &iolation of another pro&ision of the Re!ised 'enal Code • Rape used to be a crime a#ainst chastit$7 but because of RA BFKF. that the act was done with e&il intent 3.1.9mo-9da$ to <mos-> ursuant to Article K? of the Re!ised 'enal Code • /bjecti&ely.1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +1 of 138 Atty.0ecause I am committin# a felon$. liable? .ntod. / year +.s. in order to be held liable for an im ossible crime? /0#7 the act.1herefore. that its accomplishment is inherently impossible or that the means employed is either inade=uate or ineffectual 4. still liable. one can now be held liable for the im ossible crime of ra e In People v! . ointed a #un at $ou because of $our wron# answers.1here is #ra!e threat Q: "u ose the #un was a to$ #un. and I am liable for its effectsQ: "u ose Amurao durin# $our recit. the Court erred in its decision of considerin# the acts of the accused as an im ossible crime under Art-@.-./ in 0a1u *+. therefore.should constitute a crime against persons or property R )uisit s 'or an impossibl crim un# r Articl 4%2( 1. that the act erformed would be an offense a ainst persons or property 2..is amurao liable? . the accused should ha!e been char#ed with the latter instead of findin# them #uilt$ onl$ of the im ossible crime of murderJuly '. / 2ina Acosta *+. then that will be char#ed If the crime committed has a lesser enalt$. the crime is present • #hould there be a crime committed.

crime? Adulter$ "rticle 5 Articl 5%1( R )uir m nts* 1. the act committed by the accused a ears to be not punishable by law 2.do I need to elaborateWalam mo na $an>. $ou brea6 u with $our bo$friend bein# so sad. are $ou liable? .es.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . in that case.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page ++ of 138 Atty./ in 0a1u *+. $our bf colla sed and died..Concubina#e Q: "u ose man had se8ual intercourse with married woman. the 4ud#e cannot im ose a enalt$ because the duty of the jud e is only to interpret or apply the law4 the jud e cannot reprimand or curse the accused because it would e=uate to public censure4 the reprimand would be inconsistent with the ac=uittal Articl 5%2( 6 03cessive Penalties NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.0rea6in# u is not a felon$ Q: "u ose while $ou and $our bo$friend is doin# the act itself . the court must render the proper decision by dismissin the case and ac=uittin the accused 4. but the woman consented. / year +.-. $our bf colla sed and died.1he act of ha!in# se8 is not a felon$Q: e!en if $ou are not married to each other? . but the court deems it proper to repress such act 3. nulla poena sine le e2:5 1here is no crime if there is no law that unishes the act 1hy dismiss2 In the absence of a law that will unish the accused. the jud e must then ma1e a report to the Chief )8ecuti!e throu#h the "ecretar$ of Austice statin# the reasons which induce him to belie!e that the said act should be made the subject of penal le islation 3asis 'or Articl 5%1(* 9>ullem crimen.. Maximo Amurao Q: "u ose because of $our low #rade in criminal law re!iew.1. will $ou be liable? No. / 2ina Acosta *+..es sir Q: su ose $our bf is married. liable? No.1.

Maximo Amurao 1. attem ted> Q: What are the hases? /ub7 cti" phas – from the time the offender commences the commission u to the performance of the last act where he still has control7 an attempted felony is committed within the sub4ecti!e hase and does not #o be$ond this hase Ob7 cti" phas – frustrated and consummated felonies are within the ob4ecti!e hase . Q: /i!e e8am le of each ... do not roduce it b$ reason of causes inde endent of the will of the er etrator $ttempted – there is an attempt when the offender commences the commission of the felon$ directl$ b$ o!ert acts and does not erform all the acts for e8ecution which should roduce the felon$ b$ reason of some cause or accident other than his own s ontaneous desistance NO1-* A"ailabl onl! in R$C. the court should not suspend the e(ecution of the sentence 4.a> frustrated – the felon$ is com lete but still is still not roduced as far as the offender is concerned .a> the accused acted with lesser de ree of malice and. recommendin e(ecuti&e clemency • 1he $resident has the power to rant e(ecuti&e clemency.or . ne!ertheless. frustrated..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Q: What are the re3uirements? Page +3 of 138 Atty. ta es into consideration the degree of malice "rticle ? Q: What are the sta#es in the commission of a felon$? Consummated – a felon$ is consummated when all the elements necessar$ for its e8ecution and accom lishment are resent 4rustrated 5 it is frustrated when the offender erforms all the acts for e8ecution which would roduce the felon$ as a conse3uence but. commutation . / year +.reduction of sentence>. throu#h ardon. re rie!e or amnest$ • Articl 5%2( may not be invo ed in cases in&ol&in acts mala prohibita because said article only applies to acts mala in se because the rulin# is based on the hrase in the ro!ision. the penalty pro&ided by law and which the court im oses for the crime committed appears to be clearly e(cessi&e because: . / 2ina Acosta *+./ in 0a1u *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1. the jud e should submit a statement to the Chief !(ecuti&e throu#h the "ecretar$ of Austice.-.1. arole. the court after trial finds the accused uilty 2.consummated.b> consummated – when all the elements under the Re!ised 'enal Code are resent NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.b> there is no injury or the injury caused is of lesser ra&ity 3.

no matter how small %b( frustrated R if onl$ the contents of the buildin# .1.#ettin# #asoline – attem ted a din MIndeterminate sta#e – intent is not $et established Q: "u ose built in cabinets.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +9 of 138 Atty. / 2ina Acosta *+. with the intent to gain 5 the difference is that in robbery./ in 0a1u *+.Pahit a a rehended at the time ot in the act of brin#in#. includin# the cabinet? Consummated arson. wherein the crime that the accused intended to do could not be determined 6heft7Robbery 5 both these crimes are committed by ta ing the ersonal ro ert$ of another and. Maximo Amurao R0*0*(0R5 in $rson %a( consummated R so lon# as a art of the buildin# is burned.chairs and tables> are burned %c( attempted R contents ha!enLt been burned MIntent is alwa$s established.. because the brin&in& o' &asolin was alread$ an o!ert act while the appr h nsion was the reason other than his own s ontaneous desistanceQ: "u osin#. when a erson is accused of committin# a felon$. deemed art of the bld# Q: "u osin#.1. / year +. but was appr h n# # b$ the securit$ #uard7 did the crime of arson commence? 2-/.. because the acts were onl$ in an in# t rminat sta& Q: "u ose the white board was burned? White board not an inte#ral art Q: when is the crime in the attem ted sta#e? • In# t rminat /ta& – we do not 6now what crime is in the mind of the offender7 the crime has not $et been determined7 there are still two ossibilities when the accused was cau#ht • Accordin# to 'rof. the crime is consummated NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. the accused brou&ht &asolin into a buildin#. usin# the same set of facts abo!e.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . 5ith th int nt to burn the buildin#. is there criminal liabilit$? NO. but 5ithout th int nt to burn the buildin#.-. the situation when he was cau#ht would be in an indeterminate stage. there is the use of force or violence 5 so lon# as the act stated in the RPC is done. thus the accused is liable for att mpt # arson. burned the clothes in the cabinet.Amurao. we ha&e to first establish the crime in the mind of the offender to establish the commencement of the commission of the felony7 otherwise.e#.. in fact there is no crim .

-. but he is liable for the crim o' tr spassin& M"ame with arson. the accused 7ump # o" r th ' nc into another ersonLs house 5ithout th int nt to commit robber$..1. because the situation was in an indeterminate sta#e wherein it could not be determined what the accused intended to do Q: "u osin#.es.What sta#e? Consummated Q: su ose in a ri!ate subdi!ision.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . then $ou lace a ladder at the wall of the house.. roblem is silent with the intent. we ha&e to first establish the crime in the mind of the offender to establish the commencement of the commission of the felony7 otherwise. Maximo Amurao 5 it does not matter how lon# the ro ert$ was in the ossession of the accused7 it does not matter whether the ro ert$ was dis osed or not7 what matters is whether or not there was 8asportacion9 R unlawful ta1in 5 momentary possession consummates the crime of theft or robber$ 5 returning the item to the owner is immaterial7 has no effect to the crime 5 upon consummation of the crime.uLs store. / year +. criminal liability automatically attaches Q: $ou are wal6in# in recto.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +: of 138 Atty.es. the securit$ #uard a rehended $ou. the situation when he was cau#ht would be in an indeterminate stage. wherein the crime that the accused intended to do could not be determined • In People v! )amahang. 5ithout th int nt to commit a ' lon!7 is he liable for an$thin#? NO. when a erson is accused of committin# a felon$. ma$ $ou be liable for attem ted theft? No( enin# the door of the car – onl$ indeterminate sta#e Q: "u osin#..Attem ted robber$ Q: su ose $ou intent to commit robber$. $ou were a rehended.Liable? . the accused was able to o en one board of the door to ri!ate res ondent 1an .1. / 2ina Acosta *+. when $ou lace the ladder. cell hone was snatched. with intent to commit robber$. $ou are tin6erin# with the loc6 of a #ate. is he liable for attem ted robber$? NO.an @u.Liable? . thus NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Attem ted robber$ Q: if no intent? Not liable Q: accused tr$in# to o en $our car. when the olice cau#ht him. the accused was tin+ rin& 5ith th loc+ of the #ate of a nei#hborLs house./ in 0a1u *+.s store was not established. but it was return to $ou.1he "C ruled that the accused is not liable for attempted robbery because the intent to rob .

child. cution 9. e!en without physical ta1in or possession of the mone$ the$ demanded because the money was within the dominion.1. siblin#. $arricide – 6illin# a relati!e. of 138 Atty. in a car accident. it was in an indeterminate sta#e. it is frustrated 5 if the there is no intent to 1ill. no one hold the mone$. the moment the &ictim dies. the accused were held liable for the crime of robbery with serious ille al detention and serious physical injuries. intent is presumed b$ o eration of law and the crime is consummated 5 if the &ictim doesn.1.t die but the wound inflicted is mortal.1here is constructi!e control 8ul! 5.Is the crime consummated? ..-.s ouse.*urin# whole time when ne otiations went on between the accused and the olice. the accused hits a erson causin& mortal 5oun#s. Murder – 6illin# a erson with attendin# or a##ra!atin# circumstances ii. it is important to determine intent to 1ill Q: "u osin#.. / 2ina Acosta *+. NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. which the accused had control o&er and it was where the crime was bein# committed.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . intent is conclusi&ely presumed b$ o eration of law. and not frustrated robbery./ in 0a1u *+. etci". :omicide – 6illin# a erson without attendin# circumstances iii.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +. arent.0ut the Court held him liable for attempted trespass to dwellin • In People v! #alvilla. the crime is consummated *:P. the crime is not either 8A$I but serious physical injuries Mortal – when the wound inflicted can cause the death of the victim7 when death will follow 5 for frustrated J attempted cases.es. / year +.victim dies. hold u ers as6ed the cashier to lace the mone$ inside a ba#.F> da$s old 5 e!en without intent. he is onl$ liable for s rious ph!sical in7uri s Rul s on crim s a&ainst p rsons %M:$I( an# th sta& s o' . Maximo Amurao when accused was cau#ht. but the "ictim #o s not #i . but the wound inflicted is mortal or fatal. with or without the intention to 1ill.. the crime of robbery was deemed consummated Q: su ose hold u in a #rocer$ store. 2911 Crimes involving the ta ing of human life7 Crimes against persons 5 these crimes are committed by illing a person )8A$I): i. i-e. Infanticide – 6illin# a child less than three . is the dri!er5accused liable for frustrated homicide? NO.

mortal wounds were inflicted.)" . mortal wounds were inflicted. nonBmortal wounds were inflicted. because the wound inflicted on 1an was not mortal or fatal In People v! )im #an./ in 0a1u *+."li#ht h$sical In People v! 6rinidad.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . / year +. F. ath %1( .1. but also the wound inflicted was mortal .)" N( N( Int nt resumed .1he "C modified the decision b$ rulin# that the accused was liable for two counts of murder and attempted murder. NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. @.1he "C modified the decision b$ rulin# that the accused should be liable of frustrated murder because not only was it established that there was intent to 1ill. the trial court held the accused criminall$ liable of attem ted murder for stabbin# Pen# Pin in the left e$e.-. the crime is less serious or slight physical in+uries Illustration* .!ictim does not die.)" . K.. but there was intent to 6ill.1. the crime is serious physical in+uries <.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +.It 4ust so ha ened that the !ictim did not die because of the rom t and efficient medical assistance #i!en to the !ictim..1he treatment was the cause inde endent of the will of the accusedIn *ondragon v! People.!ictim does not die because there was only an o&ert act and no wound was inflicted. the trial court held the accused criminall$ liable of two counts of murder . without the intent to 6ill. with the intent to 6ill.!ictim does not die. Maximo Amurao =.ra"it! o' th 5oun# of course mortalN mortal wounds non5mortal wounds o!ert act onl$. with the intent to 6ill. nonBmortal wounds were inflicted. not frustrated. the "C held that the accused was onl$ uilty of less serious physical injuries because when the accused and the !ictim were hac6in# each other with their bolos. the crime is attempted *:P..of 138 Atty. no wound mortal wounds non5mortal wounds Crim Consummated M%'I Erustrated M%'I Attem ted M%'I Attem ted M%'I "erious h$sical in4uries Less serious.)" %2( N( %3( N( %4( N( %5( N( %<( N( in4uries .for 6illin# "oriano and Laroa> and frustrated murder .!ictim does not die.for shootin# at 1an>. the crime is frustrated *:P.!ictim does not die. without the intent to 6ill. the crime is attempted *:P. / 2ina Acosta *+.

Maximo Amurao there was no intent to 1ill on neither art$7 and also because the !ictim did not die since the wounds were not mortal R$P0 5 the crime of rape is consummated b$ mere penetration of the male or#an. as lon as there is penetration..deceit.0ut the "C ruled that the testimony of the &ictim herself should be i&en reater wei ht because she herself can feel whether or not there was penetrationInstances of attempted rape: 5 when the s1irt of the &ictim has been lifted.)riXa that the accused was #uilt$ of frustrated ra e../ in 0a1u *+.*0# C+ #upposin .-. no matter how sli#ht the enetration is. which was the cause inde endent of the will of the accused&6:0R . / year +. but accordin# to the medical e8amination.1.0 $=.omingue<. the accused pulls out a gun then points it at someone. the medical e8aminer testified that the !ictim was still a !ir#in therefore the ra e ma$ not ha!e been consummated. it is still consummated C+ #upposin . the ra e was consummated because there was enetration.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . with intent to ill. no one has since been held #uilt$ of frustrated ra e0#6$4$ 5 the elements for the crime of estafa are . can the accused still be held liable for consummated ra e? /0#.C. &6:0R CR. consummated? /0#. what crime is the accused liable for? $ttempted homicide NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. estafa would not be consummated In "# v! .. and . he was a rehended b$ their storeLs su er!isor. the enetration was onl$ = millimeters dee . no matter how slight C+ #upposin . the "C ruled that the accused was uilty of frustrated estafa because before accused could cause dama#e b$ dis osin# of the mone$ that he deceitfull$ too6. the !ictim was still a !ir#in.2.=#6$=C0# 4&R :&*. / 2ina Acosta *+. no matter what osition 5 when the accused mounted on the body of the !ictim 5 when there is epidermal touchin of the #enital or#ans of the accused and the !ictim 1he difference between attempted rape and acts of lasciviousness is that with the former. the rape is consummatedIn People v! &rita.1. there is carnal nowledge or the intent to have se3ual intercourse is established 6here is no such thing as frustrated rape7 the onl$ e8ce tion was when the "C ruled in 'eo le !.1hereafter.damage 5 without one of the two elements..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +8 of 138 Atty.1.

sold the 4ewelr$ and returned the mone$ at < m? Erustrated )stafa Q: su Q: su Q: su ose = crew members disco!ered the resence of a stow awa$ and the$ want to eliminate the stow awa$. but after $ou lea!e...What crime is the accused liable for? "till $ttempted homicide. what crime is the accused liable for? $ttempted homicide C+ #upposin . Maximo Amurao C+ #upposin . then accused lea&es thin1in that the &ictim is already dead . what crime is the accused liable for? 5 for pulling out the gun and pointing it R grave threat 5 for firing the gun R illegal discharge of firearm ./ in 0a1u *+. there was no wound.1he accused did not 6now that he missed because the &ictim played dead.. the accused fires a gun at someone.-. / 2ina Acosta *+. where there is shar ob4ect. crime? Consummated 3ualified theft Q: will reco!er$ affect the sta#e of the commission? No Q: "u ose the sales lad$.1he victim is hit but it is not fatal or mortal .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page +< of 138 Atty.People v! &rinagaQ: su ose a sales lad$ in the de artment store.1. lace the 4ewelr$ inside her ba#. sold the 4ewelr$ and used the mone$.1. with intent to ill.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . but without the intent to ill. the accused fires a gun at someone. crime? "till 3ualified theft1a6in# consummates the crime ose the sales lad$. !oluntaril$ returned. attem ted because there was no wound.What crime is the accused liable for? $ttempted homicide.. / year +. but there was still intent to 6ill. crime? )stafa ose the sales lad$.obsolete7 must be deleted> C+ #upposin . usin# the same set of facts. a fishin# !essel was there to hel the stow awa$. because what is im ortant is the e(tent or gravity of the wound. the accused fires a gun at someone but misses. so the$ decided throw the stow awa$ in the sea. with intent to ill. then accused lea&es thin1in that the &ictim is already dead. but the 4ewelr$ was reco!ered b$ the securit$ #uard. crime? Erustrated murder IN1-N1 1O 4ILL Q: F armarlite shots nei#hbor but did not hit? Attem ted NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.What is im ortant is that there was no wound C+ #upposin . with intent to ill.

. / year +.c ption* Li ht felonies committed a ainst persons or property are unishable e!en if in the attempted or frustrated sta#e R ason* resu oses moral depra&ity • Eor light felonies. Maximo Amurao Q: what is an o!ert act? "omethin# $ou see..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Q: distin#uish from ille#al dischar#e of firearm No intent to 6ill Q: distin#uish from #ra!e threat? 1here is intent to 6ill Q: su ose there are ?? wounds.do not relate to criminal offense at first> "rticle D Q: What are li#ht felonies? )ight felonies are infractions of law which ha!e the unishment of arresto menor or a fine not e8ceedin# =:: esos • .-. / 2ina Acosta *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1./ in 0a1u *+. n ral Rul * Li ht felonies are punishable onl$ when the$ ha!e been consummated R ason* in!ol!es insi nificant moral and material injuries7 if not consummated. touch . those who can be held liable are principals. because the de ree of the penalty to be im osed de ends on % factors: %1( sta#es of e8ecution %2( the de#ree of artici ation %3( the resence of attendin# circumstances Q: When unishable? (nl$ when consummated Q: Is this absolute? No. the wron# done is so sli#ht that a penalty is unnecessary • -. feel. the onl$ ones who can be held liable are the principals and accomplices• Eor grave or less grave felonies.If a#ainst ersons or ro ert$ Q: ReasonQQ: Who shall be criminall$ liable? 'rinci als Accom lices N(1 ACC)""(RI)" NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. but none was mortal? Attem ted Page 3.1. of 138 Atty. accomplices and e!en accessories.

.A N/A %IN*I LIA0L) AN/ ACC)""(RI)"> Q: Who is a rinci al? An Accom lices? An Accessories? "rticle E Q: what is cons irac$? 5 Conspiracy e8ists when two or more ersons come to an agreement concernin# the commission of a felon$ and # ci# to commit it 5 $roposal e8ists when the erson who has decided to commit a felon$ ro oses its e8ecution to some other erson or ersons .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .PA.felon$ intended to commit Q: is it necessar$ that each artici ate? No..censure> M'enalt$ for accessories – two de#rees lower .1..1. act of all Q: de#ree of e!idence needed to ro!e cons irac$? N(1 be$ond reasonable doubt "ufficient that the act is closel$ related to the crime.1he$ must ha!e common criminal desi#n Q: what do $ou mean b$ common criminal desi#n? Q: what is im lied cons irac$? Q: from what factors ma$ $ou im l$ cons irac$? Acts and words before and after the commission of the felon$ Q: is it enou#h that there is an a#reement to commit felon$? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Re$es> -./ in 0a1u *+.c ption* Cons irac$ and ro osal are punishable only in the cases in which the law specially pro&ides a penalty thereof Q: #i!e an e8am le of cons irac$ J ro osal Q: the effects of cons irac$ 1here will be collecti!e res onsibilit$ Q: effect of non5establishment of cons irac$? Accused will be liable onl$ to the e8tent of artici ation Q: if established? Collecti!e res onsibilit$ – act of one. / 2ina Acosta *+. n ral rul * Conspiracy and proposal to commit a felon$ are not punishable R ason* because the$ are mere preparatory acts . / year +.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 31 of 138 Atty.WALA NAN/ L(W) 'A. Maximo Amurao M'enalt$ for accom lices 55 one de#ree lower .-.

F.. met in safe house to discuss lan. – 1here must be o!er act Q: 9. F./ in 0a1u *+.es.Liable? No. @ but went home earl$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .9.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes No. Maximo Amurao 0)E(R).Cons irac$ to commit cou d etat is unishable Q: distin#uish cons irac$ as a felon$ and as manner of incurrin# criminal liabilit$E)L(N. inde endent of each other but must show close ersonal association7 closel$ related to each other. / 2ina Acosta *+.Act of 9. =.K did not arri!e for emer#enc$ ur oses. / year +.-. liable? No.)". liable? .Mere cons irac$ not unishable Q: K members of arm$ decided to commit cou d etat. AE1)R 55 acts of each of the accused ma$ be se arate. decide and e8ecute the o!er act K was not resent Q: su ose K dro!e for 9.Liable? .Will A be liable for the death? .%e is not a cons iratorA cons irator must a#ree. =. @. =. *+RIN/. act of all Q: 9.1.es.1. F.the$ must e8ecute the o!ert act Q: how would $ou 6now if communit$ of ur ose e8ists? Erom the acts and remar6s of the accused 1here must be unit$ of criminal thou#h Page 3+ of 138 Atty. F. the$ saw the olice around the ban6.1here is no o!ert act . a#reed and decided to commit robber$. @ commit the felon$ and was cau#ht. then after ali#htin# went home. rebellion or insurrection NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.i> Article 99K of the R'C – Cons irac$ to commit treason .1here is cons irac$.When the$ were about to rob the ban6. – R'C unishes mere cons irac$ LIA0ILI1. a#reed to commit a felon$ when about to meet the ne8t mornin#.ii> Article 9F< – Cons irac$ to commit cou dLetat.robbers> a#reed and decided to commit ban6 robber$. asahero lan# si$a sa !an> M/eneral Rule – if not resent in the scene of the crime – N( liabilit$ M)8ce tions – resence is to ro!ide for moral su ort or to ensure commission of the felon$ Cas s o' conspirac! punishabl b! la5 .. =. but he was sitti# in front of the !an.) shot to death the ban6 mana#er.Is number K liable? No. K. @.. K met in safe house discussed.A sta$ed in the #etawa$ car 9:: meters from the ban67 0 loo65out C disarm the securit$ #uard * J ) commit robber$. there is coordinationQ: A 0 C * ) .*ri!in# alread$ an o!ert act Q: su ose K was not the dri!er.

e(press or implied • It is the burden of the prosecution to pro&e the e(istence of conspiracy throu#h circumstantial e&idence unless there is a confession or written a reement.-.1./ in 0a1u *+.accused before. rebellion or insurrection 5 there is no crime of proposal to commit sedition Q: What is the legal effect of the resence of cons irac$? 5 Gthe act of one is the act of allH. based on the .!i> Cons irac$ to commit crimes under the Com rehensi!e *an#erous *ru#s Act . remar s or language of the er etrators.RA?FC=> . the other doin another act.9> acts done before. remar s or language used before. ta6e note of the word agreement • A&r m nt ma$ be oral or written.. durin# or after the commission of the crime Q: %ow about the use of words.RA ?9<K> Cas s o' proposal punishabl b! la5 .!> Cons irac$ to commit terrorism 5 under the %uman "ecurit$ Act . durin or after the commission of the crime.ii> 'ro osal to commit cou dLetat. it is necessary to determine after these acts were done whether the conspirators had the followin : NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. or.i!> Article 9B< – Mono olies and combinations in restraint of trade Page 33 of 138 Atty.mplied Conspiracy? 5 Impli # conspirac! can be inferred from the acts of the er etrators.1.=> words.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes . Maximo Amurao . which is seldom because criminals will usuall$ den$ their artici ation or the commission of the crime Q: What is .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .i> 'ro osal to commit treason .iii> Article 9@9 – Cons irac$ to commit sedition . distinct and independent acts in the commission of a crime? /0# Q:Ma$ there be cons irac$ e!en if other conspirators do not now who the other conspirators are? /0# &In People v! *anlolo. durin or after the commission of the crime. meanin# e!er$one who artici ated is e=ually liable7 there is collecti&e responsibility • Eor conspiracy. / 2ina Acosta *+. it was held that there was implied conspiracy on the art of the accused because the$ were acting in concert. / year +.. all aimed at the same object Rul on # t rminin& 5h th r th r is conspirac! 5 based on the .. one performin an act. can cons irac$ still be ascertained or established? /0# Q: Ma$ there be cons irac$ when the perpetrators perform separate.

that erson not artici atin# shall not be liable because he #i# not p r'orm an! o" rt act7 there should be an o!ert act to establish the artici ation and liabilit$ of a erson Q: "u osin#. La Cru@. .-. in both cases the erson shall be held criminall$ liable In order to hold someone criminall$ liable. will he be liable? 2-/. the "C also ruled that the mere resence of the /alaw5e$s were not enou#h to ro!e that the$ cons ired to the commission of the crime des ite the fact /alaw5e$ had a #rud#e a#ainst one of the !ictims7 his artici ation in a cons irac$ cannot be assumed es eciall$ when no acts b$ the /alaw5e$s ro!ed to be connected with the crimeIn $ opl ". / year +. in a##ition to m r pr s nc . there was onl! m r pr s nc of a erson when the crime was bein# committed. or to p rsua# th participants 'rom p r'ormin& th acts constitutin# the crime.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . there was no conspirac!. the "C ruled to ac3uit Re#alado because there was no e!idence to ro!e that Re#alado assisted his brother %erminio in the 6illin# of Alfredo /abuat7 there was no roof to show that Re#aladoLs resence was accom anied b$ o!ert acts for the commission of the crime and that there was no roof of cons irac$ between the 1aaca brothersIn $ opl ".t nt o' th # &r o' ach on =s participation In $ opl ". Man ro. will he be liable? NO.0riones7 Medi4a.!. some as rinci als and some as accom lices onl$ Q: "u osin#.1. will the actor still be liable? 2-/ Q: "u osin#. Maximo Amurao 5 all of which are eared towards the attainment of the felony or crime /u&& st # cas s 'or conspirac! on this rul 5 'eo le !. the "C ruled that there was no cons irac$ in commission of the murder because the incident was onl$ a spur o' th mom nt or in this case. communit$ of ur ose 4. thus the$ were held indi!iduall$ liable. 4oint criminal ob4ecti!e Page 39 of 138 Atty.. a Gchanc stabbin&>./ in 0a1u *+. 1aaca. / 2ina Acosta *+. the "C ruled that e!en thou#h the accused5a ellants were not resent in the actual commission of the crimes."alcedo7 'eo le !. which cannot be considered cons irac$. Ar. A&apina!. the ersonLs resence when the crime was bein# committed was to ro!ide was to pro"i# moral support . common criminal desi#n 3.1. it was established that the$ met in an eater$ and cons ired to li3uidate communist s$m athiDers7 therefore the$ were still held criminall$ liable- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. there should be o" rt acts that ar clos l!?r lat # an# coor#inat # to establish the resence of common criminal desi#n and communit$ of ur ose in the commission of the crimeIn $ opl "."andi#anba$an Q: "u osin#. howe!er.. concerted action 2. onl! minor acts were done. what will ha en? 1he er etrators of the crime will be in#i"i#uall! liabl de endin# the .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 1.

because it is not r )uir # that all th participants p r'orm ach an# " r! # tail in th commission o' th crim 7 as lon# as the acts erformed are closel$ coordinated and that the$ ha!e the same criminal ur oseQ: mere resence will one be a co5cons irator? No Q: resence to #i!e moral su Liable Acts Im lied cons irac$ desi#n ort? before se arate and distinct durin# words. the$ can all be held liable for that same crime../ in 0a1u *+. L ss . Li&ht ' loni s – infractions of law that are unishable b$ arresto menor or fines • Illustration* *eath NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. Maximo Amurao Q: "u osin#.1. / 2ina Acosta *+..ra" 0 loni s – those that the law unishes with enalties whose ma8imum eriods are correctional 3.. e#. .loo65outs or dri!ers. / year +. concerted action common criminal Coordination.ra" 0 loni s – those that the law attaches the ca ital unishment or enalties that are afflicti!e based on Article =K of the R'C 2.homicide7 can all the artici ants be con!icted of the crime of robber$ with homicide. one erson # sist # 'rom participatin& in th actual crim and instead # ci# # to sta! insi# th & t?a5a! car to wait for the others. he is still liable des ite desistance to artici ate in the actual crime because he can still assist the others with the esca e usin# the #et5awa$ car Q: "u osin#. etc>? 2-/. an additional crime was committed that was not art of the ori#inal lan.-. after remar6s closeness association.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . while committin# the crime of robber$.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 3: of 138 Atty. is he liable? 2-/. e!en thou#h some of them erformed !er$ minor acts .1.i-e. ersonal association with each other communit$ of crimes 4oint criminal ob4ecti!e "rticle F Q: %ow do $ou classif$ felonies? Accordin# to 'enalt$ 1.

