:
Forward Bias Condition
Reverse Bias Condition
Pin Diagram
Experiment No: Date:
Characteristics of PN Junction Diode
AIM:
To draw the voltage – current characteristics of PN junction diode under forward and
reverse bias condition and to determine cut in voltage, static and dynamic resistance.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Diode IN4007 1
2 Resistor 220 Ω 1
3 Voltmeter MC (01) V
(030) V
One Each
4 Ammeter MC (0100)mA
(0500)µA
One Each
5 Dual Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
6 Bread Board   1
7 Connecting Wires   Required
FORMULA USED:
 DC (or) Static Resistance, (R
f
) = V
f
/ I
f
Ω
 AC (or) Dynamic Resistance, r
f
= ΔV
f
/ Δ I
f
Ω
Where,
ΔV
f
– Change in Voltage in forward bias condition in Volts
ΔI
f
– Resulting Change in current in forward condition in Amps
THEORY:
A PN junction diode conducts only in one direction. It is an example of unilateral element.
The VI characteristics of the diode are curve between voltage across the diode and current
through the diode. When external voltage is zero,
PROCEDURE
FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the RPS in minimum value and switch ON the power supply.
3. Gradually increase the forward voltage in step by step of variation,
Note down the forward voltage and current values and graph is plotted.
TABULATION
S.No
Forward Bias Reverse Bias
Forward
Voltage
(V
f
)volts
Forward
Current
(I
f
)mA
Reverse
Voltage
(V
f
)volts
Reverse
Current
(I
f
)µA
CALCULATION
REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the RPS in minimum value and switch ON the power supply.
3. Gradually increase the reverse voltage in step by step of variation, Note
down the reverse voltage and current values and graph is plotted.
RESULT
Thus the forward and reverse VI characteristics of a diode were obtained and
the characteristics curves were plotted.
 DC (or) Static Resistance, (R
f
) =
 AC (or) Dynamic Resistance, (r
f
) =
 Cut in Voltage =
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is semiconductor material? How does it differ from a conductor?
2. Why do we prefer extrinsic semiconductor than intrinsic semiconductors?
3. Define the term drift current?
4. Define the term diffusion current?
5. What is PN junction diode?
6. What is depletion region in a PN junction diode?
7. Define the term transition capacitance CT of a diode?
8. Explain the terms knee voltage and breakdown voltage with respect to diodes?
9. List the application of PN junction diode?
10. What is avalanche breakdown in PN junction diode?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Forward Bias Condition
Reverse Bias Condition
Experiment No: Date:
Zener diode Characteristics & Regulator using Zener diode
AIM:
a. To draw the voltage – current characteristics of Zener diode under forward and
reverse bias condition and to determine cut in voltage, Breakdown voltage, static
and dynamic resistance.
b. To construct a voltage regulator using Zener diode and plot the regulation
characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Diode Z9.0 1
2 Resistor 220 Ω 1
3 Voltmeter MC (01) V
(030) V
One Each
4 Ammeter MC (0100)mA 1
5 Dual Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
FORMULA USED:
 DC (or) Static Resistance, (R
f
) = V
f
/ I
f
Ω
 AC (or) Dynamic Resistance, r
f
= ΔV
f
/ Δ I
f
Ω
Where,
ΔV
f
– Change in Voltage in forward bias condition in Volts
ΔI
f
– Resulting Change in current in forward condition in Amps
Theory:
A zener diode is heavily doped pn junction diode, specially made to operate in the
breakdown region. A pn junction normally does not conduct when reverse biased. But if the
reverse bias is increased, at a particular voltage it starts conducting heavily. This voltage is
called breakdown voltage. High current through the diode can permanently damage the
device. In zener diode, the reverse breakdown occurs at low voltages, so the flow of heavy
current can be avoided. Once the diode starts conducting it maintains almost constant
voltage across the terminals, whatever the current flowing through it. It has very low
dynamic resistance. It is used in voltage regulators.
Zener Diode Voltage Regulator
MODEL GRAPH:
VI Characteristics of Zener Diode
V Vs I
Procedure
FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the RPS in minimum value and switch ON the power supply.
3. Gradually increase the forward voltage in step by step of variation,
Note down the forward voltage and current values and graph is plotted.
REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the RPS in minimum value and switch ON the power supply.
