Hershey C.

Briones

BSN III

Thalassemia
Thalassemia are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders that originated in the Mediterranean region. In thalassemia, the disorder is caused by the weakening and destruction of red blood cells. Thalassemia is caused by variant or missing genes that affect how the body makes hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. People with thalassemia make less hemoglobin and fewer circulating red blood cells than normal, which results in mild or severe anemia. Thalassemia will be present as microcytic anemia which may be differentiated from iron deficiency anemia using the mentzer index calculation. Thalassemia can cause significant complications, including iron overload, bone deformities and cardiovascular illness. However this same inherited disease of red blood cells may confer a degree of protection against malaria, which is or was prevalent in the regions where the trait is common. This selective survival advantage on carriers (known as heterozygous advantage) may be responsible for perpetuating the mutation in populations. In that respect, the various thalassemias resemble another genetic disorder affecting hemoglobin, sickle-cell disease.

Complications

Iron overload: People with thalassemia can get an overload of iron in their bodies, either from the disease itself or from frequent blood transfusions. Too much iron can result in damage to the heart, liver and endocrine system, which includes glands that produce hormones that regulate processes throughout the body. The damage is characterized by excessive deposits of iron. Without adequate iron chelation therapy, almost all patients with beta-thalassemia will accumulate potentially fatal iron levels.[3]

Infection: people with thalassemia have an increased risk of infection. This is especially true if the spleen has been removed.

Bone deformities: Thalassemia can make the bone marrow expand, which causes bones to widen. This can result in abnormal bone structure, especially in the face and skull. Bone marrow expansion also makes bones thin and brittle, increasing the risk of broken bones.

Enlarged spleen: the spleen aids in fighting infection and filters unwanted material, such as old or damaged blood cells. Thalassemia is often accompanied by the destruction of a large number of red blood cells and the task of removing these cells causes the spleen to enlarge. Splenomegaly can make anemia worse, and it can reduce the life of transfused red blood cells. Severe enlargement of the spleen may necessitate its removal.

α Thalassemias result in decreased alpha-globin production. In thalassemia. Thus. Pathophysiology Normally. Puberty also may be delayed in children with thalassemia. and four loci encoding the α chain. two α and two β globin chains arranged into a heterotetramer. (In sickle-cell disease. may be associated with severe thalassemia. The β globin chains are encoded by a single gene on chromosome 11. α globin chains are encoded by two closely linked genes on chromosome 16. making them more likely to develop α thalassemias. production of the α globin chain is affected. the mutation is specific to β globin. β Thalassemias are not only common in Africans. It is also connected to the deletion of the 16p chromosome. There are two gene locii and so four alleles. In α thalassemias.Hershey C. Briones BSN III  Slowed growth rates: anemia can cause a child's growth to slow. People diagnosed with heterozygous (carrier) β thalassemia have some protection against coronary heart disease. Benefits Epidemiological evidence from Kenya suggests another reason: protection against severe malarial anemia may be the advantage. while in β thalassemia production of the β globin chain is affected. resulting in an excess of β chains in adults and excess γ chains in newborns. patients have defects in either the α or β globin chain causing production of abnormal red blood cells. Alpha (α) thalassemias The α thalassemias involve the genes HBA1 and HBA2. which have abnormal oxygen dissociation curves. therefore fewer alpha-globin chains are produced. in a normal person with two copies of each chromosome. there are two loci encoding the β chain. inherited in a Mendelian recessive fashion. . Deletion of one of the α loci has a high prevalence in people of African or Asian descent.) The thalassemias are classified according to which chain of the hemoglobin molecule is affected.  Heart problems: such as congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). The excess β chains form unstable tetramers (called Hemoglobin H or HbH of 4 beta chains). but also in Greeks and Italians. the majority of adult hemoglobin (HbA) is composed of four protein chains.