Maximo Amurao afflicti&e penalties Less ra&e felonies Arresto Ma$or "us ension *estierro Arresto Menor correctional penalties Li ht felonies Eines 'ublic Censure li ht penalties • 1he classification in Article =K of the R'C assumes si#nificance on Article ?9 of the R'C on 'rescri tion: %i( $r scription o' a crim – refers to the e8 iration of a certain eriod.-. after which a erson cannot be rosecuted for the crime an$more7 contem lates that there has been no 4ud#ment of con!iction $et %ii( $r scription o' p nalt! – refers to the e8 iration of a eriod of time after which the enalt$ im osed b$ the courts cannot be enforced an$more7 contem lates that there has been a final 4ud#ment b$ the courts Q: *oes classification a No lies to s ecial laws? "rticle 1* 5 ro!isions of the Re!ised 'enal Code shall not be a lied with of !iolations of s ecial laws.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes %ra&e felonies Reclusion 'er etua Reclusion 1em oral 'rision Ma$or 'rision Correccional Page 3. / year +. of 138 Atty. the criminal liabilit$ and the ci!il liabilit$. the latter is for the a$ment of dama#es NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+..1. the former im oses the enalt$ rescribed for the crime.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Articl 199 – Ci&il Liability7 there are two sides of crime. / 2ina Acosta *+. the absence shall be pro&ided by the 5e&ised $enal Code 0ut #enerall$: 5 for &iolations of the 5$C R what law #o!erns? the 5e&ised $enal Code 5 for &iolations of special law R what law #o!erns? #pecial penal laws -..ampl s o' pro"isions in th R$C that ha" suppl tor! application pursuant to Articl 19 o' th R$C 1.. but if a s ecial law is silent in terms of a enalt$ for e8am le./ in 0a1u *+.1.

=> )8tenuatin# circumstancesIn justifyin and e(emptin circumstances.RA?9<K>. par 1 > #elf?.he burden is upon him to establish beyond reasonable doubt the re=uired conditions to justify or e(empt his acts from criminal liability2 'hat is shifted is only the burden of e&idence.0'==> &If the Geath $enalty was not abolished.efense NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. 0ouncin# Chec6s Law . sec =< onl$ . Articl 22 – 5etroacti&e "pplication7 the law becomes fa!orable to the accused as lon# as he is not a habitual criminal and is con!icted b$ final 4ud#ment 3. / 2ina Acosta *+. ..1. Maximo Amurao 2. Articl 1A – $rincipals7 are classified into three: .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . there is no criminal liability2 'hen an accused in&o1es them. *an#erous *ru#s Act.9> b$ direct artici ation.9> Austif$in# circumstances7 . Articl 45 – .1.. letor$ a lication Q: Circumstances affectin# criminal liabilit$? 1here are fi!e circumstances affectin# criminal liabilit$: .9> Absolutor$ cause7 and . / year +.RA?FC=>.F> b$ indis ensable coo eration 4..F> Miti#atin# circumstances7 . . there is no felon$7 without a felon$. e8ce t in Article 99 .ntent7 without intent. Articl 3B – #ubsidiary imprisonment for failure to a$ fines <. it will also be #i!en su allowed.-. there is no !oluntariness7 without !oluntariness.@> Q: What element of !oluntariness is lac6in#? . he in effect admits the commission of a crime but tries to a&oid the liability thereof2 .=> b$ inducement.K> Alternati!e circumstances1here are two others which are found elsewhere in the ro!isions of the Re!ised 'enal Code: .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 3. not the burden of proof.of 138 Atty.orfeiture of instruments or tools used in the commission of the crime 5. Article 11 Q: What is a 4ustif$in# circumstances? 8usti'!in& Circumstanc s are those where the act of a erson is said to be in accordance with law so that such erson is deemed not to ha&e trans ressed the law and is free from criminal and ci&il liability Q: Is there ci!il liabilit$? %enerally no. there is no criminal liabilit$ because there is no crime $rticle 11.@> A##ra!atin# circumstances7 and . Articl C – Conspiracy7 in !iolation of the %uman "ecurit$ Act./ in 0a1u *+.=> )8em tin# circumstances7 .

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page 38 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: What are the )lements of "elf5defense? 1. "nlawful $ggression on the art of the offended art$ 2. Reasonable =ecessity of the *eans )m lo$ed b$ the erson defendin# 3. )ac of #ufficient Provocation on the art of the erson defendin# Q: What ma$ be the sub4ect of self5defense? 'erson, ri#ht, ro ert$, honor or home ;i> defense of erson – there is dan er to the life or limb of the erson ;ii> defense of ri#hts ;iii> defense of ro ert$ – should be cou led with dan#er to the erson ;i!> defense of honor C+ (urden of proof in self5defense? burden lies with the defense Q: %ow is selfBdefense established? throu#h clear and convincing evidence Q: Is the accused re=uired to admit ha!in# 6illed the !ictim? /0#7 the accused has to admit ha&in 1illed the &ictim before selfBdefense can be in&o1ed b$ the accused & It is the obligation of the accused to prove self?defense through clear and convincing evidence7 if the e&idence is not clear, there will be a conviction • When all the elements of self?defense are present R the erson defendin# himself is free from criminal liability and ci&il liability • When onl$ a ma+ority of the elements are resent R pri&ile ed miti atin circumstance, ro!ided there is unlawful a ression • When onl$ a majority of the elements are present, there is an incomplete self?defense, but it is still necessary to ha&e the element of unlawful aggression, because it is the most important element Dnla5'ul A&&r ssion 5 an indispensable element 5 a sudden un ro!o6ed unlawful attac that e3poses a person@s life or limb to actual, real, imminent danger7 mere threatenin#, ima#ined or s eculati!e dan#er is not enou#h • When there is no unlawful a ression, there is no need to defend oneself4 when there is no need to defend oneself, there is no need for a reasonable defensi&e act7 when there is no need for a reasonable defensi&e act, there is no need for reasonable means to pre&ent or repel somethin 7 therefore, without unlawful a ression, e&erythin else will be erased

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page 3< of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

• 0ecause unlawful a ression produced a dan er, there comes a need to eliminate that dan er7 that need is a res onse impelled by selfBpreser&ation7 the means used to eliminate the dan#er should be reasonable and the means needed to be em lo$ed can be determined based on the e(tent of the unlawful a ression Q: #upposin , $ou wrested the 6nife from a robber- If he is still tryin to et bac1 the 1nife, there is unlawful a ression, because unlawful a ression is continuin if the attac6er is tr$in# to re#ain control o!er the situation M1he first principle in all criminal cases is that: Gthe accused will always be presumed innocent9 • In the constitutional pro&ision on resum tion of innocence, it can easil$ be o!erthrown b$ contrar$ e!idence, but it is different in criminal cases • 1he presumption of innocence principle, of all dis utable resum tions, is the strongest because to o!erthrow it, the Court re=uires that the law pro&es the uilt of an accused beyond reasonable doubt • 1he burden or duty to prove guilt lies with the prosecution or the o&ernment and the$ should introduce e&idence beyond reasonable doubt7 the prosecution should rely on the stren th of its own e&idence and should not depend on the e&idence of the defense7 these principles, howe!er, will chan e when the defense in&o1es, selfBdefense, defense of a relati&e, or defense of a stran er, because the accused must alwa$s admit first the fact of 6illin# the !ictim, thus the burden is lifted from the prosecution and shifts to the defense • If the e&idence for both sides is wea1, the accused will be acAuitted • 1he prosecution;s wea1ness is cured when the defense in&o1es, selfBdefense, defense of a relati&e, or defense of a stran er because there is an admission of the 6illin# • If the e&idence of the defense is not clear and convincing, con&iction will be sure, as sure the sun rises at the )ast • 1he admission in&ol&ed is only an admission of facts, bac1ed up by clear and con&incin e&idence7 it not an admission of uilt, because if so, the Court can sto the rosecution and render 4ud#ment • 1he Court should ut itself in the shoes of the accused durin# the time when the accused alle#edl$ defended himself Q: #upposin , after $ou wrested the 6nife from the robber ;who is the ob!ious a##ressor in this case>, the robber,a##ressor runs awa$, is there still unlawful a##ression? =&, when the a ressor flees unlawful a ression no lon er e(ists7 and if $ou still 6ill the a##ressor in this situation, self5defense cannot be in!o6ed an$more

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page 9, of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

C+ #upposin , usin# the same facts mentioned earlier, but the retreat of the a##ressor was with the ur ose to ta6e a more ad!anta#eous osition or to #et a more effecti!e wea on, to insure the success of his attac6, is there still unlawful a##ression? /0#, when the purpose of retreatin is to ta1e a more ad&anta eous position or to do somethin to insure the success of his attac1, unlawful aggression is continuing, therefore the danger is still continuing4 in this case, the accused or the person defendin himself, does not ha&e to wait for the a ressor to et another weapon C+ #upposin , there is an a#reement to fi#ht or a challen#e to fi#ht was acce ted, is there unlawful a##ression on one of the arties? =&, there is no unlawful aggression in agreements to fight because selfBdefense cannot in&o1ed since both parties are assailant and assaulted C+ #upposin , usin# the same facts abo!e, there is a#reement, but one of the arties attac6s the other e!en before the a#reed time arri!es, is there unlawful a##ression? /0#, when the attac1 is made ahead of the time a reed upon, there is unlawful a ression C+ #upposin , the a##ressor used a to$ #un and the erson defendin# himself 6illed the a##ressor, belie!in# that the #un was real, is he still criminall$ liable? =&, assumin# clear and con!incin# e!idence is ro!ided, and that the accused belie&ed the weapon7 un to be real, then honest mista1e of fact while in selfBdefense can be in&o1e • R asonabl N c ssit! o' th M ans -mplo! # 5 there is a continuin# necessit$ to eliminate the dan#er 5 in!ol!es two elements: 1. necessit$ for the course of action, necessit$ to eliminate dan#er 2. necessit$ of the means em lo$ed to re!ent or re el that dan#er • 0oth should be reasonable • It is not necessary to ha!e material eAuality or material commensurability between the dan#er and the means em lo$ed to re!ent or re el that dan#er • .n determining reasonable means, the some facts and circumstances can be considered as factors, such as: 1. emer ency to which the erson defendin# himself has been e8 osed to 2. resence of imminent dan er 3. im elled b$ the instinct of selfBpreser&ation 4. nature of the weapon used b$ the accused com ared to the wea on of the a##ressor 5. siHe and7or physical character of the a##ressor com ared to the accused and other circumstances that can be considered showin# dis arit$ between a##ressor and accused ,actors+ a e, siHe, location, other circumstances, character or nature of weapon, physical character, reputation Q: What is Lac6 of "ufficient 'ro!ocation? 5 sufficient ro!ocation should come from the erson defendin# himself,accused 5 sufficient ro!ocation should immediatel$ recede the a##ression

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

1.(nl$ an admission of fact Accused must establish the element which is missin# to ro!e that he is not #uilt$ Q: What are the le#al effects Confession of #uilt – no necessit$ for trial. Maximo Amurao 5 Insultin# another or committin# oral defamation is considered sufficient ro!ocation 5 a challen#e to fi#ht is considered sufficient ro!ocation Q: When is ro!ocation sufficient? 5 ro ortionate to the act of a##ression and ade3uate to stir the a##ressor to its commission Q: Who has the dut$ to ro!e elements of self5defense? Accused Q: What is the effect of claim of self5defenses on burden of the rosecution? "hiftin# the burden of roof 'rosecution is relie!ed of its dut$ to ro!e #uilt of accused Q: Ma$ accused be con!icted e!en if e!idence of rosecution is wea6? .. imminent > – not merel$ ima#inar$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . whether com lete or incom lete 1hrou#h reasonable means Reasonable . fanciful.actual..5 sudden.+A is the foundation Q: how about in incom lete self5defense? No. real. / year +.+A is alwa$s an indis ensable element of self5defense. ' n#in& $rop rt! NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Life J Limb> 1here is dan#er . e8ce t to ro!e miti#atin# J a##ra!atin# circumstances Admission of fact – necessit$ for trial Q: Ma$ there be self defense e!en without unlawful a##ression? No. ille#al attac6 ./ in 0a1u *+.needs to eliminate the dan#er> +nder instinct of self5 reser!ation . / 2ina Acosta *+. if the self5defense not established b$ clear and con!incin# e!idence Q: does admission of #uilt amounts to confession of #uilt? No.-.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 91 of 138 Atty. false +nlawful A##ression. un ro!o6ed.1.es..

Amurao. defense of ro ert$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .ItLs better to hit them first.accordin# to 'rof.As lon# as not to the e8tent of 6illin# M a# na ata$ mo. $ou can e!en sta#e the crime scene to $our fa!or> because if $ou do not shoot them.1. usin# a 6nife. can $ou in!o6e defense of ro ert$? =&.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 9+ of 138 Atty. can $ou use the #un and shoot at them or e!en 6ill them?  /0# . but the latter still forces his wa$ with the rostitute with carnal 6nowled#e.no rational e3ui!alence> &+se of the bolo a#ainst an unarmed a##ressor? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. which hit a b$5stander../ in 0a1u *+. liable? No. a rostitute disa#rees to ha!e se8ual intercourse with someone. $ou cau#ht some eo le inside $our house in the act of stealin# $our household items. reasonable means? No . ri#ht to life is su erior to ri#ht to ro ert$ C+ #upposin . tries to ra e her. da at ma$ assault on $our own erson. Maximo Amurao • *efense of ro ert$ should be cou led with dan#er to the erson defendin# oneself7 if there is no dan#er to the erson or the ersonYs life or limb. / 2ina Acosta *+.)".-. a rostitute is still entitled to the ri#ht of defense of honor and the 6nife was a reasonable means used*efense of home Without assault of erson. causin# him to die. fired at the tires.u on the erson defendin# his ro ert$> &Must be cou led with an attac6 on $our own erson &"uch a case. someone slashed $our ba# to #et its contents. chec6 Re$es> C+ #upposin .Gefense of home.1. the$ will surel$ use their wea ons a#ainst $ou and e!en tr$ to 6ill $ou an$wa$. when is 6illin# the a##ressor 4ustified? &Necessit$ of unlawful a##ression . 4ustified? N(Q: In defendin# $our car bein# stolen. defense of ro ert$ cannot be in!o6edQ: In defendin# ro ert$. $ou are not defendin# $our own ro ert$. because there was no imminent dan er to your life or limb since you already ha&e control of the 1nife C+ #upposin ..Austified for all conse3uences of the act – relate to art @ . ar9> not committin# a felon$ Q: e8am le of unlawful a##ression a#ainst honor 5sla on the face 5re elled b$ re!ol!er. can she in&o1e defense of honor despite bein a prostitute? /0#. but $our own *efense of (WN ro ert$ not (E ro ert$ erson? Q: "u ose hittin# onl$ the lower ortion of the bod$. and $ou stabbed him... after which $ou were able to wrest the 6nife from him. / year +. assumin# $ou ha!e a #un. then the rostitute ta6es out a 6nife in her ba# and stabs the #u$. ma$ be claimed? . not 6illin# the a##ressor.

11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . what was said was that A was holdin# a bolo. if an$? 1he act of A is nothin# but a ro!ocation. Maximo Amurao *e ends on the circumstances "uch as the siDe of the a##ressor.1hat bolo does not roduce an$ real or imminent dan#er unless a raises his arm with the bolo.le#itimate. ' ns o' R lati" s Q: Who are the relati!es contem lated?.9> on self5defense  • #pouse – should be the legitimate husband or wife • common law marria es are not included7 the common law spouse is considered a stranger reciable inter!al of time NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+..mentioned abo!e> 5 relati!es b$ consan#uinit$ within the fourth .Is 0 criminall$ liable? What crime was committed.As lon# as that arm of A was down holdin# the bolo.in the followin# order> 5 s ouse 5 ascendants 5 descendants 5 brothers or sisters . / 2ina Acosta *+.It cannot be characteriDed as an unlawful a##ression because in criminal law. re utation or accessibilit$ of other means Eactor of time inter!al Must be simultaneous with the attac6 or with a Q: what is continuin# dan#er? Q: what is continuin# a##ression? Q: e8am le of defense of honor? Q: e8am le of a#reement to fi#ht? Q: libel a#ainst libel.-.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 93 of 138 Atty.6illin# him. an unlawful a##ression is an attac6 or a threatened attac6 which roduces an imminent dan#er to the life and limb of the one resortin# to self5defense.1. 4ustified? .When he was about fi!e feet awa$ from 0.99. built. as contem lated in Art.@th> ci!il de#ree  a lies the same conce t of unlawful a##ression and reasonable necessit$ of means em lo$ed. when A saw 0 one afternoon.1.. there is no imminent dan#er to the life or limb of 01herefore.esQ: A and 0 are lon# standin# enemies. / year +./ in 0a1u *+. natural or ado ted> 5 relati!es b$ affinit$ in the same de#rees . the act of 0 in shootin# A is no 4ustifiedArticl 11%2( 6 ..0ecause of their continuous 3uarrel o!er the boundaries of their ad4oinin# ro erties. he a roached the latter in a menacin# manner with a bolo in his hand. 0 ulled out a re!ol!er and shot A on the chest.In the facts of the roblem #i!en abo!e.

thus defense of relati!e can be in!o6edC+ #upposin the husband and his first wife are on le#al se aration.1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . #reat. can he in!o6e defense of relati!e? =&.@8> #randchildren • What do ascendants and descendants ha&e in common? 1he$ are blood relatives C+ #upposin .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 99 of 138 Atty. it will ha!e an effect wherein as if no marria#e e8isted between the defender and the one defended7 therefore. ille#alit$ of the arties cannot be determined b$ themsel!es C+ #upposin a husband defends a common law wife b$ 6illin# an attac6er. then incidentall$. a father defends his ado ted dau#hter from an attac6er. but he may in&o1e defense of a stran er C+ #upposin a husband defends a second wife b$ 6illin# an attac6er7 considerin# that the marria#e between him and his first wife is not null and !oid. once it is a ro!ed b$ the R1C and is final and e8ecutor$. #reat. le#alit$.-.=> R'C NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+..A*N> of the first marria#e./ in 0a1u *+..1. Maximo Amurao • Who can determine bein# le#itimate? the Court7 the !alidit$. because there is no A*N that has nullified the marria#e • $scendants – includes arents. he defends her from an attac6er. #reat #rand arents. #reat #randchildren.@8> #rand arents • . to 3ualif$ as relati!es contem lated under Art. #rand arents. a #reat. because the no distinction in the Re!ised 'enal Code whether the descendant should be le#itimate or ille#itimate7 when the law does not distin uish. can he in!o6e defense of relati!e? =&. the presumption is that all marria es are le al and &alid. e!en #reat. / 2ina Acosta *+. / year +. what can be in!o6ed is defense of a stran#erC+ #upposin husband and wife has a endin# case for annulment due to s$cholo#ical inca acit$ of one of the arties. can he still in&o1e defense of relati&e? /0#. because there is no A*N to sa$ that their marria#e is null and !oidC+ #upposin . then he defends her from an attac6er. thus ma6in# his second marria#e bi#amous. #randchildren. the courts cannot distin uish C+ #upposin . e!en #reat. husband and wife successfull$ annuls their marria#e and the$ ha!e secured a A*N on the #rounds of s$cholo#ical inca acit$. defense of relati!e cannot be in!o6ed because the law does not contem late ado ted children as descendants and also does not contem late ado ti!e arents as ascendants. can he in&o1e defense of relati&eI =&. #reat #randfather is attac6ed and is defended b$ his ille#itimate #randchild.99. he defends her from an attac6er.)!en in the absence of a 4udicial declaration of nullit$ . can he in!o6e defense of relati!e? /0#. because there is no marria#e an$more between them7 the A*N. then incidentall$.escendants – includes children. the second marria#e is considered !alid.. can he in!o6e defense of relati!e? /0#. can the randchild in&o1e defense of relati&e? /0#.

-.=> reasonable necessit$ of the means em lo$ed to re!ent or re el the a##ression.adopted – there should be a 4udicial roceedin# in court !alidatin# the ado tion in order to be considered under defense of relati!e as contem lated7 an e8tra4udicial roceedin# on the ado tion is not enou#h • Relatives by affinity in same degrees 5 relati!es by marria e • In same de rees – a licable to ascendants..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . i-e. e!en #rand arents of oneLs s ouse.9> unlawful a##ression and .civil degree 5 relati!es b$ blood • • • • • !ach eneration is one de ree (neLs parents are in the first )1st) de ree (neLs randparents are in the second)2nd) de ree (neLs uncles and aunts are in the third )3rd) de ree (neLs first cousins are in the fourth )4th) de ree • Illustration* arent .. ' ns o' R lati" s 5 aside from . there is %rd reAuisite+ if there was pro&ocation arose from the relati&e bein defended. / year +. the child is ille itimate 3. Maximo Amurao (rothers and #isters or siblings 1. etc• Relatives by consanguinity within the fourth . legitimate – siblin#s of the same arents who are married 2.this is !ou> child .. brother5in5law. descendants. the parents are not married but are not dis=ualified by any le al impediment to marry each other7 if parents are dis=ualified to marry b$ an$ im ediment.'th degree- • R )uisit s 'or .mother5in5law.1. siblin#s. the person defendin should ha&e had no part in that pro&ocation NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.'th. / 2ina Acosta *+. who at the time of their conce tion with the same arents. sister5in5law.2nd degree- . e#.1.1st degreedau#hter5in5law55555son . father5in5law.%rd degreedau#hter55555son5in5law child .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 9: of 138 Atty.starting point./ in 0a1u *+. natural – siblin#s.

1.1here is no 4udicial declaration $etose the lower court issued a decision? Not an$more. can the$ claim defense of relati!e? .es Q: Ado ti!e father defended the ado ted dau#hter? No. can claim self5 defense? NoCommon law s ouse not contem lated 1he$ are entitled to claim defense of stran#er Q: %usband and wife. marria#e resumed e8istin# Q: "u Q: su ose the action for 4udicial declaration is endin#. 'h citiDens married in hon#6on#.es.Amurao> Q: "u ose man and woman li!in# to#ether without benefit of marria#e.-.1he law does not distin#uish Q: Who are the other relati!es co!ered? Q: half blood brothers and sisters? . disco!ered the$ were 9st cousins. and ille#itimate.es. $ou did not 6now that it was $our brother who started the fi#ht.he person defendin has the right to act on mere appearance . of 138 Atty. and there is a decree of le#al se aration. so $ou shot his enem$.After marria#e.not contem lated b$ law> Q: ste brother 6illed accused to defend life and honor of a ste sister? .As if no marria#e. u to what e8tent? @th de#ree Q: last element in defense of relati!e? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+.Absent a 4udicial declaration... can claim defense of relati!e? . defense of relati!e? . can $ou effecti!el$ and !alidl$ in!o6e defense of a relati!e? /0#.Le#al se aration doe not terminate marria#eQ: who are the descendants co!ered? Q: A 6illed a erson to defend the honor of 0. because at that !er$ moment the life and limb of $our brother was in actual. $our brother ro!o6ed someone and started a fi#ht. Maximo Amurao C+ #upposin . can the$ claim defense of relati!e? .es. his enem$ was on the !er#e of stabbin# $our brother. when $ou came to his aid.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .es.1./ in 0a1u *+... but when $ou saw him.brother or sister b$ reason of marria#e> Q: relati!e b$ consan#uinit$. imminent and real dan#er7 there was no time for $ou to in!esti#ate what reall$ ha ened.Can claim defense of stran#er Q: su ose what was filed was le#al se aration. solemniDin# officer in hon#6on# not authoriDed.Relationshi b$ affinit$ .es.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 9.

th "il actuall! . that the in4ur$ caused or the offense committed be the necessar$ conse3uence of the due erformance of dut$ or lawful e8ercise of such ri#ht or office • 1he fulfillment of duty must be done carefull$. rcis o' Ri&ht or O''ic 5 5e=uisites: 1.ists 2.. or other e&il moti&e Articl 11%4( 6 A"oi#anc o' &r at r "il or in7ur! 5 5e=uisites: 1./ in 0a1u *+. a raidin# team tas6ed to confiscate dru#s bro6e the class cabinets in search of the dru#s.es. no abuse • 1he e8ercise of public office was committed with ne li ence and abuse of authority R are not a licable.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .=> Page 9. Maximo Amurao • R )uisit s* 5 same conce t of unlawful a##ression and reasonable necessit$ of the means em lo$ed to re!ent or re el the a##ression7 aside from those two there is a %rd reAuisite+ the person defendin should not be induced by re&en e..Amurao> • 1he #reater e!il should not be brou#ht about b$ the ne#li#ence or im rudence of the erson who committed the offense Q: criminal liabilit$? No Q: Ci!il liabilit$? . should be borne b$ the ersons benefited )8am le : "in6in# shi 55 4ettison Articl 11%5( 6 0ul'illm nt o' . resentment..-. no ne#li#ence.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes .of 138 Atty.ut!ELa5'ul -. ' ns o' stran& r What are the elements? /i!e an e8am le 'ho are stran ers? 5 An$one not enumerated and those not contem lated under Article 99.1. was there abuse of authorit$? /0#.im rudence. with due performance7 no carelessness. the e8ercise must be lawfulN C+ #upposin . / 2ina Acosta *+.Re$es> 5in4ur$ to ersons 5 dama#e to ro ert$ • (neLs own life is more im ortant than an$one else . / year +.1. because due erformance of dut$ should ha!e been em lo$ed NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. there be no other ractical and less harmful means of re!ention  1he dama e to another contem lated are: . that the accused acted in the erformance of a dut$ or in the lawful e8ercise of a ri#ht or office 2. the in4ur$ feared be #reater than that done to a!oid it 3.

s$cholo#ical or emotional distress .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .RA ?=<=> C+ 'ho can &erify or confirm whether a woman suffers from 0attered Woman "$ndrome? (nl$ a certified s$cholo#ist or s$chiatrist can ro!e the e8istence of 0attered Woman "$ndrome in a woman Q: What is the le#al effect of the roof of e8istence of 0W" in a woman? . that an order has been issued b$ a su erior 2.hose found by the courts to be sufferin from 0'# do not incur criminal and ci&il liability notwithstandin the absence of any of the elements of the justifyin NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. e8ceedin# authorit$. / year +.1.es./ in 0a1u *+.. that the means used b$ the subordinate to carr$ out said order is lawful • When the order is not for a lawful ur ose. des ite warnin# shots. N0I forcibl$ o en and destro$ed the doors. Maximo Amurao Q: 'rison #uards escortin# risoners on the wa$ to the court.1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Q: Can this be in!o6ed if there was ne#li#ence? NoQ: if there is abuse of authorit$? No Page 98 of 138 Atty.1here is abuse. the subordinate who obe$ed it is criminall$ liable • 1he subordinate is not liable for carr$in# out an ille#al order of his su erior if he is not aware of the ille#alit$ of the order and he is not ne#li#ent • 3att r # Woman /!n#rom %3W/( 5 refers to a scientificall$ defined attern of s$cholo#ical and beha!ioral s$m toms found in women li!in# in batterin# relationshi s as a result of cumulati!e abuse . liable? No Q: warrant of arrest.. #uard shot the risoner at the bac6 who died.When the officers are at the house of the accused. liable? . that such order must be for some lawful ur ose 3. risoner still ran awa$. / 2ina Acosta *+. liable? NoQ: roceeded directl$ without announcin# their authorit$.Re ublic Act ?=<=: Anti52iolence A#ainst Women and Children Act> • 3att r! – refers to an act of inflictin# h$sical harm u on a woman or child resultin# to the h$sical.. did not follow rocedure Q: e8am le of lawful e8ercise of a ri#ht *octrine of self hel Articl 11%<( 6 Ob #i nc to a la5'ul or# r b! a sup rior o''ic r 55e=uisites 1.-. the accused refuse to o en the door. N0I to arrest criminal and brin# before the R1C of Manila. one risoner esca ed.