3. Gradually increase the reverse voltage in step by step of variation, Note
down the reverse voltage and current values and graph is plotted.
Voltage Regulator:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the RPS in minimum value and switch ON the power supply.
3. Gradually increase the reverse voltage in step by step of variation, Note
down the reverse voltage and graph is plotted.
Voltage Regulation Characteristics of Zener Diode
TABULATION
S.No
Forward Bias Reverse Bias
Forward
Voltage
(V
f
)volts
Forward
Current
(I
f
)mA
Reverse
Voltage
(V
f
)volts
Reverse
Current
(I
f
)µA
CALCULATION
Result
Thus the forward and reverse VI characteristics of a diode were obtained and
the characteristics curves were plotted.
 DC (or) Static Resistance, (R
f
) =
 AC (or) Dynamic Resistance, (r
f
) =
 Cut in Voltage =
 Breakdown Voltage =
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is Zener diode?
2. Give applications of Zener diode.
3. Does the dynamic impendence of a zener diode vary?
4. Explain briefly about avalanche and zener breakdowns.
5. Draw the zener equivalent circuit.
6. What is Zener voltage?
7. Which region zener diode can be used as a regulator?
8. How the breakdown voltage of a particular diode can be controlled?
9. What is voltage regulation of Zener diode?
10. By what type of charge carriers the current flows in zener and avalanche breakdown
diodes?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
MODEL GRAPH:
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Experiment No: Date:
Common Emitter InputOutput Characteristics
AIM:
To plot the transistor characteristics of Common Emitter configuration.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor 10 K Ω
1 K Ω
One Each
3 Voltmeter MC (02) V
(030) V
One Each
4 Ammeter MC (010)mA
(0100)mA
One Each
5 Dual Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
FORMULA USED:
 Input Impedance = ΔV
BE
/ Δ I
B
Ω
 Output Admittance = Δ I
C
/ ΔV
CE
mho
 Current Gain = Δ I
C
/ Δ I
B
 Voltage Gain = ΔV
CE
/ ΔV
BE
THEORY:
A BJT is a three terminal two – junction semiconductor device in which the conduction is
due to both the charge carrier. Hence it is a bipolar device and it amplifier the sine
waveform as they are transferred from input to output. BJT is classified into two types –
NPN or PNP. A NPN transistor consists of two N types in between which a layer of P is
sandwiched. The transistor consists of three terminal emitter, collector and base. The
emitter layer is the source of the charge carriers and it is heartily doped with a moderate
cross sectional area. The collector collects the charge carries and hence moderate doping
and large cross sectional area. The base region acts a path for the movement of the charge
carriers. In order to reduce the recombination of holes and electrons the base region is
lightly doped and is of hollow cross sectional area. Normally the transistor operates with the
EB junction forward biased. In transistor, the current is same in both junctions, which
indicates that there is a transfer of resistance between the two junctions. One to this fact
the transistor is known as transfer resistance of transistor.
PIN DIAGRAM
TABULATION
Input Characteristics
S.No V
CE
= V V
CE
= V
V
BE
in Volts I
B
in µA V
BE
in Volts I
B
in µA
PROCEDURE:
INPUT CHARECTERISTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set V
CE
, vary V
BE
in regular interval of steps and note down the corresponding I
B
reading. Repeat the above procedure for different values of V
CE
.
3. Plot the graph: V
BE
Vs I
B
for a constant V
CE
.
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set I
B
, Vary V
CE
in regular interval of steps and note down the corresponding I
C
reading. Repeat the above procedure for different values of I
B
.
3. Plot the graph: V
CE
Vs I
C
for a constant I
B
.
Output Characteristics
S.No I
B
= µA I
B
= µA
V
CE
in Volts I
C
in mA V
CE
in Volts I
C
in mA
CALCULATION
RESULT:
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter (CE) configuration were plotted.
 Input Impedance = ΔV
BE
/ Δ I
B
=
 Output Admittance = Δ I
C
/ ΔV
CE
=
 Current Gain = Δ I
C
/ Δ I
B
=
 Voltage Gain = ΔV
CE
/ ΔV
BE
=
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is bipolar junction transistor?