If both parents carry a hemoglobinopathy trait. Because of the prevalence of the disease in countries with little knowledge of thalassemia. Just as with beta thalassemia. access to proper treatment and diagnosis can be difficult.Hershey C. mutations that affect the ability of this gene to produce delta chains can occur. In either case. There are an estimated 1. one that will burden the world's blood bank supplies and the health system in general. the most severe form of β thalassemia. and at high concentrations they form toxic aggregates. also inherited in an autosomalrecessive fashion. Genetic counseling and genetic testing is recommended for families that carry a thalassemia trait. . the first of which was in an Irish family with two deletions of 4 and 11 bp in exon 3 interrupted by an insertion of 5 bp in the β-globin gene. the actual number of thalassemia major patients is unknown due to the prevalence of thalassemia in less developed countries. For the autosomal recessive forms of the disease. Cases of dominantly inherited α and β thalassemias have been reported. but these do not form tetramers: Rather. there is a relative excess of α chains. although this is not always the case. Briones BSN III Beta (β) thalassemia Beta thalassemias are due to mutations in the HBB gene on chromosome 11. Causs Both α and β thalassemias are often inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. This is a very rough estimate. they are characterized as β+ or β thalassemia intermedia if they allow some β chain formation to occur. there is a 25% risk with each pregnancy for an affected child. producing membrane damage. Mutations are characterized as either βo or β thalassemia major if they prevent any formation of β chains. both parents must be carriers in order for a child to be affected.001 people living with thalassemia major in the United States and an unknown number of carriers. There is growing concern that thalassemia may become a very serious problem in the next 50 years. Also. about 3% of adult hemoglobin is made of alpha and delta chains. Countries such as India and Pakistan are seeing a large increase of thalassemia patients due to lack of genetic counseling and screening. they bind to the red blood cellmembranes. The severity of the disease depends on the nature of the mutation. Delta (δ) thalassemia As well as alpha and beta chains present in hemoglobin. There are an estimated 60-80 million people in the world carrying the beta thalassemia trait alone.

Success rates have been in the 80-90% range. vomiting and diarrhea is relatively common with its use.Hershey C. While available in Europe as of 2010 it is not available in North America. Common side effects include: nausea. It appears to be the most effective agent when the heart is significantly involved. vomiting and diarrhea. It however is not effective in everyone and is probably not suitable in those with significant cardiac issues related to iron overload. deferiprone ordeferasirox. Nausea. Mortality from the procedure is about 3%. Counseling is indicated in all persons with genetic disorders.[11] People with β-thalassemia trait should be warned that their condition can be misdiagnosed as the more common iron deficiency anemia. in which the donor is the mother. rejection 23%. Briones BSN III Management  Mild thalassemia: people with thalassemia traits do not require medical or follow-up care after the initial diagnosis is made. If the person does not have an HLA-matched compatible donor such as the first curative method requires.  Severe thalassemia: People with severe thalassemia require medical treatment. They should avoid routine use of iron supplements. The results are these: thalassemia-free survival rate 70%. and mortality 7%. Deferasirox has the benefit of being an oral medication. Deferoxamine is only effective via daily injections which makes its long term use more difficult. These treatments have resulted in improved life expectancy in those with thalassemia major. yet iron deficiency can develop during pregnancy or from chronic bleeding. A blood transfusion regimen was the first measure effective in prolonging life. The iron overload related to thalassemia may be treated via chelation therapy with the medications deferoxamine. Pietro Sodani. Bone marrow transplant Bone marrow transplantation may offer the possibility of a cure in young people who have an HLA-matched donor. It has the benefit of being inexpensive and decent long term safety. The cost is also significant. Deferiprone is given as an oral medication. Medications Multiple blood transfusions can result in iron overload. It was invented in 2002 by Dr. there is another curative method called Bone Marrow Transplantation(BMT) from haploidentical mother to child (mismatched donor). Adverse effects are primary skin reactions around the injection site and hearing loss. . The best results are with very young patient. especially when the family is at risk of a severe form of disease that may be prevented.

blood. Etymology The name of this condition derives from the Greek Thalassa (θάλασσα). . Briones BSN III Epidemiology The beta form of thalassemia is particularly prevalent among Mediterranean peoples and this geographical association is responsible for its naming. sea.Hershey C. and haema (αἷμα). Globally in 2010 it resulted in about 18. The term was first used in 1932.000 deaths.

Briones BSN III .Hershey C.