@• !&en without unlawful a ression on the art of the deceased husband or male artner..1he law sa$s onl$ woman Q: What is a datin# relationshi ? Q: . Re ublic Act ?=<=> • 1he le#al effect of 0W" is of the same le!el with the 4ustif$in# circumstances in Art-99 of the R'C.1.. she was emotionall$ J s$cholo#icall$ wrec6ed. defend $our ri#ht or osition.es.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 9< of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao circumstance of selfBdefense under the 5e&ised $enal Code . / 2ina Acosta *+.. is this batter$? ./ in 0a1u *+.1. defend $ourself 5 A total o osite of the old doctrine of retreating to the wall. the act of the woman shall still not incur criminal and ci!il liabilit$ Q: Who are the women who can in!o6e 0attered Woman "$ndrome? 5 wife 5 an$ woman ha!in# a se8ual relationshi with a man 5 #irlfriend 5 includin# datin# women.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-. if relationshi is intimate 5 former wife 5 common law wife 5 former wife whose marria#e with her has been annulled b$ a 4udicial declaration of nullit$ . where the law e8 ects $ou to run awa$ and a!oid defendin# $ourself Q: What is the le#al effect of 0W"? No criminal liabilit$ No ci!il liabilit$ Q: Ma$ a battered husband claim it as a defense? No.ha$den 6ho case> Q: 'rotection (rder under RA ?=<=? 5 re!ented from li!in# in same communit$ or house with the battered woman 5it must be issued b$ court or baran##a$ Q: Can $ou file !iolation of RA ?=<= to#ether with arricide or h$sical in4uries? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+."ection =<. / year +. e8ce t ar.octrin o' /tan# !our &roun# 5h n in th ri&ht 5 1he law does not e8 ect $ou to run awa$ 5 When in the ri#ht.A*N> 5children • It not necessary that the woman sufferin# from 0W" is still in a relationshi with the man that she 6illed or harmed..ou brea6 u with $our #f.

.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page :. liable for arricide? No.RA ?=<= without re4udice to the filin# of an$ other ci!il or criminal action Q: woman sufferin# from 0W".. the erson can act with intelli#ence Q: what is ermanent sic6ness? Imbecilit$ NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1. Maximo Amurao .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .es. mptin& 5 there is a crime but there is no criminal 5 the act is not 4ustified but the actor is not criminall$ liable 5 there is ci!il liabilit$ e8ce t in ara#ra hs @ and C Articl 12%1( 6 Imb cilit! an# Insanit! 5 an imbecile or an insane is entitled to be e8em ted.-.it is not necessar$ that +A e8ist Q: how will court determine 0W"? Certified s$chiatrist or s$cholo#ist "rticle 12 Q: What is an e8em tin# circumstance? 5 a circumstance if resent durin# the commission of the crime will free the accused from criminal liabilit$ 5 there is a crime. 6illed husband. of 138 Atty. / year +. but there is no criminal 5 burden of proof to ro!e the e8istence of an e8em tin# circumstance: lies with the defense Q: *istin#uish 4ustif$in# from e8em tin# 8usti'!in& 5 there is neither a crime nor a criminal 5 the act is 4ustified and the actor is not criminall$ liable 5 there is no ci!il liabilit$ e8ce t in ara#ra h @ -. unless the latter acted durin# a lucid inter!al • Imb cil – one who is de ri!ed com letel$ of reason or discernment and freedom of will when committin# a crime7 e8em ted in all cases7 mentalit$ is com arable to a child =5C $ears old • Insanit! – not so e8em t because durin# a lucid inter!al.. / 2ina Acosta *+./ in 0a1u *+.1.

and b$ runnin# faster to a!oid the authorities was an indication of not bein# totall$ de ri!ed of his freedom of will because of his intention to esca e B5 1ho has the (urden to prove insanity: lies with the defense. the offender becomes insane onl$ after the commission of the crime or durin# trial. . / year +.. le#al effect? Not e8em t *urin# – e8em t After – not e8em t.1. can he in!o6e insanit$ as an e8em tin# circumstance? =&.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . but roceedin# will be sus ended &insanit$ must be at the time of the commission of the offense unless is ro!en to subsist until commission Q: 1hat is the test for the degree of insanity for it to count as an e8em tin# circumstance? 1he tests of the de#ree of insanit$ are the e8istence of: 1.-.. the fact that he was runnin# awa$ was an indication that he was not de ri!ed of intelli#ence because he 6new he did. is the time recedin# the act or the moment of e8ecution • 0 bl min# #n ss – not e8em tin# because s. he ran e!en faster. total de ri!ation of freedom of will • Mere abnormalities of the mental facilities are not enou#h C+ #upposin ./ in 0a1u *+. therefore.. throu#h circumstantial e!idence if clear and con!incin#>  0vidence of insanity must refer to the time preceding the act or at the very moment of e3ecution C+ #upposin .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Q: Which is not ermanent? Insanit$ Page :1 of 138 Atty. because what is counted and considered in determinin# whether there was insanit$. Maximo Amurao Q: Insanit$ before the commission of the crime.he can still distin#uish ri#ht from wron#7 not e=ui&alent to insanity • /omnambulism or sl p5al+in& – must be clearl$ ro!en to be considered an e8em tin# circumstance under this Article7 acts of the slee wal6er should not be !oluntar$ • Mali&nant malaria – can cause insanit$. com lete de ri!ation of intelli#ence 2. as the$ #ot closer to him. can be considered as an e8em tin# circumstance under this Article • 3asis 'or . then as the authorities tried to catch him. he then be#an to run awa$ because he 6new he committed a crime. a man suddenl$ 4ust stabs another erson. mption – complete absence of intelligence NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+.1. can he still in!o6e the e8em tin# circumstance of insanit$? =&.Accordin# to Re$es.

/ 2ina Acosta *+. emotional mana#ement.1. accordin# to their order of a!ailabilit$: . the custody is i&en to the followin . risoner. #ection D – a child 1E years of age or below at the time of the commission of the crime shall be e3empt from criminal liability but will under#o an inter!ention ro#ram7 a child above 1E years of age or below 1F years of age shall be e3empt and be subjected to an inter&ention pro ram unless s7he acted with discernment in which case such child will be sub4ect to the a ro riate roceedin#s in accordance with this Act • Children fallin# under this Act are referred to as a child in conflict with the law 7 normall$ minor offenders are referred to as the accused. res ondent. etcbut it is contem lated that these terms refer to ersons who ha!e committed crimes7 RA ?F@@ rohibits the use of these terms to refer to minor offenders.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . n ral Rul for minors abo!e 9K or below 9B $ears of a#e: e3empted.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 1 mporar! Insanit! 6 ! s. Maximo Amurao Articl 12%2 F 3( 6 Minorit! %r p al # b! R public Act B344 or th 8u" nil 8ustic an# W l'ar Act( • R$ C%''.. in which the ublic rosecutor usuall$ initiates the recommendation for the minor to be sub4ected under the ro#ram Q: What is a child at ris6? • . s6ills im ro!ement. / year +. because the resum tion is that the$ acted without intelli#ence • -.of "ocial Welfare J *e!elo ment .c ption: the minor acted with discernment • %ow is discernment determined? .of "ocial Welfare J *e!elo ment .c> member of the 0aran#a$ Council for the 'rotection of Children .. etc-7 other di!ersion ro#rams are for reformation and rehabilitation.*"W*> .1.. mptin& Page :+ of 138 Atty. onl$ the abo!ementioned term can be used • Eor a child in conflict with the law – there is a resum tion of the absence or lac6 of intelli#ence • (ffenders are free from criminal liabilit$ but are still ci!ill$ liable • 1he l &al '' ct of the e8em tion: the child shall be #i!en to the custody of the parent or uardian4 in their absence.9> manner of committin# the crime .*"W*> • $nother effect is that the minor is sub+ected to an intervention or diversion program which in!ol!es: seminars and classes on famil$ and mediation.b> re#istered reli#ious or#aniDation .Re$es> .e> national office of the *e t.0C'C> . 4u!enile delin3uent.d> local office of the *e t. .a> re#istered non5#o!ernmental or#aniDation .-.=> conduct of the offender NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+./ in 0a1u *+.

!i> minors can den$ under oath their criminal in!ol!ement or con!iction7 cannot be char#ed with er4ur$ or falsification or misre resentation. which cannot be sub4ect for an$ motion of reconsideration. the decision shall immediatel$ ta6e effect without suspension. the court shall either decide on the sentence or e(tend the inter&ention • (nl$ when there is refusal to be sub4ected to reformation or when there is failure to reform can the child be subjected to criminal prosecution and the judicial system • Oth r '' cts o' R public Act B344 . there is reform on the art of the minor. Maximo Amurao • *iscernment can also be determined b$ the words uttered b$ the minor attendant to the commission of the act.i!> criminal records of minors abo!e 9K or below 9B $ears of a#e are 6e t confidential in order to protect the honor and reputation of the minor .a> If after the inter&ention. and the decision shall be promul ated and pronounced • What is the si#nificance of promul ation? 5 it is full of si#nificance7 the decision is read in o en court 5 immediatel$ after the readin# the 4ud#ment of ac3uittal becomes immediatel$ final and e8ecutor$.the words.. / year +. e#. when committed b$ a minor 9K $ears old or below7 the minor will not be criminall$ liable ./ in 0a1u *+.!> e8em ts minors from the offense of refusin# to ac6nowled#e the fact that s.iii> decriminaliDes !a#ranc$ and rostitution. hence the decision cannot be either re!ersed or modified • If the jud ment is conviction.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page :3 of 138 Atty. unished under the R'C.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .i> decriminaliDes the sniffin# of ru#b$ b$ a minor .he had been in!ol!ed or con!icted in a criminal case before . there is no reform. which indicates an e(pression of accomplishment. 90uti n a sa. for concealin# the criminal in!ol!ement or NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.-. which shall ha!e the followin# effects: . the promul ation of the decision and the sentence shall be suspended b$ the court7 the minor shall be ordered to under o inter&ention. which rohibits be##in# or be##ars . the minor shall be returned to the court to dismiss the criminal case and dismiss the char es a#ainst the minor . / 2ina Acosta *+.1.ii> decriminaliDes the !iolation of a minor of the Anti5Mendicanc$ Law.b> If after the inter&ention.1.. &ictory or satisfaction Wh n th cas has b n # ci# # b! th courtG • If the jud ment is an acAuittal.yoJ:.. the minor shall be returned to the court for the romul#ation of the decision a#ainst the minor7 then.

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page :9 of 138 Atty. the 'hili ines is not $et read$ for that 6ind of law. in4ur$ was done without fault or intention of causin# it Q: What is an Accident? Q: What are the Re3uisites? Q: What are the Le#al )ffects of Accident? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. commits a crime. but has alread$ been re ealed b$ RA ?F@@7 their criminal liabilit$ is erased therefore the$ shall be released Q: "u osin#. while an adult does not suffer an$ enalt$ for committin# similar acts7 these shall include curfew !iolations. because minors who acted with discernment under this a#e brac6et.. were not e8em ted from criminal liabilit$ before under the R'C.!ii> retroacti&e application of RA ?F@@ on ersons who were con&icted and are currently ser&in time for crimes they committed when they were minors abo&e F or below 15 years of a e when they committed the offense. Maximo Amurao con!iction7 purpose: to i&e the minor a new lease in life and to pre&ent the sti ma of con&iction which e8tends in a lon#5term basis. a 9:5$ear old. arental disobedience and the li6e • #tatus offenses when committed by a minor are unishable. / 2ina Acosta *+..in loo6in# for 4ob or rotectin# the familiesL re utation .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . will be e8em ted all the time? 2ictims will ta6e the Eili ino wa$ R ta6in# the law into their own hands • With reference to RA ?F@@.)"murao) • 3asis 'or th . mption o' a minor: absence or lac1 of intelligence Articl 12%4( ? Acci# nt 5 !lements+ 1. causes an in4ur$ to another by mere accident 4. who are minors.1.an& rs o' R public Act B344 )"murao) 5 can be abused or ta6en ad!anta#e of b$ crime s$ndicates that use minors as instruments for the commission of crimes 5 1he effect of the liberal e8em tions of RA ?F@@ – what will ha en to the !ictims if the offenders.1. he is still e(empted7 what is important is the a e of the child at the time of the commission of the crime7 it doesnLt matter whether the child was e8tremel$ intelli#ent • /tatus O'' ns s ./ in 0a1u *+. the act is done with due care 3. a erson is erformin# a lawful act 2. will he be e8em ted from criminal liabilit$ considerin# the hi#h le!el of intelli#ence of the child? /0#.. but are not punishable anymore under 5" F344 • #tatus offenses when committed by an adult are not punishable • 1h . / year +.under RA ?F@@> – refers to offenses which discriminate onl$ a#ainst a child. truanc$.-. i-e. who is a arentl$ !er$ intelli#ent.

1here is a enalt$5destierro. hit a child who suddenl$ crossed the road? . mption – absence of intent Articl 12%5( 6 Compulsion o' Irr sistibl 0orc 5!lements+ 1.f all the elements are present.1.Art-=@C> 'ar-9 not e8em t from criminal liabilit$.Amurao> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1. com ulsion to commit the crime is b$ means of h$sical force or !iolence 2.es. the le#al effect is that the accused shall incur no criminal liability and no civil liability • If not all the elements are present... e8em tAbsolutor$ cause . / year +. o!ertoo6 the car? Not e8em t Left lane is for o!erta6in# Page :: of 138 Atty.-. brand new tires? Not e8em t (f C assen#ers in the car5 o!erloadin# Ri#ht lane em t$. w..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes No ci!il liabilit$ No criminal liabilit$ )8am les of e8ce tions Q: *ri!er with an e8 ired license? N(1 e8em t Q:Not re#istered 9 $ear delin3uent? N(1 e8em t5 not lawful act With defecti!e brea6s. Maximo Amurao (!erta6in# on the left lane.n " eed limits ro er lane? Not e8em t5fault or ne#li#ence 1ires of car alread$ worn out? Not e8em t In ti to condition. $rticle D7 of the RPC will apply and the enalt$ rescribed is arresto mayor to prision mayor for ra&e felonies • 1here is negligence when R the accused tried to o!erta6e another !ehicle on the ri#ht side of the road because this is a !iolation of traffic laws • " eedin# alon# the road is an e8am le of an act done without due care • 3asis 'or . / 2ina Acosta *+.It is still an unlawful act• ./ in 0a1u *+. the h$sical force or !iolence must come from a Frd erson 'resu oses that a erson is com elled by means of force or &iolence • Irr sistibl 0orc – de#ree of force which is e(ternal or physical force which reduces the erson to a mere instrument and the acts roduced are done without his will and a ainst his will . h$sical force or !iolence is irresistible 3.

Ereedom Q7 'ar-< *istin#uish < and KNature of threat –#reater or e3ual? .. not force or !iolence 5 !lements: 1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes • 3asis 'or . the e(istence of an uncontrollable fear 2. an act is re=uired by law to be done 2. that it romises an e!il of such #ra!it$ and imminence that the ordinar$ man would ha!e succumbed to it  'resu oses intimidation or threat.u to La5'ul or Insup rabl Caus 5 !lements: 1. the fear of an in4ur$ is reater than or e=ual to that committed • All the elements must concur • 3asis 'or . / year +..1. the fear must real and imminent 3./ in 0a1u *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . that a erson fails to perform such act 3. Maximo Amurao 1.-. that the threat which causes the fear is of an e!il #reater than or at least e3ual to that which he is re3uired to commit 2. mption – absence of intent • Absolutor! Caus s – those where the act committed is a crime but for reasons of ublic olic$ and sentiment.Re$es> Page :. of 138 Atty. mption – absence of freedom Articl 12%<( 6 Impuls o' an Dncontrollabl 0 ar 5 5e=uisites: .i'' r nc b t5 n irresistible force an# uncontrollable fear: Irr sistibl 0orc – in!ol!es the use of violence or physical force to com el Dncontrollabl 0 ar – in!ol!es the use of threat or intimidation to com el Articl 12%A( 6 0ailur to $ r'orm a La5'ul Act . that the failure to erform such act was due to some lawful or insuperable cause • .ailure to deli&er arrested persons to the proper authorities due to roblems re#ardin# distance and trans ortation is a lawful or insu erable cause • A typhoon causes the failure to erform the lawful act is an insu erable cause • 3asis 'or .. there is no enalt$ im osed NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+. mption 5 absence of freedom Q: What element of !oluntariness is absent? Intent.1.

9=K . Maximo Amurao • Insti&ation – is an illegal act because the ublic officer lants the seed of criminalit$ in the mind of the erson or offender )"murao)7 the ublic officer induces an innocent erson to commit the crime which the ublic officer concei!ed )5eyes) • -ntrapm nt – is a le#al act because the ur ose is to ca ture or tra the lawbrea6er • 0uyBbust operations are forms of entra ment. / 2ina Acosta *+.1. / year +.of 138 Atty.bu$ bust o eration /i!e e8am les 'ri!ate indi!idual both )ffects of criminal liabilit$ of: Insti#ator5liable as rinci al b$ inducement Insti#ated5 rinci al b$ direct artici ation 'ut absolutor$ as to direct artici ation $rticle 1% Q: what is miti#atin# circumstance? 5 those which.-.INAR2 5 offset b$ a #eneric a##ra!atin# circumstance 5 enalt$ lowered to minimum $RIHIL-.-.Warrantless arrest> Insti#ation !s.1. 5 cannot be offset b$ a #eneric a##ra!atin# circumstance 5 enalt$ lowered b$ de#ree • Miti#atin# and a##ra!atin# circumstances are not a lied to s ecial enal laws because the enalties in s ecial enal laws cannot be di!ided into three eriods Articl 13%1( 6 Incompl t 8usti'!in& or -..Amurao> Art-<? ma6es ar-9 of Art-9F a ri!.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . if resent in the commission of the crime.9F becomes a ri!ile#ed miti#atin# circumstance because of Art-<? ..mit./ in 0a1u *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page :.CircumstanceClassification: OR. do not entirel$ free the actor from criminal liabilit$ but ser!e onl$ to reduce the enalt$ Q: What are the Pinds? (rdinar$ 'ri!ile#ed 'ar-9 of Art.)ntra ment5 e-#. hence the$ are le#al Arbitrar$ *etention with warrant Art.. mptin& Circumstanc s NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.

.+" !s./ in 0a1u *+. Maximo Amurao 5 is considered a privileged miti#atin# circumstance. defense of relati&e and defense of stran er R the element of unlawful aggression should always be present &All elements of AC or )C resent – e8em t or 4ustified &I) elements but not ma4orit$ –ordinar$ mit.Circ-5 Mista6e of fact of the woman'ri!. shot the 4anitor usin# a #un under her illow? .9<59C $ears old>..mit. who acted with discernment 5 shall be entitled to the benefits of a privileged miti#atin# circumstance • 3asis 'or miti&ation: diminution of intelligence 0et. defense of relati!e or defense of stran#er. / year +. ma4orit$ of the elements re3uired to 4ustif$ or e8em t are resent 5 for the 4ustif$in# circumstances of selfBdefense.+nlawful A#ression V either of re3uisites = or F> Q: K: meters awa$5 ri!ile#ed? No. / 2ina Acosta *+.Circ'ro!ided that in self defense.Circ.reduced b$ one de#ree> Without discernment5 e8em tin# RA ?F@@ did not amend Art.Aanitor ha ened to enter the room to clean.9K or 9B with discernment5 mit .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page :8 of 138 Atty.1.1..A e#o> Mit.<B Refuse to submit *i!ersion ro#ram 2iolation of conditions Not for best interest *i!ersion ro#ram5 commencement of criminal action5 if e!entuall$ sentenced to con!iction Art.see a#e =K? of boo6> 1here was faultQ: Woman slee in# in her room. +nlawful a##ression is resentQ: /i!e an e8am le)8am le of miti#atin# circumstance of incom lete accident .<B will a l$- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . pro&ided.%e accidentall$ touched the hand of the woman.Mit. considerin# the distance +A not resent Articl 13%2( 6 Minorit! 5 co!ers minors abo!e 9K $ears but below 9B $ears of a#e .Circ&Ma4orit$ of the elements are resent5 ri!.(f self5defense .N-0.-.0elie!in# her honor was in dan#er.

ma8 eriods.CL)AR? Q: A intend to in4ure AMurao hit in the ri#ht shoulder *id not submit to medical treatmentAmurao died9st 3uestion: Is A liable? .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .. intent bein# a state of mind9> wea on used => nature of in4ur$7 number of in4ur$ F> art of the bod$ in4ured . Maximo Amurao 5 dis ro ortion of the means em lo$ed to e8ecute the crime and the conse3uences roduced7 there should ha!e been an intent at the moment • 3asis 'or miti&ation: lac1 or diminution of intent Eactor to determine e8istence of raeter intentionem. intent is immaterial in offensesQ: 1rue or false: All miti#atin# circ..esWhence murder .. / year +.F in !iolation of s ecial enal laws? No.es.Can be a reciated in s ecial enal laws? No./ in 0a1u *+. In #eneral> )8ce t: A#e Articl 13%4( 6 $r s nc o' /u''ici nt $ro"ocation or 1hr at Q: What are the re3uisites? 1. ar.)nri3ueD .1. / 2ina Acosta *+.9 Art-@ Was there treacher$? .3ualified b$ treacher$> 0ecause Amurao died.1. intent to 6ill is b$ law conclusi!eQ: 'eo le !.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Articl 13%3( 6 $ra t r Int ntion m 5 offender did not intend to commit so #ra!e a wron# Page :< of 138 Atty. enalties not #raduated and di!isible into min.location of in4ur$> @> manner of inflictin# in4ur$ 1reacher$ 5 )8ternal . med. ro!ocation must be sufficient NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Abuse of su erior stren#th> Intent to threaten onl$ %ow would $ou classif$? (rdinar$Le#al effect? Minimum )8ce t5 if cancelled b$ #eneric a##ara!atin# circQ: Claim ar.es.Qualif$in# a##ra!atin# if e8ternal in nature can co5e8ist with raeter intentionem which is internal.-.

incitin# or initiatin# an$one I* Wh n is pro"ocation /u''ici nt – ade3uate to e8cite a erson to commit the wron# and must accordin#l$ be ro ortionate to its #ra!it$ 5 depends on: .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page .@? ..=> the social standin# of the erson ro!o6ed .w..."(I> Q: 1est to determine whether ro!ocation can be considered miti#atin#.= m>7 0orrowed 6nife .9> the act constitutin# the ro!ocation . must ori#inate from the offended art$ 3.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .the ro!ocation> Q: What is the determinin# factor? Influence or effect of the ro!ocation .=CF Q: %ow soon must the crime be committed? No time to re#ain his reason and to e8ercise self5control 5meanin# of immediatel$ is not with reference to the la se of time er se &Relate to RA1I( (E 1%) LAW 0ut la se of time to re#ain self5control 5 ersonal to $ou . of 138 Atty.1.. / year +.F> the lace and time when the ro!ocation was made • . Maximo Amurao 2./ in 0a1u *+.1.c means that la se or inter!al of time is allowed de endin# on #ra!it$ of offense> Q: Acts of lasci!iousness committed a#ainst $ou .hreats should immediatel$ recede the act • 3asis o' th miti&ation* diminution of intelligence and intent Q: )lements: .-.<? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+.=F: m> Miti#atin# under ar.What 6ind of ro!ocation? "ufficientQ: When is ro!ocation sufficient? '.esQ: +nder ar. that the ro!ocation must be immediate to the act or crime committed b$ the erson who is ro!o6ed Q: What is ro!ocation? $ro"ocation – an$ un4ust or im ro er conduct or act of the offended art$ ca able of e8citin#.

set of factsQ: ?:F: mother informed $ou that $our sister was ra ed.Eound him after F da$s'assion or obfuscation? No'ro!ocation? No2indication? ...Will $ou be entitled to the benefits of these MC? No.1.ou searched for him with a re!ol!er*id not find him.es- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.are considered: 5 social standin of the erson 5 time when the insult was made 5 place where the insult was made 5 sometimes.ICA1ION $ro"ocation Hin#ication 5 it is made directl$ onl$ to the erson 5 the #ra!e offense ma$ be committin# the felon$ committed also a#ainst the offenderLs relati!es 5 the cause that brou#ht about the 5 offended art$ must ha!e done ro!ocation need not be a #ra!e a #ra!e offense to offender or offense his relati!es 5 it is necessar$ that the ro!ocation or 5 !indication of the #ra!e offense threat immediatel$ recedes the act ma$ be pro(imate which allows an without inter!al of time inter!al of time • R ason 'or th #i'' r nc : vindication concerns the honor of a person • 1o determine whether the personal offense is ra&e.'resent. e!en the a e ma$ be considered • 3asis 'or th miti&ation: diminution of the conditions of voluntariness Q: 1here are F mit. alternati!el$ arisin# from the same factsQ: Is acts lasci!iousness a #ra!e offense? . / 2ina Acosta *+. that a #ra!e offense has been done on the one committin# the felon$ or on his relati!es 2. / year +.-./ in 0a1u *+.1 of 138 Atty.esQ: Ma$ $ou consider both to#ether? No.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .es- Page . felon$ committed in !indication of such #ra!e offense7 a la se of time is allowed between the !indication and the doin# of the #ra!e offense • .1.Circ.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes . Maximo Amurao Articl 13%5( Imm #iat Hin#ication o' R lati" sE:ims l' 5 5e=uisites: 1.i'' r nc b t5 n $ROHOCA1ION an# HIN..Arose onl$ out of 9 fact.. the ff.

and "'5 . / year +.esQ: It is a #ra!e offense a#ainst $ou? Q: What is the crime committed? "lander. 2. not lawful sentiment7 not lawful le#itimate relation "'5 .%usband was humiliated b$ reason of which he stabbed common law wifeMa$ claim assion or obfuscation? No2indication of #ra!e offense? No.relati!es> Q: Re3uirements of assion or obfuscation? Q: Common law husband as6 common law wife to return home.Circ-? 2indication of #ra!e offense 'assion or obfuscation => Must #ra!e offense constitute a crime? NoQ: "u osin# $ou ha!e a first cousin.1hen father 6noc6ed. #irl.esB months. Q: Ma$ be committed b$ a common law wife a#ainst a common law husband? .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page .-. so close to $ou.+ of 138 Atty. / 2ina Acosta *+. who was ra ed b$ nei#hbor.Eather loo6ed ofr dau#hter.1.esQ: 'resence of 'J(..'arent of sweetheart considered it an offense a#ainst famil$..@ and K? . is it a crime? . !indication? Law sa$s immediate Q: *ifference of meanin# of immediate in ar..Eather enra#ed shot chinaman9> %ow man$ mit.Circ? 2indication? No. Chinaman ran and refused to tal6 with father. !indicatin#? Q: Chinaman elo ed with sweetheart.es NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Wife refused.1./ in 0a1u *+.Eound her in the house of the chinaman. slandered in ublic.. Maximo Amurao Q: What is re3uired in !indication? La se of time Q: What if after one wee6.ou loo6ed for nei#hbour and shot him deadWhat mit. first cousin not contem lated under !indication .es Q: Can $ou consider all of these in $our fa!our? 'J(5 No. not enumerated b$ lawQ: %umiliation.

es Page .i'' r nc b t5 n $A//ION or O30D/CA1ION an# IRR-/I/1I3L. he con!inced woman to lea!e the rostitution house and the$ li!ed to#ether as husband and wife.3 of 138 Atty. she was found in another rostitution house.Woman adamant in her refusal.? are interrelated because they can e(ist in a sin le act but not necessarily appreciated separately2 Articl 13%<( 6 $assion or Ob'uscation 5 !lements: 1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 25 ./ in 0a1u *+. the im ulse must be so owerful that it naturall$ roduced assion or obfuscation in the accused  5eason+ these are causes naturall$ roducin# in a erson owerful e8citement that he loses reason and self5control thereb$ diminishin# the e8ercise of will ower  5ule: the passion or obfuscation should arise from lawful sentiments in order to be miti#atin# 5 5e=uisites: 1..0ORC$assion or Ob'uscation Irr sistibl 0orc 5 a miti#atin# circumstance 5 an e8em tin# circumstance 5 cannot #i!e rise to irresistible force 5 re3uires h$sical force because passion or obfuscation has no physical force 5 the assion or obfuscation is in the 5 must come from a third erson offender himself 5 must arise from lawful sentiments 5 is unlawful .1.Wife leftAfter se!eral da$s. stabbed herQ: Ma$ old man claim 'J(? No.5. that said act which roduced the obfuscation was not far remo!ed from the commission of the crime b$ a considerable len#th of time.(ld man was enra#ed. Matanda 6a naMahina na tuhod mo.Met an attracti!e woman in a rostitution house.. durin# which the er etrator mi#ht reco!er his natural e3uanimit$ . .Woman said A$o6o na sa$o. both unlawful and sufficient to roduce such a condition of mind 2. the accused acted u on im ulse 2. / 2ina Acosta *+.-.0ello is an e8ce tion .'eo le !. Maximo Amurao Q: (ld man has his own famil$ alread$ but not contented with wife went out e!er$ ni#ht . / year +.1. con!inced her to to #o bac6.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . that there be an act.i'' r nc b t5 n $A//ION or O30D/CA1ION an# $ROHOCA1ION $assion or Ob'uscation $ro"ocation 5 roduced b$ an im ulse which ma$ 5 must come from the in4ured art$ NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.=?:5=?9> 4..