2. What are the different configurations of BJT?
3. What is thermal runaway?
4. Define the different operating region of transistor?
5. List the uses of emitter follower (common collector configuration) circuit?
6. Define alpha and beta of the transistor?
7. What is meant by early effect?
8. Explain the significance of early effect or base width modulation?
9. Which configuration provides better current gain?
10. What is the significance of VBE and ICO?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
MODEL GRAPH:
PIN DIAGRAM
Experiment No: Date:
Common Base InputOutput Characteristics
AIM:
To plot the transistor characteristics of Common Base configuration.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1
Transistor
BC107 1
2 Resistor 10 K Ω
1 K Ω
One Each
3 Voltmeter MC (02) V
(030) V
One Each
4 Ammeter MC (010)mA
(0100)mA
One Each
5 Dual Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
FORMULA USED:
 Input Impedance = ΔV
EB
/ Δ I
E
Ω
 Output Admittance = Δ I
C
/ ΔV
CB
mho
 Current Gain = Δ I
C
/ Δ I
E
 Voltage Gain = ΔV
CB
/ ΔV
EB
THEORY:
In this configuration the base is made common to both the input and out. The emitter is
given the input and the output is taken across the collector. The current gain of this
configuration is less than unity. The voltage gain of CB configuration is high. Due to the high
voltage gain, the power gain is also high. In CB configuration, Base is common to both input
and output. In CB configuration the input characteristics relate IE and VEB for a constant
VCB. Initially let VCB = 0 then the input junction is equivalent to a forward biased diode and
the characteristics resembles that of a diode. Where VCB = +VI (volts) due to early effect
IE increases and so the characteristics shifts to the left. The output characteristics relate IC
and VCB for a constant IE. Initially IC increases and then it levels for a value IC = IE.
When IE is increased IC also increases proportionality. Though increase in VCB causes an
increase in , since is a fraction, it is negligible and so IC remains a constant for all values
of VCB once it levels off.
Input Characteristics
S.No V
Cb
= V V
Cb
= V
V
BE
in Volts I
E
in mA V
BE
in Volts I
E
in mA
Output Characteristics
S.No I
E
= mA I
E
= mA
V
Cb
in Volts I
C
in mA V
Cb
in Volts I
C
in mA
PROCEDURE:
INPUT CHARECTERISTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set V
cb
, vary V
BE
in regular interval of steps and note down the corresponding I
E
reading. Repeat the above procedure for different values of V
cb
.
3. Plot the graph: V
BE
Vs I
E
for a constant V
Cb
.
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set I
E
, Vary V
Cb
in regular interval of steps and note down the corresponding I
C
reading. Repeat the above procedure for different values of I
E
.
3. Plot the graph: V
Cb
Vs I
C
for a constant I
E
.
CALCULATION
RESULT:
The transistor characteristics of a Common Base (CB) configuration were plotted.
 Input Impedance = ΔV
EB
/ Δ I
E
=
 Output Admittance = Δ I
C
/ ΔV
CB
=
 Current Gain = Δ I
C
/ Δ I
E
=
 Voltage Gain = ΔV
CB
/ ΔV
EB
=
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What are the types of breakdown occurs in transistors?
2. Why do we prefer silicon for transistor?
3. What is meant by stabilization?
4. What is the need for biasing?
5. What is meant by operating point?
6. What types of components are used for temperature stabilization?
7. What are the types of biasing?
8. Define stability factor?
9. What is Q point?
10. What is bias? What is the need for biasing?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
MODEL GRAPH:
Experiment No: Date:
FET Characteristics
AIM:
To obtain the Drain and Transfer (VI) characteristics of FET and to plot the
characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1
FET
BFW 10
/11
1
2 Resistor 1 K Ω 2
3 Voltmeter MC (030) V 2
4 Ammeter MC (0100)mA 1
5 Dual Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
FORMULA USED:
 Drain Resistance Rd = ΔV
DS
/ ΔI
D
, V
GS
as constant
 Transconductance gm = ΔI
D
/ ΔV
GS
, V
DS
as constant
THEORY:
FET is a voltage operated device. It has got 3 terminals. They are Source, Drain & Gate.
When the gate is biased negative with respect to the source, the pn junctions are reverse
biased & depletion regions are formed. The channel is more lightly doped than the p type
gate, so the depletion regions penetrate deeply in to the channel. The result is that the
channel is narrowed, its resistance is increased, & ID is reduced. When the negative bias
voltage is further increased, the depletion regions meet at the center & ID is cutoff
completely.
