Comparative Energy Systems

Lecture 2

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Satellite Observations of CO Concentrations: Can You Explain Their Locations?

Video links of CO concentrations in simulation are no longer available.

Source: NASA MOPITT

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Gathered Wood is Important Historically & in Some Developing Nations Today
Pct. of Total Energy from "Primary Biomass": 2007 Afghanistan Bangladesh Brasil Cambodia China Ethiopia Haiti India Kenya Viet Nam 47.2 42.0 33.3 70.8 2.8 92.5 39.6 27.3 19.5 44.8

Source: United Nations

This “Non-Commercial” energy is generally ignored
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vary considerably from region to region – little wood in deserts • Comparing pre-industrial energy systems at various times. level of technology.How Else Did Humans Acquire Energy Before Fossil Fuels? • Mainly animals. like wood. wind. … 4 . climate. big differences based on     available resources. water • Note that these resources. level of organization (rise/fall of empires).

Nafta.The Global Energy System Intercultural communication. rivalry. rivalry International interdependence. emulation. Kyoto. collaboration Global/regional regimes/agreements: WTO. “Copenhagen” GHG International Financial markets Trans/multinational companies International Energy markets 5 .

Courtesy of BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012. Oil remains the world’s leading fuel.c.l. less than half the growth rate experienced in 2010 but close to the historical average. Gas Are Rising World consumption Million tonnes oil equivalent Coal Renewables Hydroelectricity Nuclear energy Natural gas Oil 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 0 World primary energy consumption grew by 2. Growth decelerated for all regions and for all fuels.3% was the highest since 1969. Used with permission.Global Primary (Commercial) Energy: Shares of Coal. Coal’s market share of 30. accounting for 33. 6 . but this figure is the lowest share on record.1% of global energy consumption.5% in 2011. BP p.

Has Large Shares of World Energy Production & (Esp.S.The U.) Consumption 7 .

BP p.0 Courtesy of BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012. Used with permission.Lots of Variation in Primary (Commercial) Energy per capita Consumption per capita 2011 Tonnes oil equivalent 0-1.0 3.0 > 6.l. 8 .5-3.5 4.c.0-4.5 1.5-6.

Energy use per capita per time 9 .

Regional consumption pattern 2011 Percentage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 North America S. and oil is dominant in all other regions. the region also leads in oil consumption and hydroelectric generation. 10 . Europe & Eurasia is the leading region for consumption of natural gas.l. accounting for 39. nuclear power. Courtesy of BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012. Coal is the dominant fuel in the Asia Pacific region. & Cent. BP p. natural gas is dominant in Europe & Eurasia.1% of global energy consumption and 68. Used with permission.6% of global coal consumption. and renewables.c. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific 0 The Asia Pacific region is the world’s largest energy consumer.

.. city structures) • …? 11 . subsidies) • Culture.g. manufacturing) • Climate • Government policies (e. etc… • HISTORY (e.. house sizes.g.What Factors Determine Differences in National Energy Systems Today? • Available resources • Level of income/development • Economic activity mix (e. habits.g.

Climate: Degree days Source: EIA 12 .

Energy intensity Source: EIA 13 .

000 10.000 25.Energy/ GDP: A comparison 40.000 15.000 20.000 0 1980 1985 1990 14 1995 2000 2005 Source: EIA .000 Btu per US$ (2000) Mexico MX Brazil BR Germany GM Russia RS Bangladesh BG India IN United States US France FR United Kingdom UK Kenya KE China CH 30.000 35.000 5.

Washington. . Annual Energy Review 2009.S. 320. 2009. DC: Government Printing Office.Gasoline Prices: Taxes & Subsidies 15 Source: U. p. Energy Information Administration.

Households Source: EIA 16 .Electricity Prices: Industry v.

But where do prices come from? • World prices for some inputs • Local resources. costs • Costs of capital. labor • Efficiency/productivity • Taxes/subsidies • Environmental. other policies • … 17 .

Electricity consumption per capita Top Ten Countries by Electricity Consumption Iceland Norway Qatar Finland Canada Luxembourg Kuwait Sweden United Arab Emirates United States World 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 kwh/capita Image by MIT OpenCourseWare." 18 . Source: Infographic from "Ranking America.

19 . Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.Energy flow diagram for the United States in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions.

Energy flow diagram for France in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows. 20 .

Energy flow diagram for Norway in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. 21 . Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.

22 . Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.Energy flow diagram for Germany in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions.

Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.Energy flow diagram for Japan in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. 23 .

Energy flow diagram for Mexico in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. 24 . Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.

25 .Energy flow diagram for China in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.

26 .Energy flow diagram for India in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.

27 . Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.Energy flow diagram for Saudi Arabia in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions.

Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows. 28 .Energy flow diagram for Kenya in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions.

Energy flow diagram for Cambodia in 2007 removed due to copyright restrictions. 29 . Source: LLNL-TR-473098: 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows.

3% of 2009 World Energy Consumption Source: U. 30 . 47.5% of 2009 World Population. 17. Energy Information Administration.S.OECD Members: Generally Wealthy.

if world had OECD (US) actual energy/capita world energy would be 2.3) times actual – feasible? 31 Source: U. Washington.Growth Expected Mainly in Non-OECD In 2009. 1. International Energy Outlook 2011. 2011.7 (4.S. DC: Government Printing Office. p. . Energy Information Administration.

Non-OECD Growth Mainly in Asia: China + India 32 Source: U. 2011.S. . 10. Washington. p. International Energy Outlook 2011. Energy Information Administration. DC: Government Printing Office.

Future(?) Growth in Coal Use: China and India 33 Source: U. Energy Information Administration. Washington. International Energy Outlook 2011. DC: Government Printing Office. 3. p.S. 2011. .The Recent.

3) times actual – not good! 34 Source: U. 2011. so If world CO2/capita were OECD (US) actual. p.6% (19. 139.S.Growth in CO2 Emissions Projected to Come Mainly from non-OECD Nations In 2008.5 (4.3%) of total. OECD (US) accounted for 44. world emissions would have been 2. Washington. International Energy Outlook 2011. Energy Information Administration. DC: Government Printing Office. .

But Don’t non-OECD Nations Deserve a Chance to Get Rich Like US?? 35 Source: U. International Energy Outlook 2011. DC: Government Printing Office.S. Washington. Energy Information Administration. 2011. 7. p. .

CO2 emissions • Finding and moving to another growth path will be a great challenge by any standard 36 .Some Final Thoughts • National energy systems are incredibly diverse. huge increases in energy. China • If the world got rich using OECD/US models. esp. CO2 likely to come mainly from developing nations. with many drivers of diversity – not just resources • Growth in energy use.

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