9 of 138 Atty. that the confession of #uilt was made rior to the resentation of e!idence for the rosecution • )!en after arrai#nment.as was held in the midterms> • 2oluntar$ confession is usuall$ done durin# arrai#nment • What has been admitted need not be ro!en b$ e!idence7 4ud#ment can alread$ be rendered but both sides can still resent e!idence to ro!e a##ra!atin# or miti#atin# circumstances • Arrai&nm nt – char#es are bein# read to the accused in o en court in a lan#ua#e 6nown to him7 if the char#es are read in a lan#ua#e not 6nown to him. !oluntar$ confession can still be miti#atin#.1. that the offender surrendered himself to a erson in authorit$ or to the latterLs a#ent 3.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes be caused b$ ro!ocation 5 the offense which en#enders erturbation of mind need not be immediate7 it is onl$ re3uired that the influence thereof lasts until the moment the crime is committed 5 the effect is loss of reason and self5control on the art of the offender Page . that the surrender was !oluntar$ • JHoluntar!> – to be a reciated. that the offender had not been actuall$ arrested 2. that the offender s ontaneousl$ confessed his #uilt 2. either because . / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+.9> he ac6nowled#ed his #uilt or .uilt 5 5e=uisites: 1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Maximo Amurao 5 must immediatel$ recede the commission of the crime 5 the effect is also loss of reason and self5control on the art of the offender • Articl 13%A( 6 Holuntar! /urr n# rEHoluntar! Con' ssion o' .the GwhereforeH clause> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. there is an amendment in the information R still !oluntar$ confession ...1. &oluntary surrender must be spontaneous in such a manner that it shows the interest of the accused to surrender unconditionall$ to the authorities. when with the consent of the ublic rosecutor./ in 0a1u *+.=> because he wishes to sa!e them the trouble and e8 ense necessaril$ incurred in his search and ca ture • Intention to surrender without actuall$ surrenderin# is =&6 miti#atin# • Holuntar! Con' ssion o' .-. that the confession of #uilt was made in o en court that is before the com etent court that is to tr$ the case 3. the arrai#nment or lea is void• It is the dut$ of courts to read char#es in a lan#ua#e 6nown to him • $romul&ation – h$sical and actual readin# of the sentence to the accused 5 can be limited to 4ust the dis ositi!e ortion .uilt Holuntar! /urr n# r 5 5e=uisites: 1..

/ year +.es- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.: of 138 Atty.es(f Landban6? .es*0'? . the decision is final and e8ecutor$ and not a ris6 of double 4eo ard$ Page .1. -F:K> A#ent e-#. resources and ener#$ for his search and ca ture 1o whom must 2" be done? 'erson5in5authorit$. *efine .1anods N0I a#ents "heriffs Pilld nei#hbor. Con#ressman 'resident. /o!ernor 'rosecutor.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Maximo Amurao eallable because of the 5 if there is a conviction.sa!es time.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 5 if there is an acAuittal.es0oard members of /"I"? .1. and F.not #eneric> => 2oluntar$ confession of #uilt 'ara#ra hs F to 9: are all ordinar$ miti#atin# Reason for considerin# !oluntar$ surrender miti#atin#? 9.Act of re entance and = res ect for law. surrender to Amurao.-.. the accused has 9K da$s to a!ail of le#al remedies. 1eachers A#ents 'olice officers Members of AE' 0r#$. 'rofessors./ in 0a1u *+. the con!iction becomes final and e8ecutor$ • 3asis 'or miti&ation* lesser perversity of the offender Q: %ow man$ MC? two 9> 2oluntar$ surrender5 (rdinar$ . if not a!ailed after.es"""? . / 2ina Acosta *+...Chairman Cit$ Ma$or Aud#e.of '5I5A 0r#$. !oluntar$ surrender? .

Maximo Amurao Q: "u osin# accused after 6illin# nei#hbour 4ust sta$ed in his house.'lace of surrender not si#nificant.Amurao> (ffender on radio that he was Z9 sus ect in sla$in# of olitician.es- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Ambassador to Australia. not a '5I5A or a#ent under the 'hil laws Q: (n the wa$ to the olice recinct./ in 0a1u *+.es- Page .Chairman of 1awi5tawi? . ositi!e.%idin# lace surrounded b$ authorities%e came out sa$in# I surrender. the accused hidin# in 1awi5tawi surrendered to 0r#$. *irect.-.2"? No .1.es)!en if warrant is alread$ issued? .. of 138 Atty. surrendered to 0r#$.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 'A/C(R? .esQ: If surrendered to Australian 'rime Minister? No. he has a endin# case for ra e. if accused is in Australia u on learnin# of the case filed? .es.%e was found after se!eral months. / year +.es. / 2ina Acosta *+. une3ui!ocal act showin# an intention to submit himself !oluntaril$ either sa!e the #o!t from the time and e8 enses or as a si#n of ac6nowled#ment of #uilt or re entance ...1anod? . as lon# as not ser!edrehended? .1. accused went into hidin#. he came to the olice to clear his name..+ on learnin#. went with them !oluntaril$5 mit? NoHoluntar! surr n# r not s!non!mous 5ith non?'li&ht.When olice officers arri!ed. was a Q: *id not offer resistance? NoQ: Issued warrant. Internal> Meanin# of s ontaneousKoluntary Confession -$ar2 1* of "rt2142 A case for homicide filed a#ainst accused in 0atanes.2oluntar$ surrender? NoWill surrender onl$ if 9> %e is #i!en s ecial treatment => ref F> aircon 2oluntar$ surrender? NoAfter committin# crime.It need not be the lace where the case is filedQ: 'hil.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .

. clear J con!icnin# testimon$ After 9st witness.1here is resentation of witnesses. aircon. "+0MI""I(N.umbn ss 5 must restrict the means of action..N(1 rior to GterminationH Witness onl$ sworn5in.esArticl 13%C( 6 .esAmend info to a lesser offense w. withdrew #uilt$ lea. / year +.o rotest willin# to lea #uilt$. documents.Miti#atin#? NoN-0..1. surrendered? No./ in 0a1u *+. a'n ss an# . Maximo Amurao 9: months after issuance.of 138 Atty. concludin# that he would be con!icted ..No lon#er s ontaneous"urrender to mother5in5law? NoQ: Re3uisites of 2C/: Com etent court5 meanin#? Court tr$in# the case ( en court5 meanin#? )!en if doors are closed? .1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page .-.esReason behind 2C/? Act of re entance. no testimon$ $et miti#atin#? . com uter set? NoWhen to lead? Arrai#nment're5trial? . N(1 'R)")N1A1I(N 'rosec resented 9st e$ewitness.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . miti#atin#? . Ac6nowled#ment of #uilt Accused willin# to lead #uilt$ with condition Ref. and #ist of testimon$> After ins ection of e!idence and conclusion. defense or communication with others • 3asis 'or miti&ation* offender does not have complete freedom of action4 diminution of freedom and voluntariness NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+. the e!idence a#ainst him is stron#"ta#es Arrai#nment 're5trial 1rial (NL.

-..esCri led? . <: $ears old5C: $ears of a#e Restitution5 !oluntar$ surrenderCreditor.'rosecuted for Robber$? No- Articl 13%19( 6 Oth r Analo&ous Circumstanc s )8am le? 0lind.esN( C(N1R(L (E 1%)IR (WN WILL A" EAR A" 1%) (EE)N") I" C(NC)RN)* "ame fact5se8 maniac.1.es'artial blindness? . MI1Le#al effectsArticl 13%B( 6 Illn ss 5 the offender has diminished e8ercise of will ower7 loss of will ower ma$ e!en be e8em tin# 5 de ri!ation of consciousness • 3asis 'or miti&ation* diminution of intelligence and intent • • • • • • • Accused rosecuted for sim le theft .Miti#atin#? .ou saw $our #irlfriend wal6in# hand5in5hand with another man. $ou inflicted h$sical in4uries? 'assion or obfuscation- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.es1oothless? . it was ro!ed that he was a 6le tomaniac../ in 0a1u *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page .es*eaf b$ one ear? . debtorRunnin# awa$ and refuses to a$2ictim brou#ht to the hos ital for treatment5 !oluntar$ surrender/i!in# !ictim a certain amount forQ5 !oluntar$ confessionAealous$. / year +. not related to the offense committedAccused rosecuted for ra e. Miti#atin#? .sho liftin# in a mall> *urin# trial.. Maximo Amurao 0ald? No0lind? .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .esN When must the h$sical defect be resent? At the time of the commission of the crime(R*INAR.*urin# trial ro!ed to be se8 maniac..8 of 138 Atty. / 2ina Acosta *+.esIf rosecuted for frustrated homicide? No.1.

11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . e#.+n4ustified> $rticle 1' Q: What are a##ra!atin# circumstances? 5 those if resent..i'' r nc b t5 . Ad!anta#e l$ to articular crimes. /p ci'ic – those that a l$ to all crimes. Cruelt$.-. Inh r nt – necessit$ accom anies the commission of the crime. / 2ina Acosta *+. etc4. are not automaticall$ offset b$ miti#atin# circumstances 5 ma$ increase the enalt$ ro!ided b$ the law without e8ceedin# the ma8imum enalt$ or it chan#es the nature of the crime ? Classification* 1. etc 2.. e#.Circ. 5 can be offset b$ an ordinar$ 5 cannot be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance 5 the le#al effect is to increase miti#atin# circumstance 5 it chan#es the nature of the crime the enalt$ to the ma8imum 5 #i!e the crime its ro er and e8clusi!e without e8ceedin# the limit name • (oth Aualifying and generic circumstances must be alle ed in the information7 the rosecution canLt ro!e an a##ra!atin# circumstance durin# trial .-N-RIC n . Aid of Minors. )!ident 'remeditation. n ric – those that #enerall$ a ta6en b$ 'ublic 'osition. 1reacher$ 3.. / year +.In the R'C? Infanticide or abortion to conceal dis#race or dishonorAdulter$5 there is abandonment b$ the offended art$. -F=< ZF in the com arison art in the Re$es boo6 is wron#> • Articl 14%1( 6 A#"anta& 1a+ n o' $ublic $osition 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1.I#nomin$.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page ./ in 0a1u *+.< of 138 Atty. Iuali'!in& – 1hose that chan#e the nature of the crime..1reacher$.se8 is inherent in crimes a#ainst chastit$ • . n ric an# Iuali'!in& IDALI02IN.Recidi!ism. Maximo Amurao (ther mit. e#.1. e#. .

the ublic authorit$ is en#a#ed in the e8ercise of his official functions 2. s.personal circumstances of the offender.. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ad!anta#e ta6en of ublic osition be a reciated? ./ in 0a1u *+. !indication.)"  #upposin some members of the baran#a$ council as6ed for financial s onsorshi for the education of the communit$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . then the ro4ect turned out to be false. a traffic enforcer ta6e o!er the car of a dri!er and s eeds awa$. and .2. resti#e or ascendanc$ which his office #i!es him as the means b$ which s. / year +. presti e or ascendancy #i!en to him b$ his office  #upposin . in crimes committed b$ a ublic officer. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ad!anta#e ta6en of ublic osition be a reciated? . because these circumstances are incompatible with ad!anta#e ta6en of ublic osition since deliberate intent is absent in these instances #upposin .1. a olice in!esti#ator as6ed a ra e !ictim to enter a room where he committed acts of lasci!iousness on the ra e !ictim.)"  #upposin .he must use the influence. the ublic authorit$ is not the !ictim of the crime NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -.1. of 138 Atty. ublic osition is inherent: 5 briber$ 5 mal!ersation of ublic funds 5 indirect briber$ 5 RA F:9? 5 falsification of ublic documents 5 other crimes a#ainst ublic officers under the R'C • 3asis 'or th a&&ra"ation* the reater per&ersity of . Maximo Amurao 5 based on Re ublic Act C<K?. or sufficient ro!ocation. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ad!anta#e ta6en of ublic osition be a reciated? =&..1.-. / 2ina Acosta *+.means used to secure commission of the crime • Articl 14%2( 6 Cont mpt or Insult to $ublic Authoriti s 5 5e=uisites: 1. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ad!anta#e ta6en of ublic osition be a reciated? . assion or obfuscation. he has to use the influence. the enalt$ rescribed b$ law is alwa$s at the ma3imum. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ad!anta#e ta6en of ublic osition be a reciated? /0# • 1he a##ra!atin# circumstance of advantage ta en of public position is =&6 a reciated when the public position is an integral element or inherent in the offense7 In the ff crimes. he is con!icted of robber$..he realiDes his ur ose• 1here should be a deliberate intent to use the influence. re ardless of the miti atin circumstances presented and re ardless of the nature of these miti atin circumstances • $ublic O''ic r – for ad!anta#e ta6en to be a reciated. a olice officer enters the house then ties u the residents and robs them. if these crimes were attendant of ne#li#ence.)"  #upposin . presti e or ascendancy  Is it enou#h that the offender is a ublic officer? =&.

.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of contem t or insult of ublic authorities be a reciated? =&.Must be within his 4urisdiction. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of contem t or insult of ublic authorities be a reciated? /0#. usin# the same facts abo!e. but the two eo le did not 6now that the one mediatin# was in fact the ma$or. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of contem t or insult of ublic authorities be a reciated? N(.. and manifested b$ deliberate acts 5 inherent in the crime of direct assault NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. he mediated u on introducin# himself. his resence has not re!ented the offender from committin# the crime Page -1 of 138 Atty. e!en if "unda$ is not a wor6in# da$. one "unda$. !indication or those with sufficient ro!ocation R because of the lac6 of intent 5 this can be done to a erson in authorit$ or his a#ent 5 there should be deliberate intent to disregard or insult R accom anied with the difference in ran6. offender 6nows him to be a ublic authorit$ 4. the ma$or 4ust finished mass. usin# the same facts. the two eo le attac6ed the ma$or. does not sto as lon# as he is within his 4urisdiction  #upposin .5 llin& o' th O'' n# # $art! 5 there are E(+R circumstances in this ara#ra h 5 ran6. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of contem t or insult of ublic authorities be a reciated? =&.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 3. Maximo Amurao  #upposin . or .A crime was committedA##ra!atin#? No.Not en#a#ed in official duties• Articl 14%3( 6 . the official function of the ma$or. but the ma$or attended the mass in another town. / . because mediatin# would not be art of his official functions in that other town #upposin .1.isr &ar# o' Ran+. usin# the same facts abo!e. he saw two eo le fi#htin#. because re#ardless of the da$./ in 0a1u *+. the offenders ha!e to 6now that he is the ma$or or a ublic authorit$ Q: "u osin# ma$or of town I attendin# weddin# in town .isr &ar# o' ran+ o' th o'' n# # part! 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance 5 not a licable to cases attendant of ne#li#ence or carelessness 5 not a licable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation. / 2ina Acosta *+. because the ublic authorit$ should not be the offended art$  #upposin .. / year +.1.. in this case to maintain eace and order.-. A& . se8 ha!e a common denominator R res ect due to offended art$ • . a#e.

!indication or those with sufficient ro!ocation R because of the lac6 of intent 5 the !ictim contem lated in this ara#ra h should be a woman 5 the offender should act with deliberate intent to disrespect the woman 5 disre#ard of se8 is absorbed in treacher$ 5 dwellin# ma$ mean tem orar$ dwellin# • .Amurao b$ his student. because 'rof. / 2ina Acosta *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of disre#ard of ran6 be a reciated? /0#. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of disre#ard of a#e be a reciated? /0#. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of disre#ard of ran6 be a reciated? =&.5 llin& 5 a lace or structure that satisfies the re3uirements of domestic life of a erson NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. Maximo Amurao  #upposin . / year +.Amurao is a erson in authorit$ and ran6s hi#her than the student #upposin . o' th o'' n# # part! 5 a #eneric a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance 5 not a licable to cases attendant of ne#li#ence or carelessness 5 not a licable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation. !indication or those with sufficient ro!ocation R because of the lac6 of intent 5 for this circumstance to be a reciated.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -+ of 138 Atty. e!en if the offender was also !er$ old.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ./ in 0a1u *+. the dis arit$ of their a#es still matters • .1.. there was no deliberate intent to disre#ard the ran6 of the #eneral  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of disre#ard of ran6 be a reciated? =&. a ser#eant sees his wife embracin# a #eneral.isr &ar# o' a& o' th o'' n# # part! 5 a #eneric a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance 5 not a licable to cases attendant of ne#li#ence or carelessness 5 not a licable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation. h$sical in4uries were made a#ainst 'rof. then he hit a #eneral.-. because this circumstance was attendant of assion or obfuscation • . then he ran o!er them. the dis arit$ of a#e between offender and !ictim can be determined if the !ictim can be the father of the accused7 a dis arit$ of 9K $ears or more 5 tender a e R for children7 old a e R for old eo le  #upposin .isr &ar# o' s .. the offender was ?: $ears old when he stabbed the 9:K5$ear old !ictim.1. a ser#eant was dri!in# a 4ee in a careless manner.

/ year +. the victim was about to step on the stairs? can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&  #upposin . because the toilet is art of the dwellin#  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? /0#. the accused was on the road when he shot the !ictim who was at the stairs. the owner was illed in the toilet. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&  #upposin . the employer raped their maid. the wife illed her husband in the con4u#al house. where the victim was a tenant. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&  #upposin .. the house remains intact 3asis o' th a&&ra"ation* Place of the commission of the crime7 the sanctit$ of ri!ac$ that the law ro!ides the human abode Q: %ow man$ ACLs? @ NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. the housemaid illed the employer@s child. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? /0#.-. dwellin# cannot be a reciated  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? /0#. there was no ransom but the child was illed in Cavite.. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&  #upposin . the crime was committed in the garage of the house. a husband ills his wife in their con4u#al dwellin#. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&  #upposin the wife commits adultery. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? =&  #upposin .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . / 2ina Acosta *+. because the #ara#e is art of the dwellin#  #upposin the crime was done in the roof? /0#  #upposin .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -3 of 138 Atty. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? /0#  #upposin .1. can dwellin# be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of dwellin# be a reciated? /0#. Maximo Amurao 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance 5 there no pro&ocation on the art of the offended art$ 5 all the in redients of the crime should be done in the dwellin# 5 if the offender and offended are both occu ants of the same house. because if $ou destro$ the toilet. because the stairs is still art of the dwellin#  #upposin .. the owner of the house was illed E00 meters from the toilet which was situated outside the house. a child was idnapped while at the stairs of the dwelling. if the victim was in the yard going to the direction of the stairs.1. the owner of the house and the dwellin# of the !ictim. the houseboy illed the housemaid. because dwellin# ma$ mean tem orar$ dwellin#  #upposin ./ in 0a1u *+.

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 9-> =-> F-> @-> Ran6 "e8 A#e *wellin# Page -9 of 138 Atty."ame with a#e ."er#eant saw them in ti#ht embrace.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .same reason.(? No. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+.*eliberate intent and ne#li#ence are incom atible ..'ro!ocation? No . shoots the /eneral.2indication? . Maximo Amurao Q: Ran6 and abuse of ublic functions can co5e8ist? . not offset b$ ordinar$ mit.Raises the enalt$ to the ma8imum . . '.Eelon$ committed with ne#li#ence? No.es the$ are not inconsistent$ge Q: Accidental meetin# between offender and offended? No.o> 2indication of #ra!e offense with disre#ard of ran6? . can the enalt$ #o be$ond the ma8 rescribed b$ law? NoWhen there are 9:? NoMust not e8ceed the enalt$ rescribed b$ law for the offense What is the re3uired a#e difference? 9K $ears at least .1."ame with se8 .1..(? No Q: Is it enou#h that the offended oart$ be of hi#her ran6? No.must ha!e deliberate intent Q: " ur of the moment? No.A##ra!atin#? No.*eliberate intent and with disre#ard .A lies also to Ran6 0$ accident? NoRan+ is a & n ric Q: what is the Le#al effect? – Not offset b$ an$ ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance. "'? No.could be the father> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+./ in 0a1u *+.with assion and obfuscation .Can be offset b$ mit circumstance Q: When there are = or more #eneric a##. incom atible w..es Q: /eneral has illicit relations with a wife of a "er#eant.not enou#h that offended art$ is a woman> Q: *isre#ard of ran6.-.With '.es w.

.ou attac6ed a <: $o man who filed a criminal case a#ainst $ou..A##ra!atin#? .A##ra!atin#? .ou stabbed an old man who aimed a re!ol!er at $ou.es. Maximo Amurao Le#al effect? – Not offset b$ an$ ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance.ou attac6ed a <: $o man who filed a criminal case a#ainst $ou. not offset b$ ordinar$ mit.A##ra!atin#? No.1. / 2ina Acosta *+.could be the father> A#e is #eneric ?K5 offended7 ?:5 offender – a#e a##ra!atin#? No(ld man humiliated $ou in ublic./ in 0a1u *+.No assion or obfuscation#5'assion or obfuscation must arise from unlawful action.es.No sufficient ro!ocation"e8 NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -: of 138 Atty.ou stabbed an old man who aimed a re!ol!er at $ou. / year +.."ufficient ro!ocation is incom atible.1.ou stabbed him.No sufficient ro!ocationA& is & n ric ?K5 offended7 ?:5 offender – a#e a##ra!atin#? No(ld man humiliated $ou in ublic.Raises the enalt$ to the ma8imum Can be offset b$ mit circumstance When there are = or more #eneric a##.-.ou stabbed him... can the enalt$ #o be$ond the ma8 rescribed b$ law? NoWhen there are 9:? NoMust not e8ceed the enalt$ rescribed b$ law for the offense What is the re3uired a#e difference? 9K $ears at least .Not a##ra!atin#.No assion or obfuscation#5'assion or obfuscation must arise from unlawful action."ufficient ro!ocation is incom atible.A##ra!atin#? No.Not a##ra!atin#.

If the CR is K:: meters from the house? No.inherent /eneric Can be a reciated in crimes a#ainst erson? .. / 2ina Acosta *+.es . "e8 and *wellin# – common element? R)"')C1 .es"on of owner of house. ra ed housemaid.es- . re#ardless of the location of the offender Accused under the house of !ictim./ in 0a1u *+.*wellin# is a##ra!atin# Accused was in the middle of the road.es .Incoma atible with ne#li#ence .Reason for law donLt e8ist an$moreRan6.inherent> Accused intended to 6ill husband-"aw husband and wife wal6in#..1.2ictim was brushin# his teeth b$ the window of the house.Eired at the husband but hit the wife.no lon#er an inte#ral art of the house2ictim inside car.Not a##ra!atin#.Car ort? .No deliberate intentWh$ is se8 a##ra!atin#? Wemen belon# to the wea6er se8If the woman is a blac6 belter? No lon#er a##ra!atin#.Must not be li!in# in the same house- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-. A#e.*wellin# is a##ra!atin#.1he$ are not incom atibleAccused shot the !ictim while on the roof.deliberate disre#ard of the res ect> *wellin# What is dwellin#? .Incom atible with sufficient ro!ocation 52indication can co5e8ist with dwellin#? .o .Incom atible with .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -.1. Maximo Amurao Q: Considered in ra e as a##ra!atin#? No.A##ra!atin#? .deliberate disre#ard of the res ect due to the offended art$ in the dwellin#.es.Not a##ra!atin#.es but not in ra e .Car is in car ort? .Comfort room of house? . of 138 Atty.2ictim on the u er ortion. / year +.MALI> /eneric Comfor room a dwellin#? No*wellin# – a lace of structure which satisfies the re3uirements of domestic life of a erson Is it enou#h that the crime be committed in the dwellin#? No.&Llo$d used the definition in the boo6.

1he cul rit ta6in# ad!anta#e of the offended art$Ls belief that the former would not abuse said confidence 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 can be raised to the ma8imum • 1here are instances where abuse of confidence is Aualifying: 5 3ualified theft 5 3ualified ra e 5 3ualified seduction • R )uisit s* 1.of 138 Atty.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -. / year +. offender had trusted the offended 2. offender abused such trust with the commission of the crime 3./ in 0a1u *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .. Maximo Amurao 5Maid onl$ re orts from < am to ? m. as a #eneral rule )8ce tion: lease – Gtem orar$ dwellin#H • Articl 14%4( 6 Abus o' Con'i# nc EOb"ious Dn&rat 'uln ss 5 this ara#ra h contem lates 1W( a##ra!atin# circumstances • Abus o' Con'i# nc – e8ists onl$ when the offended art$ has trusted the offender who later abuses such trust b$ committin# the crime.1..-.1hen #oes home to famil$.es. dri!er ra ed thesta$5in housemaid1his is a##ra!atin#"iblin#s – brother 6illed brother? No%usband 6illed aramour in con4u#al room.)8ce tion to the rule that dwellin# is not a##ra!atin# if both is li!in# insideIf the owner is the offender? No. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of abuse of confidence be a reciated? =& NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.)m lo$er was out. lovers bro e off 1 wee before their encounter.A##ra!atin# a#ainst the husband? No Wife had se8 with a stran#er in the con4u#al room.1.1he abuse of confidence must be a means of facilitatin# the commission of the crime.A##ra!atin# a#ainst wife? .NoEamil$ dri!er re orts from <am to B m. abuse of confidence facilitated the commission of the crime • 1here should be direct relationship and trust • Confidence must be immediate and ersonal • Abuse of Confidence is inherent in the ff: 5 mal!ersation 5 3ualified theft 5 estafa 5 3ualified seduction  #upposin .."ee a#e FK@. / 2ina Acosta *+.