Drain Characteristics
S.No V
GS
= V V
GS
= V
V
DS
in Volts I
D
in mA V
DS
in Volts I
D
in mA
Transfer Characteristics
S.No V
DS
= V V
DS
= V
V
GS
in Volts I
D
in mA V
GS
in Volts I
D
in mA
PROCEDURE:
DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the gate voltage V
GS
= 0V.
3. Vary V
DS
in steps of 1 V & note down the corresponding ID.
4. Repeat the same procedure for V
GS
= 1V.
5. Plot the graph V
DS
Vs I
D
for constant V
GS
.
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the drain voltage V
DS
= 5 V.
3. Vary the gate voltage V
GS
in steps of 1V & note down the corresponding I
D
.
4. Repeat the same procedure for V
DS
= 10V.
5. Plot the graph V
GS
Vs I
D
for constant V
DS
.
CALCULATION
RESULT:
Thus the Drain & Transfer characteristics of given FET is Plotted.
 Drain Resistance Rd = ΔV
DS
/ ΔI
D
=
 Transconductance gm = ΔI
D
/ ΔV
GS
=
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is a FET?
2. Why FET is called an unipolar device?
3. Define pinch off voltage?
4. Define drain resistance?
5. Write down the relationship between various FET parameters?
6. Mention the application of FET?
7. Why the input impedance of FET is more than that of a BJT?
8. What is meant by gate source threshold voltage of a FET?
9. Why N channel FET‟s are preferred over P channel FET‟s?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
MODEL GRAPH:
VI Characteristics of SCR
Experiment No: Date:
SCR Characteristics
AIM:
To obtain the VI characteristics of SCR.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1
SCR
TYN612
/616
1
2 Resistor 1 K Ω
10 K Ω
1
1
3 Voltmeter MC (010) V 1
4 Ammeter MC (050)mA 1
5 Dual Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
THEORY:
A Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is 3 terminals consisting of four semiconductor layers
forming a PNPN structure. It has three PN junctions namely J
1
, J
2
and J
3
. There are three
terminals called Anode, Cathode and the gate. The SCR resembles the diode electrically,
since it conducts the current in one direction only, when forward biased. However the SCR is
different from diode because it has an additional gate terminal. This gate is used to turn
“ON” the device.
When the anode is more positive with respect to the cathode, junctions J
1
& J
3
are forward
biased and the junctions J
2
is reverse biased. Only a small leakage current flows through the
device. The device is said to be in t he forward blocking state or off state or cutoff state.
When the anode to cathode voltage is increased to break over value, the junction J
2
breaks
down and device starts conducting (ON state) the anode current must
Transfer Characteristics
S.No I
G
= mA I
G
= mA
V
AK
in Volts I
AK
in mA V
AK
in Volts I
AK
in mA
CALCULATION:
be more than the value known as latching current in order to maintain the device in the ON
state. Once SCR starts conducting, it behaves like a conducting diode and gate has no
control over the device. The device can be turned off only by bringing the device in below a
value known as holding current. The forward voltage drop across the device in the ON state
is around one volt. When the cathode voltage is made positive with respect to the anode
voltage junction J
2
is forward biased and the junction J
1
and J
3
are reversed biased. The
device will be in the reverse blocking state and only small leakage current flows through the
device. The device can be turned on at forward voltage less than break over voltage by
applying suitable gate current.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram.
2. Keep the gate supply voltage at some constant value
3. Vary the anode to cathode supply voltage and note down the readings of voltmeter and
ammeter. Keep the gate voltage at standard value.
4. A graph is drawn between VAK and IAK.
5. From the graph note down the threshold voltage and Holding current values.
RESULT:
The VI Characteristics of the SCR have been plotted.
Threshold Voltage =
Holding Current =
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What the symbol of SCR?