.Ra ed housemaid.1. em lo$er in!ited housemaid to farm.. because there is no direct relationshi and trust between the nann$ and child  #upposin . a nanny illed 2 yr!old child under her care. manifest and clear 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 can be raised to the ma8imum 5 a licable to domestic ser!ants. the nanny illed the mother of that child under her care../ in 0a1u *+. cuti" 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 enalt$ can be raised to the ma8imum 5 Is it necessary that the Chief )8ecuti!e be there? =& 5 the alace contem lated here is the Malacanan# 'alace NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1. securit$ #uards 5 not a licable to if offender and offended both li!e in the same house • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation: #reater er!ersit$ of the wa$s and means em lo$ed Abuse of confidence in estafa? Inherent(b!ious un#ratefulness )m lo$er attem ted a#ainst the honor of housemaid.NoAbuse of confidence? Confidence bro6en• Articl 14%5( 6 $alac an# $lac s o' Commission o' O'' ns 5 this ara#ra h contem lates E(+R a##ra!atin# circumstances 5 offender must ha!e the intention to commit a crime when he entered the lace 5 all the four circumstances are not a licable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -8 of 138 Atty.-.a lies to all the laces mentioned under this ara#ra h> • Crim committ # in th $alac o' th Chi ' -. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of abuse of confidence be a reciated? /0#.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . immediate !indication or those with sufficient ro!ocation R because of the lac6 of intent 5 not a licable to cases in!ol!in# s urs of the moment or chance meetin#s • Wisdom behind this circumstance: Wh$ a##ra!ate? WhatLs with the lace? 0ecause the lace deserves respect . because there is direct relationshi and trust between the nann$ and the arents of the child • Dn&rat 'uln ss – must be ob!ious.After se!eral da$. G6atiwalasH. / year +. Maximo Amurao  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of abuse of confidence be a reciated? =&. / 2ina Acosta *+.

/ 2ina Acosta *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? =&.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page -< of 138 Atty. because the mansion is not the alace • Crim committ # in th $r s nc o' th Chi ' -.. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? =&. the Chief )8ecuti!e need not be there  #upposin . because the lawn is not art of the alace  #upposin . the crime was committed in the lawn./ in 0a1u *+.-. usin# the same facts abo!e. usin# the same facts abo!e.. the president. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? =& • Crim committ # in th $lac 5h r $ublic Authoriti s ar in th . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of lace dedicated for reli#ious worshi be a reciated? /0# NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . Maximo Amurao  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? /0#. saw the crime? can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? =&  #upposin . the chef of the Chief 03ecutive illed a +anitor. the president personally saw the crime. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of alace of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? /0#  #upposin .uti s 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 enalt$ can be raised to the ma8imum 5 em hasiDes the place of the commission of the crime 5 the ublic authorit$ must be in the e8ercise or erformance of oneLs official function • Crim committ # in a $lac . the Chief 03ecutive saw the crime from a distance.ischar& o' th ir . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of in the resence of the Chief )8ecuti!e be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . #icat # 'or R li&ious Worship 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 enalt$ can be raised to the ma8imum 5 em hasiDes the respect that should be afforded to the lace  #upposin . the offender had no nowledge that the Chief 03ecutive was present or near the place of the commission of the crime. while watching television. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of lace dedicated for reli#ious worshi be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . on?board a helicopter. there was no priest in the church.1.1. there was no ceremony in the church when the crime was committed. cuti" 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 enalt$ can be raised to the ma8imum 5 re3uires the personal presence of the Chief )8ecuti!e 5 Is it necessar$ that the crime be committed in the 'residential alace? =&  #upposin .. the crime was committed in the presidential mansion. a guest shot to death 4G *i e $rroyo.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . / year +.

9-> re#ular worshi . / year +.es NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Crime committed in Malacanan# #rounds.Accused 6new it was the residentLs con!o$Committed holdu in the streets. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of lace dedicated for reli#ious worshi be a reciated? =&.No. of 138 Atty..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .o and s 'resident no$no$ in helico ter ho!erin# o!er the ro4ects.(ne stabbed another to death within !iew of resident no$no$.-.1he (ffice of Chief Austice was robbed. not #ardenIf the con!o$ was cau#ht in hea!$ traffic.. which must be respected /eneric )m hasis of ar K? 'LAC) of the commission of the crime..A##ra!atin#? .A##ra!atin#? .es If in a ri!ate cha el in $our house? No.es (ffice of "enate 'res while "' was slee in# in his house in the middle of the ni#ht? . the lace of reli#ious worshi should hold reli#ious ceremonies there regularly 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* #reater er!ersit$ shown b$ the place of the commission of the crime.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 8. the crime was committed in a chapel inside a cemetery .=-> must be o en to the ublicCha els in cemeteries? No- 'ublic authorities are en#a#ed in the erformance – #enerice Not necessar$ that the 'A must be en#a#ed in the erformance of functions. .es Incom atible with ne#li#ence.1.Re#ular reli#ious worshi ./ in 0a1u *+.#arden>.es'lace de!oted for reli#ious worshi /enericIs it enou#h that the crime be committed in a lace decoted to reli#ious worshi ? No.1.Reason is the res ect due to the laceChief 4ustice aslee in his house.deliberate intentAccused ra e !ictim while ra$in# in "an 0eda Abbe$? . Maximo Amurao  #upposin ..the chapel is used only when there are masses to be held for purposes of funeral services-. / 2ina Acosta *+.res ect due to the lace> 'res No$no$ in 1imes "t.1wo wor6ers had a fi#ht. must be in alace itself.A##ra!atin#? ..Wh$? )m hasis is in the lace.

because was should be es eciall$ sou#ht for is the dar6ness of ni#ht.*0 5 there should be intent • " ur of the moment – Not a licable NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. Maximo Amurao 0((P I" WR(N/. the offender too advantage of the circumstance for the purpose of impunity ? to re!ent bein# reco#niDed or to secure himself a#ainst detection • Ni&httim 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.1. the circumstance facilitated the commission of the crime 2. Dninhabit # $lac or 3an# 5 this ara#ra h contem lates 1%R)) a##ra!atin# circumstances 5 all the three circumstances are not a licable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation or those with sufficient ro!ocation • Applicabl in cas s 5h r : 1. because e!en thou#h it was ni#httime. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ni#httime be a reciated? =&.-. accidental meetin#s. the crime was committed inside a movie house when the lights were still open and the time then was Cpm./ in 0a1u *+. not the dar6ness of the mo!ie house when the li#hts were onl$ off because it was onl$ @ in the afternoon  #upposin . the lace of the commission was well5li#hted when it was committed  #upposin . chance encounters. or s urs of the moment  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ni#httime be a reciated? =& • Dninhabit # $lac 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.*0 5 ni#httime means: be#innin# at the end of dus6 and endin# at dawn 5 it is not enou#h that it was ni#httime 5 what is es eciall$ sou#ht for b$ the offender is the dar6ness of the ni#ht 5 this circumstance is not a licable to cases in!ol!in# accidents. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+. the crime was committed in a place where it was well?lighted by a *eralco lightpost.. the circumstance was especially sought for b$ the offender to insure the commission of the crime or for the ur ose of im unit$ ? to commit the crime with more ease ? contem lates a lanned attac67 not a mere encounter 3.. the crime was committed inside a dar movie house at around 'pm.1.It will collide with ar = if it will be re3uired that the 'A should be in the e8ercise of his functions• Articl 14%<( 6 Ni&httim .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 81 of 138 Atty.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of ni#httime be a reciated? =&..

with 4uris rudence> Ni#httime as absorbed in treacher$ 3ualifies homicide to murder What is ni#httime? '.o. s ur of the moment"tarted the crime at K m . Can treacher$ absorb this ac? .1)"1> *eliberate intent Incom atible with ne#li#ence.o.A##ra!atin#? No.. .1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1.es0$ 0and NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.unset not dar6 $et"tarted at F am – KF: m – sunrise? No*eliberate intentIf the crime was finished onl$ at ni#httime – not a##ra!atin# Mo!iehouse.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 8+ of 138 Atty. s . chance encounter..Met in the classroom.. / 2ina Acosta *+. . Maximo Amurao • What is considered is the reasonable possibility for the &ictim to recei&e some help4 the de ree of difficulty of i&in assistance or help • "olitude .Ni#httime to be a##ra!atin#. / year +.N( . ne#li#ence. s ur of the moment. .classroom is well li#htedIncom atible with: accidental meetin#.not a##ra!atin# [6illed durin# full moon-no clouds co!ered the moon.-.. 6ni!es are considered7 an$thin# that can 6ill a erson • A##ra!atin# in crimes a ainst property and crimes a ainst persons7 N(1 a licable in crimes a#ainst chastit$ • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* time L place of the commission J means employed %ow man$ AC? F Ni#httime – #eneric .must be sou#ht for to better attain criminal ur ose> 5 for an eas$ and uninterru ted accom lishment of their criminal desi#n 5 to insure concealment of the offense7 securit$ a#ainst detection and unishment • 3an# 5 more than three malefactors 5 shall ha!e acted together 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR."tabbed amurao.ou lan to 6ill $our nei#hbor when the ecli se set in.sunset> finishes at 99 m – a##ra!atin#? No.F<K B m./ in 0a1u *+.Li#hts off? NoAnnouncement of total ecli se causin# total dar6ness from F m to K m.*0 • What do $ou mean b$ GarmedH? onl$ #uns? N(. s. the accused must ha!e sou#ht the dar6ness of the ni#htIn crimes a#ainst erson – ma$ be an indicia of treacher$+ninhabited lace /eneric Le#al effect? Wh$ a##ra!atin#? No ossibilit$ of recei!in# hel .

11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . e idemic or other calamit$ or misfortune 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. chance encounters. the offender adds to the !ictimsL sufferin# b$ ta6in# ad!anta#e of their ad!anta#e of their misfortune to des oil • 1he offender must see for the calamity as an opportunity to ta6e ad!anta#e or to commit the crime  #upposin .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 83 of 138 Atty..o. earth3ua6e.*0 5 there should be deliberate intent to ta6e ad!anta#e 5 this circumstance is not applicable to cases in!ol!in# accidents. / 2ina Acosta *+. / year +. instead lendin# aid to the afflicted."tabbed him.es "$non$mous with s$ndicate? No .-.. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of be a reciated? =& • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* time of the commission of the crime 'ARA/RA'% C Incom Qualif$in# Le#al effect *eliberate intent – must ta6e ad!anta#e of the calamit$ atible with ne#li#ence Confla#ration Retrie!in# $our ro ert$./ in 0a1u *+.at least @ armed- Articl 14%A( 6 On occasion o' calamit! or mis'ortun 5 that the crime be committed on the occasion of a confla#ration.= or more .1. accidental meetin#s. onl$ F armed.1. the offender saw his mortal enem$ in a flood.0$a band? No.Accidentall$ met $our mortal enem$. s NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. then he 6illed his mortal enem$.Not a##ra!atin# Incom atible with: . s ur of the moment. Maximo Amurao /eneric Absorbed b$ treacher$? . shi wrec6. or s urs of the moment 5 this circumstance is not applicable to cases attendant of ne#li#ence or carelessness 5 not applicable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation or those with sufficient ro!ocation • R ason* in the midst of #reat calamit$.Not necessaril$ armed K ersons commirtted robber$.

Maximo Amurao Confla#ration 5 A stran#er too6 $our ro erties. what is the crime..-. ./ in 0a1u *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 89 of 138 Atty.=> ersons who insure or afford im unit$ • Arm # M n 5 at least two .=> men7 the law sa$s GmenH7 four .1..1.*0 5 these ersons should ha&e or be in a position to afford im unit$  Is a +udge a erson who can afford im unit$? /0#  Is an employee a erson who can afford im unit$? =&  Is a secretary a erson who can afford im unit$? =&  Is a mistress a erson who can afford im unit$? =& • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* means and wa$s of committin# the crime 'ARA/RA'% B %ow man$? = 9-> Aid of armed men =-> Aid of ersons who afford im unit$ Classification\ 3ualif$in# Le#al effect? Re3uirements: 9-> 1oo6 art =-> A!ailed or relied Armed men distin#uished from band: NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.@> men R band alread$ 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. tc.9> armed men or.*0 • Rul * Casual pr s nc of armed men is =&6 aggravating • 1he armed men must ta6e art directly or indirectly in the crime • 1he offender must a!ail of the aid • Mere moral or psychological aid or reliance is sufficient • "ctual aid is =&6 necessar$ • $ rsons 5ho insur or a''or# impunit! ? a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. 5 that the crime be committed with the aid of .Qualified theft• Articl 14%C( 6 Ai# or Arm # M n.

@ friends all armed outside the #ate.. the first offense was acts of lasci!iousness in 9?B:.Im unit$ for Criminal 'rosecutionAssurance that there will be no com lainant and witnesses – . Maximo Amurao What 6ind of aid is contem lated? Moral or s$cholo#ical will suffice7 material A and @ friends decided to 6ill Amurao.A armed with licensed re!ol!er.esCasual resence of armed men alread$ a##ra!atin#? No 'olice ma4or celebratin# bda$...not re3uired to be le#al sourceMistress of ma$or to afford im unit$ – $es • Articl 14%B( 6 R ci#i"ism 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 enalt$ can be raised to the ma8imum • R ci#i"ist – one who. that both the first and the second offense are embraced in the same title of the R'C 4.1.-.A##ra!atin#? . that the offender is on trial for an offense 2. that he was re!iousl$ con!icted by final +udgment of another crime 3.In!ited subordinates with ser!ice firearms./ in 0a1u *+.A##ra!atin#? . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of recidi!ism be a reciated? NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.first #entleman a rochaed to rotect $ou after 6illin# somebod$ – .that the offender is con!icted of the new offense  #upposin .es.@ friends will onl$ hel u on si#nal.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes = *irect or indirect @ directl$ too6 art Page 8: of 138 Atty.notorious>. / 2ina Acosta *+.es.A #uest stabbed another #uest – No Im unit$ Qualif$in# Le#al effect? e-#.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . at the time of his trial for one crime.es Chieftain of A005N'A .1. / year +. shall ha!e been re!iousl$ con!icted b$ final 4ud#ment of another crime embraced in the same title of the R'C • R )uisit s* 1. then the second offense in =::< was attem ted ra e.

11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1. hence both crimes are embraced in the same title of the R'C • Pardon does not obliterate the fact that the accused was a recidi!ist • 1he time or period between the two offenses is immaterial • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* inclination to crimes Incom Qualif$in# Le#al effect *eliberate intent – must ta6e ad!anta#e of the calamit$ atible with ne#li#ence Confla#ration Retrie!in# $our ro ert$. of 138 Atty. s ur of the moment. s Confla#ration 5 A stran#er too6 $our ro erties."tabbed him. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of recidi!ism be a reciated? /0# because attem ted ra e then in 9?B: was embraced under crimes a#ainst chastit$. because acts of lasci!iousness and attem ted ra e are not embraced in the same title of the R'C7 acts of lasci!iousness5crimes a#ainst chastit$7 attem ted ra e5crimes a#ainst ersons  #upposin the first offense in 9?B: was attem ted ra e.Not a##ra!atin# Incom atible with: . final 4ud#ment 0efore BFKF – attem ted ra e – ser!ed sentence "li#ht h$sical in4uries – N(5 not embraced 'ublic interest in the same title of R'C Ealsification of commercial documents )stafa .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 8.'o ert$ 9?C:5=:9:: not embraced in the same title- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.o.-. Maximo Amurao =&..Accidentall$ met $our mortal enem$./ in 0a1u *+..1. must be in the R'C "im le theft con!ict – endin# a 2iolation of anti fencin# law – No Qualified theft – endin# a eal eal Accom lice in attem ted robber$ – no. then the second offense in =::< was acts of lasci!iousness. what is the crime..Qualified theftRecidi!ist – define 2iolation of s ecial enal laws 5 No.

of 138 Atty. while the =nd offense is less serious h$sical in4uries.IHI/M 5 its enou#h that a final 4ud#ment has been rendered for the 9st offense 5 alwa$s ta6en into consideration in 5 not alwa$s an a##ra!atin# terms of the enalt$ to be im osed circumstance 5 re!ious crimes must be of e3ual or #reater in enalt$ ..1.that he is con!icted of the new offense .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 8.1.. Maximo Amurao Articl 14%19( 6 R it racion or :abitualit! 5 that the offender has been re!iousl$ unished for an offense to which the law attaches an e3ual or #reater enalt$ or for two or more crimes to which it attaches a li#hter enalt$ 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance7 enalt$ can be raised to the ma8imum • R )uisit s* 1. 14.-.a s ecial law crime>.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .at least one> or at least two li#hter enalties • If the 2nd crime is an offense or crime punishable under a special law. / year +.that the accused is on trial for an offense 2. unishable b$ reclusion tem oral. 15 of the 5$C are not applicable to special law crimes. / 2ina Acosta *+. it cannot be considered under reiteracion because "rticles 13.that he re!iousl$ ser!ed sentence for another offense to which the law attaches an e3ual or #reater enalt$ or for = or more crimes to which it attaches a li#hter enalt$ than that for the new offense 3. the 9st offense is ille#al ossession of firearms . a licable onl$ to crimes defined under the Re!ised 'enal Code #upposin ../ in 0a1u *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of reiteracion be a reciated? /0#.i'' r nc b t5 n R ci#i"ism an# R it racion R-I1-RACION 5 its necessar$ that the offender shall ha!e ser!ed out his sentence for the 9st offense 5 re3uires that both offenses be embraced in the same title of the R'C 5 9st and =nd offense must not be embraced in same title of the R'C R-CI. if the offender was pre&iously punished for a special law crime or an offense. the nature of the crime is immaterial4 the emphasis is on the punishment or penalty NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.

'ardon does not obliterateAttem ted homicide – < $ears robation Erustrated murder – No"erious h$sical in4uries – @ $ears. Recidi!ism 3. Reiteracion or %abitualit$ 4..es.. / year +. or falsification. Maximo Amurao • 0our 0orms o' R p tition 1.A##ra!atin#? . robber$.A habitual delin3uent shall suffer an additional enalt$ • Iuasi?r ci#i"ism – an$ erson who shall commit a felon$ after ha!in# been con!icted b$ final 4ud#ment before be#innin# to ser!e such sentence or while ser!in# the same. found #uilt$ for a Frd time or oftener. #eneric if *istin#uish from habitual delin3uenc$ – nature of offense – 9: $ears re3uired %abitualit$ – #eneric 0oth must be alle#ed in the information NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.es.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 88 of 138 Atty./ in 0a1u *+. Quasi5recidi!ism • :abitual . estafa.-. theft. lin)u nc! – when a erson within a eriod of 9: $ears from the date of release or last con!iction of the crimes of serious or less serious h$sical in4uries. shall be unished b$ the ma8imum eriod of the enalt$ rescribed b$ law for the new enalt$• 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* inclination to crimes Reiteraciion and recidi!ism – distin#uish Murder – ardon..1. %abitual *elin3uenc$. / 2ina Acosta *+.Multi5recidi!ism 2. obation Less serious – no Classification – #eneric Le#al effect? Attem ted homicide – not alle#ed but ro!ed durin# trial – a without ob4ection reciate habitualit$? .

/ 2ina Acosta *+.A##ra!atin#? No• Articl 14%12( 6 3! m ans o' inun#ation. R 5ar# or $romis ? a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.1./ in 0a1u *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . the one who accepts is a principal by direct participation • It is not necessar$ that the rinci al b$ direct artici ation recei!e the reward or romise7 what is im ortant is that the reward or romise was the sole moti!atin# factor otherwise the crime would not ha!e been committed  #upposin .At least = or more offenders .*0 • 1here are instances when these circumstances are inherent in the crime..*0 • 1he price.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 8< of 138 Atty./un for hire was his former student willin# to 6ill Amurao without rice. reward or romise . fire. tc.-.Must be the sole miti#atin# ower without which there would be no crime . Gb$ means of derailment of locomoti!eH – inherent in dama#e to means of communication NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+..Qualif$inf – le#al effects /i!in# reward – rinci al b$ inducement Acce tor – direct artici ation Necessar$ that accused actuall$ recei!ed? N( . derailment of a locomoti!e. of a !essel or intentional dama#e thereto. 'ir .'aid K:6 to 6ill Amurao.1. the one who commits the crime 6nows of the reward or romise alread$. strandin#. thus cannot be appreciated as a##ra!atin# circumstances: 1.. Gb$ means of fireH5 inherent in arson 2. e8 losion. because there was no moti!ation alread$ • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* #reater er!ersit$ by the moti&atin power itself 'rice.ou a roached a #un5for5hire. or b$ the use of an$ other artifice in!ol!in# #reat waste and ruin 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. / year +. the one who accepts it • Criminal $articipation* the one who offers is a principal by inducement. oison. reward or promise must be the sole motivating factor for committin# the crime7 must be for the ur ose of inducin# another to erform a deed • 1here should be two or more offenders: the one who offers. 5 that the crime be committed b$ means of inundation. reward or romise be a reciated? =&. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of rice. Maximo Amurao • Articl 14%11( 6 $ric .

1. accidental meetin#s./ in 0a1u *+. or s urs of the moment 5 this circumstance is not applicable to cases attendant of ne#li#ence or carelessness 5 not applicable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation or those with sufficient ro!ocation • -"i# nt $r m #itation – the essence of such is that the e8ecution of the criminal act must be receded b$ cool thou#ht and reflection u on the resolution to carr$ out the criminal intent durin# the s ace of time sufficient to arri!e at a calm 4ud#ment • R )uisit s* 1.. chance encounters.i'' r nc o' $ar. an act manifestl$ indicatin# that the cul rit has clung to his determination7 throu#h an o!ert act 3. the date H time when the crime was committed .A an# $ar. Gb$ means of e8 losionH5 without intent to 6ill.. the time when the offender determined to commit the crime 2. a sufficient lapse of time between the determination and e3ecution. to allow him to reflect u on the conse3uences of his act and to allow his conscience to o!ercome the resolution of his will  Is the a##ra!atin# circumstance of )!ident 'remeditation com atible with the miti#atin# circumstance Immediate 2indication of a Relati!e for a /ra!e (ffense? /0#.1. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+..*0 5 this circumstance is not applicable to cases in!ol!in# accidents. of 138 Atty.12 'ar-C R on occasion of calamit$ or misfortune7 not within offenderLs control 'ar-9= R the acts of #reat waste and ruin are used by the offender as means • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation: means and ways em lo$ed • Articl 14%13( 6 -"i# nt $r m #itation 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. the miti#atin# circumstance and a##ra!atin# circumstance can be a reciated Can e!ident remeditation be resent in error in personae? N(  Can e!ident remeditation be resent in aberratio ictus? N( NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. inherent in destruction to ro ert$ • .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <.-.to com ute la se of time> 4.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Maximo Amurao 3.

F> dis#uise be em lo$ed 5 this ara#ra h contem lates 1:R-. Maximo Amurao  #upposin . . thin6in# it was him. 0rau#.is&uis 5 that ..o. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of craft be a reciated? /0# • 0rau# – insidious words or machinations used to induce the !ictim • .Amurao..*0 • Cra't – in!ol!es intellectual tric1ery and cunnin on the art of accused  #upposin .1. for e8am le osin# as Meralco officials. the accused pretended to be a customer.raudulent machinations and ra&e abuse of authority will be absorbed in the crime of rap • Eraud is inherent in the crime of estafa NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. then he robbed the lace.=> fraud. / 2ina Acosta *+. s 2indication of #ra!e offense? .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . . accidental meetin#. who turned out to be *ean Aara. because there should be deliberate intent to 6ill *ean Aara • . $ou intended to 6ill 'rof.9> craft. n ral rul * In aberratio ictus. .-.1.c ption* if there was a #eneral lan to 6ill an$one7 if offenders intended to 6ill an$one • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* reference to the wa$s of committin# the crime because e!ident remeditation im lies deliberate lannin# of the act before e8ecutin# it )lements: @ Classification – 3ualif$in# Le#al effects? Incom atible with ne#li#ence. $ou shot at the erson.es Abberatio ictus: No • Articl 14%14( 6 Cra't. then the$ commit a crime.a##ra!atin# circumstances 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.es )rror in ersonae 5#eneral rule: No )8ce t: if there is a #eneral lan Accused has a s ecific !ictim but willin# to 6ill a erson who interfered. . / year +. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of e!ident remeditation be a reciated? =&. s ur of the moment..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <1 of 138 Atty.. e!ident remeditation is N(1 a licable • -. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of craft be a reciated? /0#  #upposin the accused pretended to be a person in authority./ in 0a1u *+.

... there is =& abuse of su erior stren#th • M ans to W a+ n th .=> means be em lo$ed to wea6en the defense 5 this ara#ra h contem lates 1W( a##ra!atin# circumstances 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.1.9> ad!anta#e be ta6en of su erior stren#th or .-. the offender into3icated the victim to materially wea en her. C in order to 6ill *.*0 5 there should be deliberate intent to ta6e ad!anta#e of su erior stren#th • Abus o' /up rior /tr n&th – de ends on the age. 0./ in 0a1u *+. ' ns 5 that .1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <+ of 138 Atty.is&uis – resortin# to an$ de&ice to conceal identity • !(amples: 5 wearin# a mas6 5 use of an assumed name 5 wearin# a uniform of a olice officer Q: Craft definition It is Qualif$in#5le#al effects )8am le: A. and strength of the arties7 it is considered whene!er there is notorious ineAuality of forces between the !ictim and the a##ressor.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .=9F *is#uise When is there dis#uise? Qualif$in#5le#al effect )8am le: "e!eral members of 0onnet /an# committed robber$ in the hi#hwa$ • 3asis o' a&&ra"ation* means em lo$ed Articl 14%15( 6 Abus o' /up rior /tr n&thEM ans to W a+ n . assessin# a su eriorit$ of stren#th notoriousl$ ad!anta#eous for the a##ressor which is selected or ta6en ad!anta#e of b$ him in the commission of the crime • If the !ictim was alternately attac ed. si<e. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of means to wea6en defense be a reciated? /0# NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. Maximo Amurao • . ' ns  #upposin . 6illed * in the forest Eraud Qualif$in#5 le#al effects )stafa5le#al effect of fraud It is inherent in the commission of estafa inherent in Art. told the latter the$ are #oin# on cam in#.

*ifferent functions.Is to chan#e the nature of the offense for which the accused stands to be rosecuted5Role of ri!ile#e miti#atin# circ. accidental meetin#s.With !oluntar$ surrender? ..Circ.1he$ are not inconsistent withQ 0+1 I" I1 "1ILL ACC+RA1) 1%A1 1%I" Q+ALIE.(ne is to chan#e the nature of the felon$.1. AN..IN/ A//RA2A1IN/ CIRC+M"1ANC) CANN(1 0) (EE")1 0.(ffset a 3ualif$in# a##ra!atin#? N(5Eunction of 3ualif$in# a##.. / 2ina Acosta *+. / year +.Is to reduce the enalt$ b$ one or two de#rees as the case ma$ be from the ro er enalt$ im osed on the offense as 3ualifiedCan co5e8ist with !indication for a #ra!e offense? . sufficient ro!ocation. assion or obfuscation Can co5e8ist with !oluntar$ confession of #uilt? .*0 5 this circumstance is not applicable to cases in!ol!in# accidents.MI1> *oes a ri!ile#ed mit.o treacher$5 %omicide .es.Circ.. or on5the5s ot decisions to commit the crime 5 this circumstance is not applicable to cases attendant of ne#li#ence or carelessness 5 not applicable to cases attendant of assion or obfuscation or those with sufficient ro!ocation 1reacher$ When is there treacher$ Qualif$in# and s ecific5 crimes a#ainst erson Qualif$in#5chan#e the nature of the crime Incom atible with ne#li#ence.-. MI1I/A1IN/ CIRC? .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <3 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao Articl 14%1<( 6 1r ach r! %Al "osia( 5 a specific a##ra!atin# circumstance: onl$ a treacher$ be a reciated in ra e? /0# licable to crimes against persons7 can 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.es.1./ in 0a1u *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . chance encounters.A//> (ther is to reduce enalt$ b$ one eriod after the offense is 3ualified .es.esPill nei#hbor W.reclusion tem oral> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. or s urs of the moment.

oison.9.%e warned $ou.-.reclusion er etua to death> with 9 mit circ./ in 0a1u *+.)numerated in 'eo le !s.1. how man$? K Is it necessar$ for the court to consider all K to chan#e the nature of the felon$? No. / 2ina Acosta *+.1. fire.Was the !ictim #i!en an o ortunit$ for defense? F. treacher$5 Murder . if F is lac6in#. what will ha en to the other @ a##ra!atin# circ? *eemed absorbed in treacher$.'ala#anas can be absorbed b$ treacher$"u osin# $ou 6illed $our nei#hbor with e!ident remeditation and em lo$ed means to wea6en defense and used dis#uise and too6 ad!anta#e of dee flood. crime a#ainst ersonsIn a rosecution for ra e.1he$ can no lon#er be a reciated to im ose enalt$ in the ma8imum1)"1" in 1R)AC%)R. reward or romiseAid of armed men...CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <9 of 138 Atty.Is the attac6 sudden and une8 ected? =. Maximo Amurao w.R1 . ersons who afford im unit$. b$ treacher$ and abuse of su erior stren#th or craft. / year +. rice.IN/ A//RA2A1IN/ CIRC.one de#ree lower from R1> 1reacher$ can be a reciated in RA')? ..After two minutes shot $ou.ou #ot in first.Can )' be a reciated so as to increase enalt$ in ma8imum? N(.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . 0abali6an 6ita.1here was a heated ar#ument.R' in medium..%ow man$ 3ualif$in#? @ Assumin# there was treacher$. calamities or misfortuneALL Q+ALIE. there is no treacher$Incom atible with accidental meetin#5 s ur of the momentIncom atibel if 6illin# was receded b$ a heated ar#ument.Frd test is the most im ortant-> Incom atible with casual encounter5 e!en if 9 and = were resent. fraud. !acant lot Another !ehicle hurr$in# towards the slot.Was the means em lo$ed deliberate and consciousl$ ado ted? .absorbed in treacher$"ame with inundation. e8 losion. dis#uise5 absorbed in treacher$ In rosecution for M+R*)R 3ualified b$ treacher$ and e!ident remeditation. lace the !ictim on #uard to be re ared for an$ attac6> )nterin# car ar6.es..1reacher$ will sufficeNow. ni#httime. R' in minimum> with 9 ri!..mit circ.Was there treacher$? None- NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.

1hat at the time of the attac6.1reacher$ was not consciousl$ ado ted at the ince tion and the a##ression bein# continuin#)8am le of Z=. inflicted stab wounds0 was able to a!oid. +" !s.1.'eo le !.RA ?9<K Com rehensi!e *an#erous *ru#s Act of =::=> "u osin# !ictim warned not to enter a certain area while wal6in# alon# the road. Maximo Amurao A saw his enem$ 0 w.see #reen noteboo6> Page <: of 138 Atty.1he$ fou#ht inside the bar.A hit 0 in the bac6 b$ i e.-.Canete. / 2ina Acosta *+. the victim was not in a position to defend himself NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / year +. or forms need not insure accom lishment of crime7 only to insure e3ecution 3. stabbed 0. not treacher$Accused found to be into8icated under influence of dru#s? M+R*)R. 0 died.=When attac6 consists of = or more sta#es A##ression is interru ted5 fatal blow5there was treacher$ Continuin#5treacher$ must be resent at the ince tion )8am le of Z9 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes If 6illin# was receded b$ threat. because there was intent to ta6e re!en#e • Rul s r &ar#in& 1r ach r! 1.1.o an$ warnin# from behind. treacher$? . a licable onl$ to crimes against persons 2. the mode of attac6 must be consciously adopted • R )uisit s 1.Chance encounter.0 died../eneral warnin# is not enou#h to remo!e treacher$-  Is the a##ra!atin# circumstance of 1reacher$ com atible with the miti#atin# circumstance Immediate 2indication of a Relati!e for a /ra!e (ffense? /0#. methods./ in 0a1u *+.A challen#ed his enem$ 0 in a fi#ht.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . treacher$? NoLac6in# 3uestion no.Was there treacher$? None.. 0 fledA immediatelt behind.( en fi#ht followed.)".0alu$ot A sa 0 in a bar.Influence of ille#al dru#s 3ualifies crime from homicide to murder... somebod$ stabbed him from behind.What crime? %omicide onl$. means.

Was the mode the attac1 deliberately or consciously adopted b$ the accused to insure e8ecution without ris6 to the offender?  If the answer to all these 3uestions is /0#7 then treachery is present • /ummar! o' th rul s* 1. When the assault is not continuous. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? =&. then the accused shot the !ictim. the victim@s hands and feet were tied. *id the offended ha!e any opportunity to defend himself? 3. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . / 2ina Acosta *+. / year +.-. because there was a chance to defend himself and ose a ris6 to the offender  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? =&. then mortal wounds were inflicted on the !ictim. or interrupted. $ou ta ed him. there was a dispute over a par ing space. the accused shot the !ictim who was tied to a coconut tree. $our enem$ was sleeping. Maximo Amurao 2. When the a##ression is a single and continuous act. Was the attac1 sudden and une(pected? 2. there was a heated argument between the offender and the offended before the$ attac6ed each other. the offender buried half of the victim@s body. or the attac is divisible into two or more stages. of 138 Atty.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <.1. there was a warning from the offender. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . then he hac ed the victim to death..1. then after a few minutes he attac ed the !ictim. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? =& NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. it must be present right at the inception or resent in the be#innin# of the assault 2. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? /0#  #upposin ./ in 0a1u *+. 1hat the offender consciously adopted the particular means. it is sufficient that treachery was present at the time of the mortal blow was inflicted-  #upposin . can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . method or form of attac em lo$ed b$ him • What is important to # t rmin ar th 'ollo5in&* 5 the !ictimLs ability to defend himself 5 the mode of attac6 was consciously adopted • Important )u stions to ans5 r* 1.. then $ou shot him as soon as he awa ened. either or both arties should ha!e been re ared  #upposin .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ..

treacher$ is a olitician and a Gbuwa$aH.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <...11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .. but now unlawful ossession is onl$ a s ecial a##ra!atin# circumstance that can increase the enalt$ to the ma8imum7 no se arate rosecution • Articl 14%1A( 6 I&nomin! 5 that means be em lo$ed or circumstances brou#ht about which add i#nomin$ to the natural effects of the act 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. the !ictim suffered mortal wounds at the bac . there was an a#reement to fi#ht • 6reachery cannot be presumed7 must be ro!ed b$ clear and convincing evidence • In treacher$./ in 0a1u *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? /0#. e!en in the absence of treacher$ . because it ta6es e!er$thin#7 because treachery absorbs all other aggravating circumstances • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* means and ways em lo$ed • A##itional not s 'rom $ro'. because the victim was not in a position to defend himself  #upposin . Maximo Amurao  #upposin . the offender.Amurao. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ be a reciated? =& • Not * 1he location of the wounds does not #i!e rise to the resum tion of the resence of treacher$  #upposin .1. Amurao* 5 If the offender was under the influence of drugs in the crime of murder or homicide. because ha!in# frontal wounds is =&6 conclusi!e that there was no treacher$  #upposin . / 2ina Acosta *+. 6nowin# that the !ictim was hidin# behind the drum shot at the drum7 the bullet penetrated the drum and hit the victim which caused his death. this can be considered a 3ualif$in# a##ra!atin# circumstance. immediatel$.1. the victim hid behind a drum where he could not be seen b$ the offender. / year +.-. it is not necessary that the erson intended to be 6illed was not the one actuall$ 6illed • Accordin# to 'rof.of 138 Atty. immediatel$.*0 NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. ursuant to RA ?9<K> 5 the use of an unlicensed firearm R a s ecial a##ra!atin# circumstance for the crime of murder or homicide7 before it was se aratel$ rosecuted. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of treacher$ not be a reciated? =&. the !ictim suffered frontal mortal wounds.

*0 NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.esQuestion %our: Amurao " ea6in#When there are = 3ualif$in#. still drows$ when attac6ed.Mere resence of frontal wound is not conclusi!e that no treacher$ was em lo$ed neither will resence of bac6 wounds be conclusi!e that treacher$ was resentAbsent an$ roof as to how wound was inflicted2ictim has 4ust awa6en.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page <8 of 138 Atty.=@B-> • Articl 14%1C( 6 Dnla5'ul -ntr! 5 that the crime be committed after an unlawful entr$ 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. / 2ina Acosta *+. a woman was raped in the presence of her husband and children. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of i#nomin$ be a reciated? /0#  #upposin .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-.9? accessories5 Anti5fencin# law '* 9B=? ./ in 0a1u *+. less serious h$sical in4uries..craft. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of i#nomin$ be a reciated? 'rof. Art. one will suffice to chan#e the nature of the crime. a woman was raped while cogon grass was wrapped around the penis of the offender. absorbed in treacher$ in Art.What will ha to the other 3ualif$in#? 1he other will be considered as #eneric a##ra!atin# circumstance5 enalt$ to the ma8imum.1..1reacher$? .(bstruction of Austice> Art.)8ce t treacher$.Amurao thin6s that this scenario falls under the a##ra!atin# circumstance of cruelty • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* means em lo$ed I/N(MIN.. accom lices in '* KF= Art.(ther 3ualif$in# circ.Not in art =@B . li#ht or #ra!e coercion and murder • -'' ct o' i&nomin!: the crime becomes more humiliatin# or to ut the offended art$ to shame  #upposin .=? 're!enti!e Im and creditin# 2ictim all wounds frontal 1reacher$ cannot be a reciated? No.1. / year +. fraud. 9B and 9?5 '* KF=. or dis#uise. Maximo Amurao • I&nomin! – a circumstance ertainin# to the moral order which adds dis#race and oblo3u$ to the material in4ur$ caused b$ the crime • A licable to crimes a#ainst chastit$.1he$ are means of treacher$. because treacher$ will absorb them> en N-0..murder> e-#.

1.-. then he shot the neighbor. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of unlawful entr$ be a reciated? /0# • +nlawful entr$ is inherent . a wall. the window was used to gain entry into the house.9> with the aid of ersons under 9K $ears of a#e or . then the accused entered the door. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of unlawful entr$ be a reciated? /0#  #upposin . the accused intended to ill his ne3t?door neighbor by brea ing the wall se aratin# them. Maximo Amurao  #upposin .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes • Dnla5'ul -ntr! – an entrance is effected b$ a wa$ not intended for • $urpos – to effect entrance not for esca e Page << of 138 Atty. / year +.*0 • 1o effect entrance onl$ • "hould be as a means to commit to crime  #upposin . floor..=> b$ means of motor !ehicles.thus cannot be a followin# crimes: 5 robber$ with force u on thin#s reciated as an a##ra!atin# circumstance> in the 5 !iolation of domicile .. roof..committed b$ ri!ate indi!iduals> 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* means and ways em lo$ed • Articl 14%1B( 6 3r a+in& Wall 5 that as a means to the commission of a crime. / 2ina Acosta *+. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of brea6in# wall be a reciated? /0# • 0rea6in# wall is inherent in robber$ with force u on thin#s • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* means and ways em lo$ed • Articl 14%29( 6 Ai# o' Minor or b! M ans o' Motor H hicl s 5 that the crimes be committed . the owners of the house commonl$ use the window as their ordinary means to enter the house.committed b$ ublic ersons> 5 tres ass to dwellin# .1./ in 0a1u *+. airshi s or other similar means 5 this ara#ra h contem lates 1W( a##ra!atin# circumstances • Ai# o' Minor NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. door or window be bro6en 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.

of 138 Atty.*0 5 the offender should deliberately see for the use of the !ehicle 5 the use of the motor !ehicle must be the means used to commit the crime 5 should facilitate the commission of the crime  #upposin . e!en if it is a ublic !ehicle..*0 • Cru lt! – when the cul rit en+oys and delights in ma6in# his !ictim suffer slowl$ and #raduall$. the accused robbed the passengers in a bus. / 2ina Acosta *+. a ta3icab was hired. causin# the !ictim unnecessar$ h$sical ain in the consummation of the criminal act • R )uisit s* 1... can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of use of motor !ehicle be a reciated? =&.-.1./ in 0a1u *+. then an argument ensued inside where the accused illed the victim. / year +.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .. 1hat the in4ur$ caused be deliberatel$ increased b$ causin# another wron# 2. 1hat the other wron# be unnecessar$ for the e8ecution of the ur ose of the offender NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. the accused robbed a house then found a car in front of the house which he used for his esca e.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1. the circumstance can be a reciated  #upposin .1. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of use of motor !ehicle be a reciated? /0#. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of use of motor !ehicle be a reciated? =&. because the crime was alread$ accom lished  #upposin . because the motor !ehicle was 4ust incidental to the crime  Are motori<ed bi es considered? /0#  What if it is a motoriDed bi6e but the motor is not used? /0#  Are road?rollers or 8pison9 considered? =&. Maximo Amurao 5 a generic a##ra!atin# circumstance R can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance 5 in!ol!es the ta6in# ad!anta#e of the childLs immaturit$ or innocence • Ds o' Motor H hicl s 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR. because it is not motoriDed as contem lated b$ the L1( • +se of motor !ehicles is inherent in the crime of carna in# • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation* means and ways em lo$ed • Articl 14%21( 6 Cru lt! 5 that the wron# done in the commission of the crime be deliberatel$ au#mented b$ causin# other wron# not necessar$ for its commission 5 a Aualifying a##ra!atin# circumstance R cannot be offset b$ a miti#atin#7 C:$=G0# 6:0 =$6"R0 &4 6:0 CR.

1. because it did not rolon# ain since the erson was alread$ dead  Is there cruelt$ when it is done a#ainst an unconscious person? /0#  #upposin .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1. Into8ication 3. a stepdaughter was raped by her stepfather../ in 0a1u *+. usur ation 4.. a dead erson was found with 12E stab wounds.relati!e b$ affinit$ C+ #upposin . / year +. can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of use of motor !ehicle be a reciated? =&.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ..descendant d. fraudulent insol!enc$ 2.1 of 138 Atty. can the alternati!e circumstance of relationshi be a reciated? /0# • Relationshi is mitigating in crimes against property . ado ted siblin# e. *e#ree of Instruction and )ducation of the (ffender • Articl 15%1( 6 R lationship 5 considered when the offended art$ is the: a. natural.R"4$-: 1. swindling. or malicious mischief if the offender and offended live together NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. Maximo Amurao  Is there cruelt$ when it is done a#ainst a dead body? =&.1.-. / 2ina Acosta *+. because the number of wounds is immaterial with cruelt$ • I&nomin! – moral sufferin# Cru lt! – h$sical sufferin# rolon#ed • Cruelt$ cannot be presumed • 3asis 'or a&&ra"ation: ways em lo$ed $rticle 1E 5 those which must be ta6en into consideration as a##ra!atin# or miti#atin# accordin# to the nature and effects of the crime and the other conditions attendin# its commission • 1h 'ollo5in& ar alt rnati" circumstanc s* 1.s ouse b. Relationshi 2. robber$ 3.le#itimate.ascendant c. arson • Relationshi is e3empting in crimes of theft.

relationship is aggravating. r lationship is a&&ra"atin& • When the crime is homicide or murder.Lac6 of education – mitigating • %i#h de#ree of instruction7 offender a!ails of intelli#ence 5 aggravating  #upposin . the accused illed a person. because illing is inherently wrong  #upposin . can the alternati!e circumstance of low de ree of instruction as a miti atin circumstance /0#. regardless of degree• In crimes against chastity... / year +. mitigating when: 5 the drin6in# is not habitual7 or accidental 5 if the into8ication is not subseAuent to the plan to commit a crime  5eason for miti ation: e8ercise of will ower is im aired b.habitual> • Articl 15%3( 6 Instruction or -#ucation 5 what is measured is the de ree of intelli ence not the formal education • Low de#ree of instruction. the crime was done not in a civili<ed society. relationshi is $)1$/# aggravating • Articl 15%2( ? Into.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1./ in 0a1u *+. aggravating when: 5 if habitual 5 if into8ication is intentional .intentional>7 lessens resistance to e!il thou#hts . in the same crimes. can the alternati!e circumstance of low de ree of instruction as a miti atin circumstance be a reciated? =&. in the crime of less serious and slight physical in+uries.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . relationship is mitigating • If the offended is a r lati" o' hi&h r # &r .full$ 6nowin# its effects as a stimulant> or subseAuent to the plan to commit the crime  5eason for a ra&ation: bolstered coura#e to commit the crime .1.+ of 138 Atty..1.ication a. Maximo Amurao • Relationshi is aggravating in crimes against persons when the offended is a relative of higher degree than the offender or when the offender and offended are parties of the same level • If the offended is a relative of lower degree. it is a mitigating circumstance  #upposin .-. can the alternati!e circumstance of low de ree of instruction as a miti atin circumstance be a reciated? =&. the accused committed the crime of treason. which resulted to the death of the !ictim. because lo!e for countr$ is a natural feelin# that re3uires no de#ree of instruction NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+.

Accom lices • "ccessories are not liable for light felonies because the social wron# is so small • Rul s on li&ht ' loni s 1. 'rinci als 2. can the alternati!e circumstance of low de ree of instruction as a miti atin circumstance be a reciated? =&  #upposin .1..1< 6 W:O AR. / 2ina Acosta *+.CRIMINALL2 LIA3L5the followin# are criminally liable for grave and less grave offenses5 1. accused committed crimes against chastity. when committed a#ainst ersons or ro ert$ and unishable in the attem ted or frustrated 3.3 of 138 Atty.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Maximo Amurao  #upposin . 1here is substitution of de ri!ation of libert$ for ecuniar$ enalties in insol!enc$ cases NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. a lawyer committed the crime of estafa./ in 0a1u *+. can the alternati!e circumstance of hi h de ree of instruction as an a ra&atin circumstance be a reciated? /0#  #upposin ..-. accessories are not liable e!en in crimes a#ainst ersons or ro ert$ • &nly natural persons can be active sub+ects of a crime contem lated under Article 9< of the R'C R asons* 1. / year +. can the alternati!e circumstance of low de ree of instruction as a miti atin circumstance be a reciated? =&  #upposin . can the alternati!e circumstance of hi h de ree of instruction as an a ra&atin circumstance be a reciated? /0# $rticle 1D • AR1ICL.Accessories 5 the followin# are criminally liable for light felonies5 1. accused committed crimes against chastity. accused committed the crime of murder. a doctor prepared a special poison to ill the victim. unishable onl$ when consummated 2.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1. ersons act with ersonal malice or ne#li#ence7 artificial. Accom lices F.. can the alternati!e circumstance of low de ree of instruction as a miti atin circumstance be a reciated? =&  #upposin .4udicial ersons canLt act with malice or ne#li#ence 2. +nder the Re!ised 'enal Code. A 4uridical erson li6e a cor oration canLt commit a crime that re3uires willful ur ose or malicious intent 3.1. onl$ rinci als and accom lices are liable 4. 'rinci als 2.

$( 5 5e=uisites: 9.9 of 138 Atty.. b$ usin# irresistible force 2. b$ directl$ inducin# another to commit a crime • (y directly forcing another to commit a crime . those who directl$ force or induce others to commit it )0y Inducement) 3.ir ct $articipation %$. Maximo Amurao 4. / 2ina Acosta *+. b$ i&in price or offerin reward or romise R collecti!e criminal res onsibilit$ 2. b$ usin# words of command • R )uisit s 'or th $rincipal b! In#uc m nt NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.the$ artici ated in the criminal resolution =. those who coo erate in the commission of the offense b$ another act without which it would not ha!e been accom lished )0y Indispensable Cooperation) • Articl 1A%1( 6 $rincipals b! . there is only conspiracy R thus there is no criminal liability • Articl 1A%2( 6 $rincipals b! In#uc m nt %$I( • $rincipals by Inducement are &=)/ liable when the $rincipal by Girect $articipation committed the act induced • 6wo ways of becomin# rinci al b$ induction 1..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . / year +. b$ directl$ forcin# another to commit a crime 2./ in 0a1u *+. (ther enalties li6e destierro and im risonment R e8ecuted on indi!iduals onl$ $rticle 17 • AR1ICL.1. those who ta6e a direct art in the e8ecution of the act )0y Girect $articipation) 2. re#ardless of de#ree of artici ation • Without the =nd re3uisite.no cons irac$ in!ol!ed> 1. b$ causin# uncontrollable fear • (y directly inducing another to commit a crime 1.1A 6 $RINCI$AL/ 5 the followin# are considered rinci als: 1. all the ra ists are e3uall$ liable..1.the$ carried out their lan and ersonall$ too6 art in its e8ecution b$ acts which directl$ tended to the same end • In multi le ra e.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1.-.

DC-M-N1 O00-N. that is without such inducement the crime would not ha!e been committed • 1he inducement must precede the act and must be so influential • If there is a rice or reward in!ol!ed. that the inducement be made directly with the intention of rocurin# the commission of the crime 2. $rincipal b! In#uc m nt F O'' n# r b! $roposal $RIN.1.: of 138 Atty.-.i'' r nc b t. Maximo Amurao 1. w7o prior promise R no inducement • (y using words of command 5 the words must be the mo&in cause of the offense 1.1. that the words used must be so direct. 32 IN. / year +.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . so owerful as to amount to h$sical or moral coercion -''icacious – it would seem or it was furnished that the material e8ecutor or principal by direct participation had reason to belie&e or was made to belie&e that the deceased did somethin wron 4. / 2ina Acosta *+./ in 0a1u *+. that such inducement be the determining cause of the commission of the crime • In#uc m nt – ma$ be b$ acts of command. so efficacious... that the one utterin# the words of command must ha&e the intention of procurin the commission of the crime 2. ad!ice. the words of command must be uttered prior to the commission of the crime7 when the words were uttered after the commencement of the crime R no inducement 5. or throu#h influence or a#reement for consideration7 the words of ad!ice or influence must actuall$ mo!e the hands of the rinci al b$ direct artici ation • 1he inducement must be the determining cause for the commission of the crime b$ the rinci al b$ direct artici ation.. that the one who made the command must ha&e an ascendancy or influence o!er the erson who acted 3.-R 32 $RO$O/AL 5 inducement to commit the crime 5 inducement to commit the crime 5 liable onl$ when crime is committed 5 mere ro osal to commit is b$ the rinci al b$ direct artici ation unishable in treason J rebellion7 erson ro osed to shouldnLt commit the crime 5 inducement in!ol!es an$ crime 5a lies in treason J rebellion onl$ • Articl 1A%3( ? $rincipal b! In#isp nsabl Coop ration %$IC( 5 those who coo erate in the commission of the crime b$ another act without which it would not ha!e been accom lished NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. the material e(ecutor has no personal reason to commit the crime • .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1.

-.. there is either anterior cons irac$ or unit$ of criminal ur ose and intention immediatel$ before the commission of the crime char#ed 2. be indis ensable 5 if dispensable. and each of the artici ants is liable onl$ for the act committed b$ him $rticle 1F • AR1ICL. coo eration in the commission of the crime b$ erformin# another act. not bein# included in Article 9C.1. of 138 Atty. that is. $rincipals by Indispensable Cooperation – CCR with 'rinci als b$ *irect 'artici ation • In#i"i#ual Criminal R sponsibilit! %ICR( – in the absence of re!ious cons irac$. / 2ina Acosta *+.1. unit$ of criminal ur ose and intention immediatel$ before the commission of the crime or communit$ of criminal desi#n.. but that common will or ur ose does not necessaril$ mean re!ious understandin# for it can be e8 lained or inferred from the circumstances of each case • R )uisit s* 1. without which it would not ha!e been accom lished • 4irst reAuisite 5 re3uires artici ation in the criminal resolution 5 there must be cons irac$ 5 concurrence is sufficient 5 coo eration indis ensable • #econd reAuisite 5 coo eration 8M#.$rincipals by Girect $articipation – CCR b. the criminal res onsibilit$ arisin# from different acts directed a#ainst one and the same erson is indi!idual and not collecti!e./ in 0a1u *+.1C ? ACCOM$LIC-/ 5 Accom lices are ersons who.. e8ce t those who directl$ forced another to commit a crime c.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1. $rincipals by Inducement – CCR with 'rinci als b$ *irect 'artici ation.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . artici ation in the criminal resolution. cooperate in the e(ecution of the crime by pre&ious or simultaneous acts • Iuasi?Coll cti" Criminal R sponsibilit! – some of the offenders in the crime are rinci als7 others are accom lices NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. accused is only an accomplice • Coll cti" Criminal R sponsibilit! %CCR( – when the offenders are criminall$ liable in the same manner and to the same e8tent7 enalt$ is the same for all: a. Maximo Amurao • Coop rat – means to desire or wish in common a thin#.. / year +.

. / 2ina Acosta *+.i'' r nc b t5 ACCOM$LIC-/ n an Accomplic an# a Conspirator CON/$IRA1OR/ 5 the$ 6now J a#ree with the criminal desi#n 5 the$ 6now the criminal intention because the$ ha!e decided u on the course of action 5 the$ 6now J a#ree with the criminal desi#n 5 the$ come to 6now about the criminal desi#n after the cons irators ha!e decided on it 5 onl$ concurs to the commission of 5 the$ decide to commit the crime the crime7 the$ do not decide7 the$ merel$ assent to it and coo erate 5 mere instruments erformin# acts 5 the$ are the authors of the crime N(1 essential to the er etration of the crime • R )uisit s 'or an accomplic * 9. 1nowin the criminal desi n of the principal by direct participation./ in 0a1u *+.that he coo erates in the e8ecution of the offense by pre&ious and simultaneous acts with the intention of supplyin the material or moral aid in the e8ecution of the crime in an efficacious wa$ F.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1.1.-. Maximo Amurao • $articipation5 ro!ed b$ positi&e Lcompetent e&idence7 canLt be resumed • $ccomplices ha!e 5 no re!ious a#reement 5 no understandin# 5 not in cons irac$ with the 'rinci al b$ *irect 'artici ation • . he concurs with the latter in his ur ose =.. / year +.that there be a relation between the acts done b$ the rinci al and those attributed to the erson char#ed as accom lice • Rul s on Accomplic s* NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.of 138 Atty.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ...1.that there be communit$ of desi#n7 that is.

/ 2ina Acosta *+.ampl s o' pr "ious acts 5 lendin# of a wea on. or an attem t to ta6e the life of the Chief )8ecuti!e or is 6nown to be habituall$ #uilt$ of some other crime • "ccessories do not artici ate7 the$ do not coo erate • "ccessories must ha!e 6nowled#e of the commission of the crime. Maximo Amurao 1.ampl s o' simultan ous acts 5 disarmin# the !ictim while the rinci al is attac6in# 5 re!entin# the !ictims from recei!in# hel 5 acted as a loo65out. e#. 6nowin# of the ur ose 5 furnishin# a dru# or slee in# dru#.-.. either as rinci als or accom lices.fencin# • Nnowled e ma$ be ac3uired after the ac3uisition of stolen ro ert$ • )8am les of by profitin themsel&es by the effects of the crime 5 recei!ed stolen ro ert$ and used it NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. by concealin or destroyin the body of the crime or the effects or instruments thereof. an accom lice does not inflict more or most serious wounds • Moral ai# – ma$ be throu#h ad!ice.1. ro!ided the accessor$ acts with of his ublic functions or whene!er the author of the crime is #uilt$ of treason.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1.. without cons irac$ 5 su l$in# material or moral aid 5 distractin# the !ictim $rticle 1C • AR1ICL. then ta6es art subse3uent to the commission. by profitin themsel&es or assistin the offender to rofit b$ the effects of the crime 2./ in 0a1u *+. concealin or assistin in the escape of the rinci al of the crime. 6nowin# the ur ose is for ra e • -. in order to pre&ent its disco&ery 3. / year +.there should be a rinci al b$ direct artici ation> 2..8 of 138 Atty.1B ? ACC-//ORI-/ 5 Accessories are those who. the one who had the ori#inal criminal desi#n is the erson who committed the resultin# crime . encoura#ement or a#reement • -. arricide. ta1e part subse=uent to its commission in an$ of the followin# manners: 1. murder.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . by harborin . an accom lice coo erates onl$ with pre&ious or simultaneous acts 3. ha&in 1nowled e of the commission of the crime and without ha&in participated therein.1.

Maximo Amurao • )8am les of by concealin or destroyin the body of the crime )or the corpus delicti) 5 assisted in the burial to re!ent disco!er$ 5 concealin# or hidin# wea ons used in the commission of the crime 5 furnishes the means to sta#e the crime scene • R )uisit s 'or Articl 1B%3(* a. murder. to ha!e been deri!ed from the roceeds of the crime of robber$ or theft • 0 nc – includes an$ erson. arricide. ossess. sell or dis ose of. conceals. assists in the esca e 5 acts with abuse of his ublic functions 5 crime of rinci al is an$ crime not a li#ht felon$ b. or shall bu$ and sell. B accessory is a pri&ate person 5 harbors. item.. with intent to #ain for himself or for another. . ac3uire. conceals.accessory is a public officer 5 harbors.< of 138 Atty. accessor$ ma$ still be con!icted • "pprehension and con&iction of the rinci al is not necessary for the accessor$ to be held criminall$ liable • If the rinci al is at5lar#e or not $et a rehended. shall bu$. 6ee . association. or should be 6nown to him.1. or in an$ other manner deal in an$ article.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . attem t a#ainst the life of the 'resident. cr No. conceal. cor oration or artnershi or other or#aniDation who.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 5 shared in the reward for murder • )8am les of assistin the offender by the effects of the crime 5 sells the stolen ro ert$ for the offenderLs benefit 5 runners or couriers for ic6in#5u or #ettin# the ransom mone$ Page 1.. assists in the 5 esca e 5 crime of rinci al is treason. firm.. recei!e. / year +.-. ob4ect or an$thin# of !alue which he 6nows.which commits the act of fencin# $rticle 20 NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1. the accessor$ ma$ be rosecuted and con!icted • Anti?0 ncin& La5 o' 1BAB %$r si# ntial . a 6nown habitual criminal • If the rinci al is ac3uitted b$ e8em tion. / 2ina Acosta *+.1<12( • 0 ncin& – is the act of an$ erson who./ in 0a1u *+.

5eformation – correct and reform the offender 4.9> • . relati!es b$ affinit$ w.1. descendants Page 11.in same de#rees b.i'' r nt 7uri#ical con#itions o' p nalt! 5 roducti!e of sufferin# 5 certain 5 commensurate with the offense 5 ersonal 5 le#al • $urpos o' punishm nt* .-. ascendants #. Maximo Amurao .29 6 ACC-//ORI-/ -K-M$1 0ROM CRIMINAL LIA3ILI12 5 those who are e8em t are the followin#: a.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . ado ted siblin#s 5 e8ce t those that fall under Article 9?.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes • AR1ICL. of 138 Atty. / year +.roun# 'or . le#itimate./ in 0a1u *+.. s ouses c. $re&ention – re!ent or su ress the dan#er to the "tate 2.o secure justice • 1h ori s 7usti'!in& p nalt! 1. Oustice – unishment as an act of retributi!e 4ustice 5 e3ual for all 5 correctional • #ocial defense L e(emplarity: 4ustifies the im osition of the death enalt$ • 1h p nalti s un# r th R$C ha" a 3?'ol# purpos 1. #elfBdefense – ri#ht to unish7 rotect societ$ from the threat or wron# 3.. mption – ties of blood7 reser!ation of the cleanliness of oneLs name • Ne hew or niece not included • Accessories not e3empt if the$: 5 rofited b$ the effects of the crime 5 assisted the offender to rofit • $-NAL1I-/ • $ nalt! – the sufferin# that is inflicted b$ the "tate for the trans#ression of a law • .. !(emplarity – unishment for deterrence 5. 5etribution or e(piation – enalt$ commensurate with the #ra!it$ of the crime NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+. natural.1.

there shall be no criminal rosecution if the offender is e3pressly pardoned b$ the arents or #rand arents or #uardian of the offended art$.-R-. $AR12 5 does not e8tin#uish criminal action e8ce t in Article F@@ of the R'C7 but an e8 ress wai!er can e8tin#uish the ci!il liabilit$ for the in4ured art$ • A ardon b$ the offended art$ does not e8tin#uish criminal action. when the re eal is b$ im lication 3.1.ON 32 1:.IM$O/-.-.9> enal laws enacted before the R'C..c ption – fa!orable to the accused R ason 'or th .estafa 5 e!en the offender a$s dama#es to the in4ured art$. / year +.22 6 R-1ROAC1IH. ra e or acts of lasci!iousness. Arrest and 1em orar$ *etention 5.. the offender can still be rosecuted • Com romise does not e8tin#uish criminal liabilit$ • +nder $rticle %''.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 111 of 138 Atty.O00-N. which are more fa!orable to the accused • Criminal Liabilit! o' r p al # la5s still subsist 5h n* 1./ in 0a1u *+.=> enal laws enacted subse3uent to the R'C.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . *e ri!ation of Ri#hts with 2. A/ $-NAL1I-/ 1. and . in the crimes of seduction.1.. #ocial defense – shown b$ its infle8ible se!erit$ to recidi!ists and habitual delin3uents $rticle 21?2C • AR1ICL. 5 No felon$ shall be unishable b$ an$ enalt$ not rescribed b$ law rior to its commission • AR1ICL.23 6 $AR. Correction or reformation – shown b$ rules that re#ulate e8ecution of enalties consistin# in de ri!ation of libert$ 3. both offenders . Commitment of a Minor Re arations NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.21 6 $-NAL1I-/ 1:A1 MA2 3.NO1 CON/I. unless after the institution of the criminal action. Maximo Amurao 2.-00-C1 O0 $-NAL LAW/ 5 'enal laws shall be retroacti!e in so far as the$ fa!or the erson #uilt$ of a felon$ and is not a habitual criminal • • • • . / 2ina Acosta *+. n ral Rul – ros ecti!e effect -. e#.24 6 M-A/DR-/ O0 $R-H-N1ION AN. abduction.the offendin# s ouse and aramour> must be ardoned b$ the offended art$ • 'ardon under Article F@@ must be made before the institution of criminal rosecution.c ption – former laws re ealed or amended are un4ust Article == does not a l$ to the ro!isions of the Re!ised 'enal Code7 but a lies to . /A0-12 1:A1 AR.-.In the crime of adulter$ or concubina#e. when there is a sa!in# clause • AR1ICL. because a crime committed is a felon$ or offense committed a#ainst the "tate. the offender and the offended decide to #et married7 1his ardon is onl$ a bar to criminal rosecution • AR1ICL. there is a reenactment of the law 2.

11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Eines J (ther Correcti!e Measures. the ri#ht to !ote and be !oted for. / year +.-.1. "us ension from )m lo$ment Page 11+ of 138 Atty.25 6 CLA//I0ICA1ION O0 $-NAL1I-/ • $rincipal $ nalti s Capital punishment Li ht penalties *eath Arresto Menor Eines "fflicti&e penalties Reclusion 'er etua Reclusion 1em oral 'ublic Censure 'er etual or 1em orar$ absolute dis3ualification $enalties common to the 'er etual or 1em orar$ s ecial dis3ualification three precedin classes 'rision Ma$or Eine 0ond to 6ee the eace Correctional penalties 'rision Correccional Arresto Ma$or "us ension *estierro • Acc ssor! $ nalti s 5 'er etual or 1em orar$ absolute dis3ualification 5 'er etual or 1em orar$ s ecial dis3ualification 5 "us ension from ublic office. administrati!e or disci linar$ in nature AR1ICL..1.. the rofession or callin# 5 Ci!il interdiction 5 Indemnification 5 Eorfeiture of confiscation of instruments and roceeds of the offense NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. / 2ina Acosta *+./ in 0a1u *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 3. Maximo Amurao 4..

5eclusion temporal – 9= $rs.and 9 da$ to @: $rs2.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 5 'a$ment of cost Page 113 of 138 Atty.:::-:: 3. "rresto mayor – 9 month and 9 da$ to < months <. arresto) 3.and 9 da$ to 9= $rs4. 0ond to 1eep the peace – the eriod durin# which the bond shall be effecti!e is discretionar$ on the court • AR1ICL. LI.:::-:: 2. Cor oral )death) 2. 'ecuniar$ )fine) • AR1ICL.and 9 da$ to =: $rs 3.-. or e!en if bailable. destierro – < months and 9 da$ to < $rs5.2C 6 COM$D1A1ION O0 $-NAL1I-/ )readin matter) • AR1ICL.2< 6 0IN-/ %A00LIC1IH-. "fflicti&e – o!er '<.DRA1ION O0 $-NAL1I-/ 1. / year +.IM$RI/ONM-N1 • $r " nti" imprisonm nt – an accused under#oes this when the crime char#ed is nonB bailable. 5eclusion perpetua – =: $rs. $rision correctional. Maximo Amurao Classi'ication o' p nalti s accor#in& to sub7 ct matt r 1..1. Restriction of freedom )destierro) 4.. *e ri!ation of ri#hts )dis=ualification and suspension) 5..2A 6 . he cannot furnish the re=uired bail • 1he fullBtime or fourBfifths of the time durin# which offenders ha!e under#one re!enti!e im risonment shall be deducted from the enalt$ im osed $rticle %0?%E NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. *e ri!ation of freedom )reclusion. suspension. $rision mayor – < $rs. / 2ina Acosta *+./ in 0a1u *+.:1( • Eines and 0ond to 6ee the 'eace are: 1. Li ht $enalty – less than '=::-:: • AR1ICL. "rresto menor – 9 da$ to F: da$s A. prision.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . CORR-C1IONAL.2B 6 $R-H-N1IH. Correctional – '=::-:: – '<.1.

e8ce t in Article F@@ 5 cannot include e8tinction of ci!il liabilit$ 5 offended art$ can wai!e ri#ht to claim ci!il liabilit$ 5 should be #i!en before the 5 should be #i!en only after con!iction institution of the criminal action 5 ma$ be e8tended to an$ of the offenders 5 must be e8tended to both offenders $rticle %7 AR1ICL. 5 e8tin#uishes criminal liabilit$ 5 does not e8tin#uish criminal liabilit$.3< 6 $AR. / year +.-N1 $AR.ON 32 O00-N.ONL I1/ -00-C1/ 5 shall not restore the ri#ht to hold office and the ri#ht of suffra#e. unless e8 ressl$ restored b$ the terms of the ardon 5 shall not e8em t the cul rit from ci!il liabilit$ • .ON 32 $R-/I.-.-R O0 $A2M-N1 1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes • AR1ICL-/ 39?35 6 -00-C1/ O0 $-NAL1I-/ )readin matter) Page 119 of 138 Atty. of marital authorit$.i'' r nc b t. 1he re aration of the dama#e caused NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1.3C 6 $-CDNIAR2 LIA3ILI1I-/L OR. or #uardianshi . in the course of 4udicial roceedin#s $rticle %F AR1ICL. / 2ina Acosta *+.1.. Maximo Amurao • Ci"il int r#iction – shall de ri!e the offender durin# the time of his sentence of the ri#hts arental authorit$../ in 0a1u *+. of the ri#ht to mana#e his ro ert$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ..3A 6 CO/1/ 1. either as to the erson or ro ert$ of an$ ward. Indemnities. and of the ri#ht to dis ose of such ro ert$ b$ an$ act or an$ con!e$ance $rticle %D AR1ICL. Eees 2. $ar#on b! th $r si# nt F $ar#on b! th O'' n# # $AR.-.

1.3B 6 /D3/I.. the accused cannot be com elled to com l$ with it $rticle '0?'' AR1ICL-/ 49?44 6 ACC-//OR2 $-NAL1I-/ O0 ARR-/1O )readin matter) 5 Accessor$ enalties do not ha!e to be s ecified e8 ressl$ in the 4ud#ment of con!iction 5 usuall$.he order of payment is as stated Page 11: of 138 Atty.IM$O/-.IAR2 $-NAL12 • /ubsi#iar! $ nalt! – a subsidiar$ ersonal enalt$ to be suffered b$ the con!ict who has no property with which to meet the fine. u on the rinci als 2.4< 6 $-NAL12 1O 3. and also the tools used7 if not submitted.45 6 CON0I/CA1ION AN.1. at the rate of one da$ for each ei#ht .-. the$ are said #enerall$ $rticle 'E?'7 • AR1ICL. Eine 4. 0OR0-I1DR5 the roceeds of the crime must first be submitted to the 4urisdiction of the courts.-N-RAL 5 the penalty prescribed by law for the commission of a felon$ shall be imposed upon the principals 5 the law prescribes a enalt$ for a felon$ in eneral terms. the s ecific accessor$ enalties are not s ecified.c ption – when the law fi8es a enalt$ for frustrated or attem ted felon$ NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . the courts cannot ad4udicate on the roceeds and tools whether the$ would be dis osed in fa!or of the state • AR1ICL. Maximo Amurao $rticle %C AR1ICL.'B> esos.. / 2ina Acosta *+. Costs of roceedin#s • . sub4ect to the rules ro!ided for in Article F? • "ubsidiar$ enalties should be e3pressly specified in the conviction because without it. it shall be understood as applicable to the consummated felony • 'enalt$ in eneral terms shall be im osed: 1. / year +. D$ON $RINCI$AL/ IN . for the consummated felon$ • -./ in 0a1u *+. Indemnification of the conse3uential dama#es 3.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 2..

1. the result was 1 grave and 2 light felonies. a sin#le criminal act roduced 1 less grave felony and several light felonies. that onl$ a single act is performed b$ the offender 2. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate  #upposin . .re ealed b$ RA ?F@@> 2. / 2ina Acosta *+. / year +.iii> = or more less #ra!e felonies • 1he sin#le act should roduce a #ra!e felon$ or a less #ra!e felon$ or a combination of both • Li#ht felonies roduced b$ the same sin#le act should be treated and unished as se arate offenses or ma$ be absorbed b$ the #ra!e felon$  #upposin . When an offense is a necessar$ means for committin# the other )comple( crime proper) • 1here must be at least two crimes • Com le8 crime R (NL.-. one crime • Comple( crimes are more fa&orable to the accused because instead of bein# con!icted of two se arate counts of the same crime. because the sin#le act should roduce a #ra!e or less #ra!e felon$ onl$  #upposin . two children sli#htl$ in4ured. 1.IM$O/-.1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 11. it is considered as onl$ one • Compoun# Crim 5 5e=uisites: 1./ in 0a1u *+.4A 6 W:-N . of 138 Atty.4C 6 COM$L-K CRIM-/ 1. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate.-A1: $-NAL12 NO1 1O 3. a sin#le criminal act roduced 1 grave felony and 10 light felonies. ersons o!er C: $ears old • 1he *eath 'enalt$ should be im osed on cases where the law s ecifies it • 1he *eath 'enalt$ as of now is deemed to be irrele!ant $rticle 'F AR1ICL. .ii> one or more #ra!e J one or more less #ra!e felonies.i> = or more #ra!e felonies. Maximo Amurao • AR1ICL.. When a sin#le act constitutes two or more #ra!e or less #ra!e felonies )compound crimes) 2.. $ou shot your neighbor then the bullet hit two children7 the result was $our nei#hbor died. that the sin#le act roduces . minors under 9B at the commission of the crime .

independent acts. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate  "u osin#. is the crime com le8 or se arate? Comple3.Amurao throws a #renade in class.*e Leon. is the crime com le8 or se arate? Comple3  "u osin#. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate  #upposin . using the same facts above. is the crime com le8 or se arate? Comple3. not s ecificall$ identified Compl . in a notorious village. as held b$ the "C in 'eo le !.that both or all the offenses must be punished under the same statute • Necessar$ means not eAuivalent to indis ensable means NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. because the what is considered is the no. using the same facts above e3cept that the congressmen were not identified.1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate. in addition % light felonies were roduced. Prof! $murao switched the machine gun to automatic and shot at the students with one single act of pressing the trigger.of bullets dischar#ed )$eople &2 Gesierto)  "u osin#.1. is the crime com le8 or se arate? Comple3  #upposin .. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate. because the identification was in #eneral terms. the criminal act was done on the same occasion and the offender was motivated by one criminal impulse  #upposin . a sin#le criminal act roduced a crime punishable by the RPC and a crime punishable by special law. considered as se arate !iolations  "u osin#.that one or some of the offenses must be necessary to commit the other F. Crim $rop r 5 5e=uisites: 9. because there are as man$ crimes of libel as there are ersons libeled. as held b$ the Court of A eals  #upposin . K students died.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 11. Prof! $murao switched the machine gun to not automatic and fired one bullet aimed at someone but hit % others roducin# serious h$sical in4uries.. two shots were fired directed against two different persons. ro!ided that the ersons are e8 ressl$ s ecified7 because each of the K con#ressmen ma$ file for libel  #upposin . is the crime com le8 or se arate? Comple3. news writers wrote that the :errera doctors are inefficient. roducin# se!eral in4uries. the "C held in $eople &2 Lawas that it was a com le8 crime because there was a single offense since there was a single criminal impulse7intent7purpose  #upposin ./ in 0a1u *+. a commander ordered all his soldiers to shoot at the residents. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate. / 2ina Acosta *+. is the crime com le8 or se arate? Comple3  #upposin . 'rof. the act of firing a machine gun produces the crimes of attempted murder and physical in+uries. a libelous article was published defaming E congressmen specifically identified by their names. in a local publication. / year +. is the crime com le8 or se arate? #eparate.of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao  #upposin . a person stole the fighting coc s of his neighbor alternately with three separate..that at least two offenses are committed =.

when common crimes are committed. the accused idnapped a girl with intent to ill. is the crime com le8? =&.1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . law students made a falsified solicitation letter and collected money. is the crime com le8? /0#. is the crime com le8? =& • In the crimes of estafa and falsification. is the crime com le8? N(. is the crime com le8? =&. because the 6idna in# was onl$ a means to commit the crime of murder  #upposin . %1( in furtherance of or is related to treason or rebellion./ in 0a1u *+. a city treasurer malversed PEmillion pesos out of ta3es then falsified documents to conceal the malversation. an =P$ commander burned villages and illed the villagers in furtherance of his acts of rebellion. in the crime of rebellion.-. the crimes are separate • In the crimes of treason or rebellion. a public official committed malversation through falsification of public documents. / year +. is the crime com le8? =&. / 2ina Acosta *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 118 of 138 Atty. brought the victim somewhere then illed her. but %2( for ersonal reasons or for a ri!ate ur ose. then committed arson to conceal the murder. because the falsification was necessar$ to commit mal!ersation  #upposin .1. the accused illed his victim in a building. the same to be a lied in its ma8imum eriod NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. the =P$ commander illed someone for personal reasons.. the crime is onl$ murder. the crimes are se arate  #upposin . the crimes are separate • 1here is no comple3 crime of rebellion with common crimes • /p cial Compl . the crimes are absorbed. Crim s 5 Ra e with %omicide 5 Robber$ with "erious 'h$sical In4uries 5 Robber$ with %omicide 5 Pidna in# with Murder or %omicide • 03press provisions in the Re!ised 'enal Code that cannot be comple3 5 Article 9=?: search warrant obtained maliciousl$ 5 Article =FK: maltreatment of risoners 5 *irect 0riber$ R cannot be com le8ed • Articl 4C is intended to favor the culprit or accused • 1he penalty for comple3 crimes is the penalty for the most serious crime. $ou loo6 at the crime first committed if it was necessar$ for the commission of the other7 the common element in estafa and falsification is the intent to cause dama#e  #upposin . is the crime com le8? /0#.. the falsification of the ri!ate document was necessar$ for the crime of estafa  #upposin . in the crime of rebellion. because the acts he committed were absorbed in the crime of rebellion  #upposin . Maximo Amurao  #upposin ..

accessories> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. • a licable onl$ to mista e in identity /t ps 1. Maximo Amurao • 1wo felonies in a com le8 crime unishable b$ im risonment and fine R onl$ the im risonment is im osed $rticle 'C • AR1ICL.consummated.LOW-R-.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 11< of 138 Atty. WA/ . 3.I00-R-N1 0ROM W:A1 WA/ IN1-N. frustrated.1. accom lices.COMMI11-. attem ted> 2.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .-. identif$ lesser enalt$ 2.. sta#e reached b$ the crime in its de!elo ment . / 2ina Acosta *+. rinci als. )readin matter) $articipants. the lesser penalty is always applied or imposed $rticle E0?E7 • AR1ICL-/ 59?5A 6 . whiche!er enalt$ is rescribed b$ law.1.. / year +.-./ in 0a1u *+. enalties can be reduced by de rees 1.R--/ 1O W:IC: $-NAL1I-/ /:ODL.4B 6 $-NAL12 0OR $RINCI$AL/ O0 CRIM. 3. artici ation of ersons liable . liability lowered by de rees consummate d 'rinci als Accom lices Accessories • • • • • • • • Articl Articl Articl Articl Articl Articl Articl Articl : 9 = frustrated 9 = F attem ted = F @ 59 – 'rinci als in a frustrated felon$ 51 – 'rinci als in an attem ted felon$ 52 – Accom lices in a consummated felon$ 53 – Accessories in a consummated felon$ 54 – Accom lices in a frustrated felon$ 55 – Accessories in a frustrated felon$ 5< – Accom lices in an attem ted felon$ 5A – Accessories in an attem ted felon$ • 3asis 'or th # t rmination 5 under the R'C.-.

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 3. ri!ile#ed miti#atin# circumstances

Page 1+, of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

• All enalties for each crime in the R'C R #enerall$, shall alwa$s be im osed unless the law itself e8 ressl$ ro!ides, e8ce t Article <: • , &r – one whole enalt$7 one entire enalt$ or one unit of enalties enumerated in the #raduated scales • $ rio# – one of the F e3ual ortions ;minimum, medium, ma8imum>

$rticle EF?D0
• AR1ICL- 5C 6 A,,I1IONAL $-NAL12 D$ON ACC-//ORI-/ O0 AR1.1B%3( 5 Absolute er etual dis3ualification if #uilt$ of a #ra!e felon$ 5 Absolute tem orar$ dis3ualification if #uilt$ of a less #ra!e felon$ • "rticle 1F)3) – ublic officers who hel the author of the crime b$ misusin# their office and duties shall suffer the additional enalties • AR1ICL- 5B 6 $-NAL12 0OR IM$O//I3L- CRIM-/ 5 "rresto mayor, with fine of '=::5'K:: • 3asis 'or imposition* 5 social dan#er 5 de#ree of criminalit$ • AR1ICL- <9 6 -KC-$1ION/ 1O AR1ICL- 59?5A 5 shall not be a licable to cases in which the law rescribes a enalt$ for frustrated and attem ted sta#es or to be im osed on accom lices or accessories

$rticle D1
• AR1ICL- <1 6 RDL-/ 0OR ;RA,DA1IN; $-NAL1I-/ • ,i"isibl $ nalti s – di!ided into three, so effects of ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstances and #eneric a##ra!atin# circumstances can be a lied • In#i"isibl $ nalti s – e#- reclusion er etua, ublic censure, fine • 0irst Rul an# / con# Rul • 'enalt$ onl$ consists of a de#ree • 1he enalt$ ne8t lower b$ one de#ree R enalt$ immediatel$ followin# the enalt$ rescribed b$ the law 5 sin#le and indi!isible R Reclusion er etua 5 enalt$ ne8t lower in de#ree R Reclusion tem oral

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page 1+1 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

 #upposin , accused shot the victim Aualified by treachery, but the victim survived, thus accused was convicted of frustrated murder, the enalt$ for murder is reclusion er etua, but since it was frustrated, the enalt$ ne8t lower in de#ree a lies, which is reclusion temporal • 0ourth an# 0i'th Rul • 'enalt$ rescribed b$ law is 9, =, or F, se!eral eriods 5 If one eriod lower, #o down one eriod in the #raduated scale 5 If two eriods lower, #o down two eriods in the #raduated scale 5 If three eriods lower, #o down three eriods in the #raduated scale • !(ample+ $rision 8ayor 5 #upposin the enalt$ rescribed b$ law is prision mayor medium period: is in itself a de#ree7 R'C – all di!isible enalties are di!ided into F eriods7 rision ma$or medium can be di!ided into ma8imum, medium, minimum 5 $rision ma!or %< ! ars an# 1 #a! to 12 ! ars( 9= – < R < , F R = = R common multi le ;add = to the eriods startin# from the minimum> Minimum – < $ears and 9 da$ to ;<V=> B $ears Medium – B $ears and 9 da$ to ;BV=> 9: $ears Ma8imum – 9: $ears and 9 da$ ;9:V=> 9= $ears $rision mayor medium

? $rision ma!or m #ium %C ! ars an# 1 #a! to 19 ! ars( 9: – B R = $ears , F R B months B months R common multi le ;add B months> Minimum – B$rs- J 9 da$ to B$rs- J B months Medium – B$rs- J B months to ?$rs- J @ months Ma8imum – ?$rs- J @ $ears to 9: $ears • With the F eriods of prision mayor medium now determined, the miti#atin# and a##ra!atin# circumstances attendant can now be a lied • 1hir# Rul

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page 1++ of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

5 when three enalties are im osed in one ;e#- Reclusion tem oral – *eath> 5 since *eath is not im osed, three eriods lowered immediatel$ followin#

$rticle D2
• AR1ICL- <2 ? -00-C1/ O0 1:- A11-N,ANC- O0 MI1I;A1IN; AN, A;;RAHA1IN; CIRCDM/1ANC-/ AN, :A3I1DAL ,-LINID-NC2 • 0irst rul : A##ra!atin# circumstances: 1. should not themsel&es constitute a crime, e#- b$ means of fire R arson7 b$ means derailment of a locomoti!e R destruction of ro ert$ ? Is unlawful entry a crime in itself? /0# 2. should not be included in definin the crime, e#- b$ means of oison in the crime of murder 3. 1he ma8imum eriod shall be im osed re#ardless of miti#atin# circumstances if the offender is a ublic officer who too6 ad!anta#e b$ ublic osition 4. 1he ma8imum eriod shall be im osed for members of an or#aniDed or s$ndicated crime #rou • (r#aniDed or "$ndicated Crime /rou – #rou of two or more ersons collaboratin#, confederatin# or mutuall$ hel in# one another for ur oses of #ain in the commission of an$ crime • / con# rul 5 " ra&atin circumstances are not applicable if inherent in the crime, e#- e!ident remeditation in robber$ or theft7 ad!anta#e ta6en b$ ublic osition in mal!ersation7 se8 in crimes a#ainst chastit$7 brea6in# wall in malicious mischief • 1hir# rul * A##ra!atin# or Miti#atin# Circumstances arisin# from: 1. 8oral attributes  #upposin , the victim gave sufficient provocation, which irritated the accused who called his brother for assistance, then they both illed the victim, can the miti#atin# circumstance of sufficient ro!ocation be a reciated for both of them? =&, onl$ to the one who was the tar#et of the ro!ocation ;the accused> and not his brother 2. $ri&ate relations  #upposin , your neighbor slapped your mom, then you as ed your friend to accompany you to ill your neighbor, can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of immediate !indication of a relati!e for a #ra!e offense be a reciated for the both $ou? =&, onl$ to $ou because it was $our mom who was offended first and not $our friend

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes

Page 1+3 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao

3. $ersonal cause  #upposin , you and your friend entered your neighbor@s house, not nowing that your friend is afflicted with leptomania, can the miti#atin# circumstance of illness be a reciated for the both of $ou? =&, illness can be a reciated onl$ to $our friend • 0ourth rul * A##ra!atin# or miti#atin# circumstances a l$ in the: 5 material e3ecution of the act and in the means employed to accomplish it7 onl$ to those who had 6nowled#e at the time of the e8ecution 1. 8aterial e(ecution  #upposin , Prof! $murao as ed his student to simply ill his classmate, but the student applied cruelty when he illed his classmate, can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of cruelt$ be a reciated with 'rof- Amurao? =&, because he had no 6nowled#e of the material e8ecution used #upposin , using the same facts above, but Prof! $murao told his student to ill his classmate Iat all costs@, can the a##ra!atin# circumstance of cruelt$ be a reciated with 'rof- Amurao? /0# 2. 8eans employed to accomplish 5 'rinci al b$ direct artici ation uses oison to commit murder without the 6nowled#e of the 'rinci al b$ inducement • :abitual , lin)u nc! • :abitual , lin)u nt – a erson who, within a eriod of 9: $ears from the date of release or last con!iction of the crimes of serious or less serious h$sical in4uries, robber$, theft, estafa, or falsification, found #uilt$ for a Frd time or oftener- A habitual delin3uent shall suffer an additional enalt$ • ,i'' r nc b t5 n :abitual , lin)u ntER ci#i"istER it racion
:abitual , lin)u nt Crim s 5 s ecified crimes R ci#i"ism R it racion 5 = crimes not embraced in the same

5 = crimes embraced in the same title of the R'C

title of the R'C $ rio# 5 within 9: $ears 5 time bet- = offenses is immaterial 5 has ser!ed sentence

for the 9st offense

NO !" #$%
&os' (i))ena *+,,-./ in 0a1u *+,1,. / 2ina Acosta *+,1,. / year +,11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1

1. after con!iction or after ser!in# sentence a#ain committed within 9: $ears from his release or date of first con!iction./ in 0a1u *+. he was con!icted of an$ of said crimes for the =nd time 3. lin)u nt* 1. after con!iction or after ser!in# sentence for the =nd offense a#ain commits and within 9: $ears of con!iction or release for the =nd offense.. estafa.i'' r nc b t. offender has been con!icted of serious or less serious h$sical in4uries.. :abitual . robber$. commits a Frd time or oftener • A##itional $ nalti s 1. theft. or falsification 2. / 2ina Acosta *+. o' Crim s 5 Frd time or oftener 5 =nd time is sufficient 5 =nd time is sufficient Page 1+9 of 138 Atty.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes No.or the 4th time R the enalt$ for the last crime V 'rision ma$or minimum to medium NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. must be s ecificall$ alle#ed 5 comes onl$ after the sentence of con!iction 5 im osed onl$ when unable to a$ fine 5 #eneral alle#ation will suffice 5 does not need to be alle#ed • R )uisit s 'or a :abitual .-.1.or the 3rd time R the enalt$ for the last crime V 'rision correctional medium to ma8imum 2. lin)u nt /ubsi#iar! Imprisonm nt 5 needs to be alle#ed in the information 5 should be alle#ed in the be#innin# 5 im oses an additional enalt$ 5 cannot be considered with a #eneral alle#ation.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Maximo Amurao -'' cts 5 additional enalt$ is im osed 5 a #eneric a##ra!atin# 5 not alwa$s an circumstance7 can be offset b$ an ordinar$ miti#atin# circumstance a##ra!atin# circumstance • . . / year +. lin)u nc! F /ubsi#iar! Imprisonm nt :abitual .. .

$-NAL1I-/ 1.the crime of ra e with homicide.<3 6 RDL-/ ON IN. because there is no death • -. / year +. / 2ina Acosta *+.1.$rticles DF H DC-.c ption to #isr &ar#in& circumstanc s* if it is a privileged mitigating circumstance . Articles C<5CC whether there are attendin# circumstances • 0irst rul 5 if neither a mitigating or aggravating circumstance is resent R medium period is im osed • / con# rul 5 if there is a mitigating circumstance R minimum period is im osed • 1hir# rul 5 if there is an aggravating circumstance R ma3imum period is im osed • 0ourth rul 5 if there is both a mitigating and aggravating circumstance R courts shall offset the circumstances accordin# to relati!e wei#ht NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. e#. .. . with the miti#atin# circumstances of !oluntar$ surrender. the enalt$ shall still be reclusion er etua because circumstances are disre#arded 2. or if the accused is a minor who acted with discernment R can be entitled to a enalt$ ne8t lower in de#ree $rticle D' • AR1ICL./ in 0a1u *+.or the 5th time or more R the enalt$ for the last crime V 'rision ma$or ma8imum to Reclusion tem oral minimum • 1otal of last enalt$ and additional enalt$ R should not e3ceed %0 yrs! • If the court overloo ed the imposition of an additional penalty for habitual delin3uenc$ R the offender cannot be compelled to suffer the additional penalty • In the commission of se!eral crimes occurrin# on or about the same date shall be considered onl$ as one for ur oses of habitual delin3uenc$ • In the con!iction for those crimes occurrin# on or about the same date shall also be considered as one $rticle D% • AR1ICL. and illness. therefore thereLs onl$ one indi!isible enalt$> licable.or two indi&isible penalties .or sin le indi&isible penalties . !oluntar$ confession of #uilt.sub5 ara#ra hs 95@ are ina enalt$.-. Maximo Amurao 3.1..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .IHI/I3L.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1+: of 138 Atty./ 5 In accordance w.reclusion er etua> – shall be a lied re#ardless of miti#atin# or a##ra!atin# circumstances.<4 6 RDL-/ 0OR $-NAL1I-/ WI1: 3 $-RIO.. .

for a##ra!atin# circumstances> or deducted .<A 6 $-NAL12 0OR INCOM$L-1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1+.grave felonies5 Arresto ma$or minimum to Arresto ma$or medium .<5 6 RDL-/ 0OR $-NAL1I-/ NO1 IN 1:R-./ )readin matter) • AR1ICL. CIRCDM/1ANC.-./ in 0a1u *+. of 138 Atty..for miti#atin# circumstances> from the ma8imum fine 5 courts must consider+ 1. / year +.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . Maximo Amurao • 0i'th rul 5 if there are = or more miti#atin# circumstances and absolutel$ no a##ra!atin# circumstances R the enalt$ ne8t lower in de#ree is im osed • /i. wealth or means of the cul rit • AR1ICL.for less grave felonies• )ight felonies throu#h ne#li#ence R no penalty $rticle DF • AR1ICL.-K-M$1IN..imum 'in is either added .1.-R 1C )repealed by 5" F344) • Minor under 9B who acted with discernment R enalt$ two de#rees lower NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. miti#atin# or a##ra!atin# circumstances 2..1.-N1 5 Arresto ma$or ma8imum to rision correccional minimum .th rul 5 whate!er the number or nature of a##ra!atin# circumstances R courts cannot im ose a #reater enalt$ than rescribed b$ law in ma8imum • / " nth rul 5 Courts can determine e8tent of enalt$ within the limits of each eriod • Miti&atin& circumstance must be ordinary R not privileged • A&&ra"atin& circumstance must be generic R not Aualified or inherent $rticle DE?D7 • AR1ICL. / 2ina Acosta *+.<< 6 IM$O/I1ION O0 0IN-/ )readin matter) 5 M o' th ma.$-RIO.<C 6 $-NAL12 0OR MINOR/ DN.O0 ACCI.

the %? fold rule does not apply • *uration of con!ictsL sentence refers to se!eral enalties for different offenses not yet served out R has to ser!e continuous im risonment $rticle 71?77 • AR1ICL. OR -K-M$1IN.1. defense of a stran#er 5 "nlawful $ggression is indispensable $rticle 70 • AR1ICL.DA1-. which is each punishable by 1E yrs! of imprisonment.. / year +.8D/1I02IN. CIRCDM/1ANC-/ 5 lowered b$ 9 or = de#rees • *a+ority of such conditions must be resent • In self5defense.refer to Re$es boo6 for a com lete list of enalties that ca be ser!ed simultaneousl$> • /ucc ssi" / r"ic – if cannot be ser!ed simultaneousl$ .. can you impose the sentence of E00 counts of malversation.sus ension.A1 6 . Maximo Amurao $rticle DC • AR1ICL. etc> NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.Reclusion tem oral and 'er etual Absolute *is3ualification . fine.<B 6 $-NAL12 0OR INCOM$L-1. / 2ina Acosta *+./-RHIC.O0 /-N1-NC• /imultan ous / r"ic – if the nature of the enalties will so ermit. you are a +udge.RA.of 138 Atty. $rresto menor comes before destierro because com lete de ri!ation of libert$ or im risonment in arresto menor is more se!ere than destierro  #upposin ./ in 0a1u *+.1..im risonment> and olitical ri#hts .A9 6 /DCC-//IH. without violating $rticle 702 /0#. /CAL-/ • 'enalties are classified between ersonal enalties .-. i-e.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1+. because the F5fold rule does not refer to the im osition of sentence but refers to the ser!ice to the enalt$7 the courts can sentence no matter what and no matter how much • 1he F5fold rule is the concern of the .such as two 4ail sentences> shall follow the scale ro!ided b$ $rticle 70 based in the order according to severity • 3?'ol# rul – the ma8imum duration of the con!ictLs sentence shall not be more than %?fold the len#th of the time corres ondin# to the most severe of the enalties im osed • onl$ a lies when the con!ict has to ser!e at least ' sentences • In no case shall the sum total of enalties e8ceed @: $ears • In the scale. defense of a relati!e.irector of Prisons.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . =&6 of the courts • If the sum total of all the enalties does not e3ceed the most severe multiplied by %.

/ year +. re!ent unnecessar$ and e8cessi!e de ri!ation of libert$ • 1he I"LAW was enacted to benefit the accused b$ allowin# the con!ict not to ser!e the full sentence • 1hese ob4ecti!es are attained with the a lication of the I"LAW • Court fi3es a 8a(imum term and a 8inimum term • After ser!in# the *inimum term. lower it immediately by one degree. then $ou inflicted a mortal wound that caused his death in the hos ital.imum t rm should not be more than what is rescribed 5 the Minimum t rm should not be less than what is rescribed • !(ample+ 5 yrs and 1 day to 15 yrs 5 the Minimum ma$ be an$where from K $rs to 9@ $rs.-..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . he challen#ed $ou to a fi#ht and $ou acce ted the challen#e..but not more than 9K$rs• $s applied in the Revised Penal Code 5 the Ma. the$ ha!e to a those mentioned in #ec! 2 who are disAualified Page 1+8 of 138 Atty. $ou were char#ed with homicide./ in 0a1u *+. because there were NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1.-. accidentall$ $ou met $our nei#hbor alon# the road.imum ma$ be an$where from < 5 9K $rs. / 2ina Acosta *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes • Arresto ma$or is followed b$ destierro • AR1ICL-/ A2?AA )readin matter) • Article CF – Accessor$ enalties are deemed im osed • "ubsidiar$ im risonment is N(1 an accessor$ enalt$ • IN. romote economic usefulness 3.imum t rm should be im osed under the rules of the R'C7 penalty prescribed by law after a l$in# the le#al effects of miti#atin# or a##ra!atin# circumstances7 only the ma3imum is affected b$ the attendin# circumstances ? the Minimum t rm should be within the ran#e of the enalt$ ne8t lower to that rescribed b$ the R'C7 the penalty prescribed by law. to u lift and redeem !aluable human materials 2./-N1-NC. but not less than K $rs 5 the Ma. the con!ict shall be entitled to parole u on e!aluation of the 0oard of 'ardons and 'arole • 1h Irelease@ shall b "aluat # b! th Court 5h th r th con"ict is* 5 fitted b$ trainin# for release 5 reasonable robabilit$ not to commit another crime or !iolate the law 5 com atible with the welfare of societ$ )ta1e note of this4 this was i&en by $rof2 "murao) • $s applied in special penal laws 5 the Ma. Maximo Amurao l$ the same e8ce t for • $urpos EOb7 cti" s o' th I/LAW 1. i#nore all the miti#atin# or a##ra!atin# circumstances !(ample:  #upposin .LAW %AC1 4193 AM-N. 32 AC1 4225( 5 mandatory in nature7 whether the courts li6e it or not.-1-RMINA1.1.. there was a h$sical fi#ht.

B<C( • $robation – a dis osition under which a defendant after con!iction and sentence. Le#al effect of a !iolation of law or rules: 5 release ma$ be re!o6ed 5 rosecuted anew 5 rolon#ed chan#e in the terms and conditions of the arole 5 made to ser!e out the remainin# une8 ired ortion of the sentence • *urin# arole. this refers to the enalt$ actuall$ im osed in the con!iction b$ the courts.those con!icted b$ destierro or sus ension 5 destierro is a con!iction im osed b$ courts • $RO3A1ION LAW %$. rebellion. lower b$ 9 de#ree R $rision mayor – an$where within 'rision ma$or. is Reclusion 1em oral medium eriod 5 1he sentence now usin# the I"LAW is 'rision ma$or in an$ eriod as the Minimum term. the con&ict is as free as any normal person e8ce t for the terms and condition that ha!e to be obser!ed • I/LAW is inapplicabl 5ith th 'ollo5in&* 1. re#ardless of attendin# circumstances 5 1he Ma. the court can decide what eriod. p rsons con"ict # o' # ath or li' imprisonm nt 5 in terms of death.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 . is released sub4ect to the conditions im osed b$ the court and to the su er!ision of the robation officer • Ob7 cti" sE$urpos 1.-. considerin# the absence of attendin# circumstances. / 2ina Acosta *+.those who esca ed from confinement C.those who !iolated the terms of conditional ardon b$ the 'resident B. If there is no !iolation durin# the durin# the s ecial eriod. can the I"LAW still be a lied2 1he "C sa$s =&.those con!icted of mis rision of treason. ro osal or cons irac$ to commit treason F.imum t rm. / year +.ma8imum term of im risonment less than a $ear ?../ in 0a1u *+.habitual delin3uents <. es iona#e @.con!icted of irac$ K. not the enalt$ rescribed b$ the law 5 in terms of life imprisonment.1.for homicide> 5 1o #et Minimum t rm. immediatel$ #et the enalt$ ne8t to Reclusion tem oral.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 1+< of 138 Atty.. itLs not a licable =.. and since there was no mitigating and aggravating you should be sentenced to a medium period of reclusion tem oral . he shall eligible for parole7 terms and conditions can be im osed b$ the 0'' • >ote from $rof2 "murao+ It a$s to be in #ood terms with the 4ud#e and his wife or his number = so $ou can #et a low Minimum term if not the lowest • /ur" illanc $ rio# #urin& $arol %/$( 1. u to Reclusion tem oral medium eriod as the Ma8imum term • If the con!ict reaches the *inimum term. the court will issue an order for final dischar#e 2. 'romote correction and rehabilitation NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. what if Reclusion perpetua is imposed.1. Maximo Amurao no 3ualif$in# circumstances. sedition.those con!icted of treason.

con!icted of sub!ersion other crimes of national securit$ or ublic order 3.-. a con!ict sentenced to more than < $ears 2. alread$ ser!in# sentence • 1here is first. re!iousl$ robationed 5. court ma$ den$ or a robation ro!e recommendation and admit the accused to 5 Court ma$ im ose duration based on: 5 rehabilitation NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. of 138 Atty.1.communit$ 5 antecedents 5 mental and h$sical condition • Crit ria 'or # n!in&7 if the con!ict: 1. / year +. ( ortunit$ for reformation Page 13. needs correctional treatment 2.. robation will de reciate seriousness of offense • Inapplicabilit! o' th $robation La5 1. a 4ud#ment of con!iction im osed b$ the court • . a recidi!ist 4. has undue ris6 of committin# another crime 3. / 2ina Acosta *+./ in 0a1u *+..uration 5 not e8ceedin# < $ears and not dis3ualified 5 the accused ma$ file an a lication for robation with the court 5 the court will order an in!esti#ation throu#h the robation officer.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 2. 're!ent commission of offenses • Crit ria 'or &rantin& 5 character 5 en!ironment 5 institution..1. all the as ects of the life of the con!ict 5 robation officer submits findin#s and recommendation 5 after submission. Maximo Amurao 3.

-. later chan#ed his mind. withdrew his a eal then filed an a lication for robation. $ou canLt file an a lication for robation. sentence not more than 9 $ear R robation is less than = $ears 2. a child in conflict with the law can file an a lication for robation anytime • AR1ICL-/ AC?C9 )readin matters) 5 Article C? – "us ension of )8ecution NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.1. a certificate of final dischar#e7 its effects are: 9. thou#h with stron# dissentin# o inions about it .)". because he alread$ a ealed. / year +. sentence more than 9 $ear R robation is less than < $ears Page 131 of 138 Atty. $ou wai!e $our ri#ht to file for an a lication for robation. once $ou file for an a eal.1he "C is su reme. so accused filed an a eal in the CA where his sentence was lowered.. there canLt be an$ wai!er of ri#ht because he was not entitled to file an a lication for robation R thereLs nothin# to wai!e "C sa$s – N(./ in 0a1u *+.. 3ualif$in# him for robation.. Maximo Amurao 3.1. thus not entitled to robation. but it is not alwa$s ri#ht> • 0e$ond the 9K5da$ re#lamentar$ eriod. a 4ud#ment of con!iction was made. and !ice5!ersa if $ou first file for an a lication then later on decide to withdraw it #upposin .11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .liabilit$ for the fine is deemed e8tin#uished • Wh n to appl! 'or probation 5 9K da$s from romul#ation. u on recommendation b$ the robation officer. sentence is fine with subsidiar$ im risonment R robation is twice the da$s of subsidiar$ im risonment • A't r th $robation $ rio# 5 the court can issue.restored to oneLs ori#inal osition =. / 2ina Acosta *+.uration o' th $robation $ rio# 1. con!ict filed a notice of a eal. durin# the re#lamentar$ eriod 5 the con!ict can either a eal or a l$ for robation  #upposin .CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 5 reformation 5 reinte#ration • . can he do that? =&. can he a l$ for robation now? CA sa$s – . e8ce t in RA ?F@@.

-.-A1: $-NAL12 )readin matter) • AR1ICL.C< 6 A. / r"ic o' s nt nc 5 crime is a debt incurred b$ the offender as a conse3uence7 after ser!ice of the sentence. but not less than =K 6ilometers from the lace • AR1ICL.re ealed b$ RA ?F@@> – in!ol!es the di!ersion and inter!ention ro#rams for children in conflict with the law • AR1ICL-/ C1?C5 6 $ROC-.CA 6 . * ath o' a con"ict R e8tin#uishes ersonal enalties but not ecuniar$ if death comes before final 4ud#ment. $r scription o' crim 5 forfeiture or loss of the ri#ht of the "tate to rosecute <. the debt is aid 3. / year +.. Absolut $ar#on 5 an act of #race b$ the Chief )8ecuti!e7 e8em ts the erson from unishment onl$ 5. Marria& o' o'' n# # 5oman %Articl 344( NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.. Amn st! 5 e8tin#uishes the enalt$ and its effects7 as if the crime was not committed 4.DI.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .MINI/1RA1IH.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 13+ of 138 Atty.CC 6 ARR-/1O M-NOR 5 shall be ser!ed in munici al 4ails 5 or for health reasons.1. ..AN. Maximo Amurao 5 Article B: . can be allowed to sta$ home .DR.MA11-R ON $-NI1-N1IARI-/ )readin matter) • AR1ICL.-LIN-/ 0OR 1:. $r scription o' p nalt! 5 loss or forfeiture of ri#ht of the #o!ernment to e8ecute the final sentence A.house arrest> • AR1ICL.-/1I-RRO 5 rohibition in a certain lace or laces desi#nated in the con!iction 5 not ermitted to enter the lace or laces nor within the radius s ecified not more than =K:.1.CB 6 1O1AL -K1INC1ION O0 CRIMINAL LIA3ILI12 1. e!en ecuniar$ liabilities are e8tin#uished 2./ in 0a1u *+.-K-CD1ION O0 . / 2ina Acosta *+.

Maximo Amurao 5 pri&ate crimes . COM$D1A1ION 1. Reclusion er etua. then #oes into hidin#. he resurfaces =: $ears later. Arresto ma$or R K $ears 5. Crimes unishable b$ correctional enalties R 9: $ears 4. or other similar offenses R 9 $ear <. Reclusion tem oral R =: $ears 2. /0# he can be rosecuted still • 1he mere filin# of a com laint with the followin# does not interrupt the prescriptive period: 5 Chief of 'olice 5 (ffice of the N0I 5 (ffice of the 'ro!incial *irector of the 'N' because these do not constitute the court7 the$ are not art of the 4udiciar$.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .. Crimes unishable b$ other afflicti!e enalties R 9K $ears NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. can the$ institute a case? =&. concubina#e> cannot be rosecuted de officio 5 public crimes . lasci!ious acts adulter$. Li#ht felonies R = months • 1he rescri ti!e eriod shall commence to run from the discovery of the crime and shall be interrupted only by filing a complaint or information in court • Commences to run a#ain when such roceedin#s terminate without the accused bein# con!icted or ac3uitted • 1he rescri ti!e eriod shall not run when the offender is absent from the 'hili ines  #upposin .-. / year +. "lander b$ deed R < months A.1. Reclusion er etua R =: $ears 2. but if the accused left for the +". seduction. Crimes of libel. / 2ina Acosta *+.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 133 of 138 Atty.meanin# initiated in Court b$ filin# a com laint • Marria#e can e8tin#uish either crimes • AR1ICL. not art of the courts of 4ustice • 0ut filin# with: (ffice of the 'ublic 'rosecutor or (ffice of the (mbudsman.. then the #o!ernment finds a witness.abduction. (ral defamation. *eath.B2 AN.ra e> can be rosecuted de officio . COM$D1A1ION 1. ma$ interru t the rescri ti!e eriod • AR1ICL./ in 0a1u *+. B1 6 $R-/CRI$1ION O0 CRIM-/ AN. *eath.1.. in 9?B: the accused commits a crime.B9 AN. B3 6 $R-/CRI$1ION O0 $-NAL1I-/ AN. Crimes unishable b$ other afflicti!e enalties R 9K $ears 3.

#oes to a forei#n countr$ with which we ha!e no e8tradition treat$ 4. commits another crime before e8 iration of the eriod of rescri tion • . Li#ht felonies R 9 $ear Page 139 of 138 Atty. Maximo Amurao • 1he rescri ti!e eriod shall commence upon evasion of the service of sentence of the convict and shall be interrupted by the following: 1.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1.i'' r nc b t5 n $r scription o' crim s F $r scription o' p nalti s $R-/CRI$1ION O0 CRIM$R-/CRI$1ION O0 $-NAL12 5 loss or forfeiture of the "tate to rosecute 5 loss or forfeiture of the "tate to enforce 4ud#ment after a la se of time 5 eriod: includes libel. / year +../ in 0a1u *+. Crimes unishable b$ correctional enalties R 9: $ears 4. if offender #i!es himself u 2. if he is ca tured 3.1. / 2ina Acosta *+.-.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes 3. oral defamation7 difference in time for li#ht felonies 5 starts countin# u on disco!er$ of the commission of the crime 5 mere absence from the 'hili interru ts 5 starts countin# u on the esca e or e!asion of ser!ice of the sentence ines 5 absence from the 'hili ines 5 li#ht felonies for 9 $ear interru ted onl$ when he #oes to a forei#n countr$ without an e8tradition treat$ with us 5 commission of another crime before the e8 iration of the eriod does not interru t 5 commission of another crime before e8 iration of the eriod interru ts the rescri tion NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+... Arresto ma$or R K $ears 5.

ALLOWANC-/ 5 it is a deduction of 9.99 J so on $ears R deduction of 9K da$s for each month of #ood beha!ior • AR1ICL. Release on 'arole <.1.OO.A1ION/ O0 1:O/.K of the remainin# sentence will added NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.ON )readin matter) • AR1ICL..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ..CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 13: of 138 Atty..<59: $ears R deduction of 9: da$s for each month of #ood beha!ior @.BA 6 ALLOWANC-/ 0OR . Release under 'robation • AR1ICL. CON.I1IONAL $AR. 0$ commutation of the sentence 3.. CON. / 2ina Acosta *+.-. Conditional ardon 5 must be deli!ered and acce ted7 contract bet. / year +.B5 6 O3LI.first = $ears R deduction of K da$s for each month of #ood beha!ior =.BC 6 /$-CIAL 1IM.B4 6 $AR1IAL -K1INC1ION O0 CRIMINAL LIA3ILI12 1. if ca tured 9.B< 6 -00-C1 O0 COMMD1A1ION O0 /-N1-NC)readin matter) • AR1ICL.K of the eriod of the entire sentence: ha!in# e!aded ser!ice durin# calamit$ or catastro he .'resident and the con!ict 2.Art-9KB> #i!es himself u to the authorities within @B hours7 otherwise.RAN1-. Eull credit of ser!ice of re!enti!e im risonment 5.1.DC1 9.F 5 K $ears R deduction of B da$s for each month of #ood beha!ior F. Eor #ood conduct allowances which cul rit ma$ earn 4. Maximo Amurao • AR1ICL./ in 0a1u *+.

h$sical in4uries> ma$ roceed simultaneousl$ with the criminal case.K deduction? =&.1.BB 6 W:O .RAN1/ 1IM.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 13. of 138 Atty. will $ou be awarded the 9. the resolution of which is a lo#ical antecedent of the issue in!ol!ed in the said case.for cases of or claims for dama#es. but if there is re4udicial 3uestion.i> criminal liability. Maximo Amurao  #upposin . which can be e8tin#uished b$: 5 im risonment 5 rescri tion of libert$  Interested arties are: the #o!ernment.'resident a#ainst the accused who is the onl$ one liable because enalties are ersonal . it will be sus ended when the criminal case is filed R s r"ation o' ri&ht – loses ri#ht to inter!ene in criminal case..-. civil action is deemed instituted If the criminal case was filed first.ALLOWANC-/ )readin matter) 5 1he *irector of 'risons • Articl 199 6 Ci"il Liabilit! • In e!er$ felon$. but $ou did not esca e.ii> ci&il liability.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ./ in 0a1u *+. it shall ta6e recedence If the ci&il case was filed first. but allows for the institution of an independent civil action . the law sa$s $ou ha!e to first esca e • AR1ICL. / 2ina Acosta *+. defamation.ac3uittal> shall not carr$ the ci!il action with it unless it is the basis for the decision • AR1ICL."tate.1.. there is a calamit$. which can be e8tin#uished b$: 5 restitution 5 re aration  Interested arties are: the offended art$ and heirs a#ainst the accused and heirs  Ci!il liabilit$ can be e8tin#uished similar to that of contracts • • • • + on filin# of the criminal action. and the co#niDance of which ertains to another tribunal • )8tinction of criminal liabilit$ ..ICA> • In# p n# nt Ci"il Action . arises two thin#s: . / year +.191 6 RDL-/ ON CIHIL LIA3ILI12 5 indemnification 5 fine NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. it shall be decided first • $r 7u#icial Iu stion – is one which arises in a case.

b$ the confusion or mer#er of the ri#hts of the creditor and debtor 5.K.9. and so on..112 F 113 6 -K1IN. the accom lice is ne8t in line. b$ no!ation NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+. =. the offended art$ can as6 a$ment from an$ of them • In case of insol!enc$ of the rinci al..1. b$ condonation or remission of the debt 4. F. F> R ci!il liabilit$ de!ol!es to those who ha!e arental or le#al authorit$ of them • / con# rul * 5 Article 99.@> are not e8em t from ci!il liabilit$ • 0irst rul * 5 Article 9= .A1ION/ )readin matter) • AR1ICL.@> R those who benefited from the harm re!ented are ci!ill$ liable • 1hir# rul * 5 Article 9= .9.of 138 Atty. / 2ina Acosta *+. accom lices.11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 ./ in 0a1u *+.K J <> R the ersons causin# the fear or usin# !iolence are primarily liable7 in their absence. Maximo Amurao 5 Article 9= ars. b$ the loss of the thin# due 3.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 13. b$ com ensation <.119 6 /-H-RAL LIA3ILI1I-/ O0 $AR1ICI$AN1/ IN A CRIM• 1he rinci als. accessories shall ha!e se!eral liabilit$7 thus. b$ a$ment or erformance 2.IAR2 LIA3ILI12 O0 O1:-R $-R/ON/ )readin matter) • AR1ICL-/ 194?19B F111 6 0ORM/ O0 CIHIL LIA3ILI12 F O3LI.1.. =. those who acted are secondarily liable • AR1ICL-/ 192?193 6 /D3/I.-. if the latter is also insol!ent • Frd erson #ratuitous – re3uires artici ation 6nowled#e7 re3uires 6nowled#e on his art of the commission of the crime • AR1ICL.DI/:M-N1 O0 CIHIL LIA3ILI12 B same as e(tin uishment of contracts 1.< and Article 99. / year +.

/ in 0a1u *+.. Maximo Amurao NO !" #$% &os' (i))ena *+.-. / 2ina Acosta *+..1. / year +..11% !m 3uinto 4 5an6 "antos 4 &anna ecson4#e7s 3uintos4Nor)y (i))anue7a4Ay)a "a)en8a1 .1.CRIMINAL LAW Lecture & Recitation Notes Page 138 of 138 Atty.