2. In which state SCR turns of conducting state to blocking state?
3. What are the applications of SCR?
4. What is holding current?
5. What are the important type‟s thyristors?
6. How many numbers of junctions are involved in SCR?
7. What is the function of gate in SCR?
8. When gate is open, what happens when anode voltage is increased?
9. What is the value of forward resistance offered by SCR?
10. What is the condition for making from conducting state to non conducting state?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
A) FULL WAVE RECTIFIER WITHOUT FILTER:
B) FULL WAVE RECTIFIER WITH FILTER:
Experiment No: Date:
FullWave Rectifier
AIM:
To examine the input and output waveforms of Full Wave Rectifier and also calculate ripple
factor with Filter and without Filter.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Transformer (6V06V) 1
2 Diode 1N4007 2
3 Capacitor 1000 µF 1
4 Resistor 10 KΩ 1
5 CRO and CRO Probes 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
THEORY:
The circuit of a centertapped full wave rectifier uses two diodes D1&D2. During positive half
cycle of secondary voltage (input voltage), the diode D1 is forward biased and D2is reverse
biased. So the diode D1 conducts and current flows through load resistor RL. During
negative half cycle, diode D2 becomes forward biased and D1 reverse biased. Now, D2
conducts and current flows through the load resistor RL in the same direction. There is a
continuous current flow through the load resistor RL, during both the half cycles and will get
unidirectional current as show in the model graph. The difference between full wave and
half wave rectification is that a full wave rectifier allows unidirectional (one way) current to
the load during the entire 360 degrees of the input signal and halfwave rectifier allows this
only during one half cycle (180 degree).
THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS:
Vrms = Vm/ √2 Vdc=2Vm/П
(i)Without filter:
Ripple factor, r = √ (Vrms/ Vdc )
2
1 = 0.812
(ii)With filter:
Ripple factor, r = 1/ (4√3 f C RL)
Model Graph
A) INPUT WAVEFORM
B) OUTPUT WAVEFORM WITHOUT FILTER
C) OUTPUT WAVEFORM WITH FILTER
TABULATION FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER:
Signal Amplitude(V) Time Period (ms) Frequency
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram.
2. The transformer is tested for rated voltage of primary and secondary.
3. CRO connected across the load.
4. Note the output waveforms with and without filters.
5. Calculate the ripple factor and compare with theoretical values
CALCULATION
CALCULATION
RESULT:
The input and output waveforms of Full Wave Rectifier are plotted.
 Ripple factor with Filter =
 Ripple factor without Filter =
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is rectifier?
2. Classification of rectifier?
3. What is meant by ripples?
4. What do you mean by ripple factor?
5. Define rectification efficiency?
6. What is peak inverse voltage?
7. What is meant by full wave rectifier?
8. Classify full wave rectifier?
9. What principle is used in FWR?
10. What is peak inverse voltage in FWR?
11. What are the disadvantages of full wave rectifier?
Circuit Diagram:
(a) Positive Clipper
MODEL GRAPH:
(a) Negative Clipper
Experiment No: Date:
Clipper and Clamper
AIM:
To examine the input and output waveforms of clipper and clamper.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Function Generator 1
2 Diode 1N4007 1
3 Capacitor 1 µF 1
4 Resistor 1 KΩ 1
5 CRO and CRO Probes 1
6 Bread Board 1
7 Connecting Wires Required
THEORY:
Clipper circuits have the ability to “clip” off a portion of the input signal without distorting
the remaining part of the alternating waveform. The half wave rectifier of the previous
experiment is an example of the simplest form of diode clipper. Depending on the
orientation of thy diode, the positive or negative region of the input signal is “clipped” off.
There are two general categories of clippers: series and parallel. The series c configuration
is defined as one where the diode is in series with the load, while the parallel variety has the
diode in branch parallel to the load.
Sometimes you may want to leave the waveform unchanged, but modify its DC level up or
down. To accomplish this, you use a clamper circuit. The beauty of clampers is that they can
adjust the DC position of the waveform without knowing what the waveform actually is. In
the positive half of the first cycle, the voltage across the capacitor cannot change
instantaneously; therefore as the voltage on the input moves up, the voltage on the top of
the diode has to follow this voltage. This reverse biases the diode causing it to act as an
open, thus the output voltage follows the input voltage. As the input voltage drops into the
negative half of the first cycle, the diode is going to be forward biased. In the positive half
of the first cycle, the voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously; therefore
as the voltage on the input moves up, the voltage on the top of the diode has to follow this
voltage.
MODEL GRAPH:
(a) Positive Clamper
Model Graph
This reverse biases the diode causing it to act as an open, thus the output voltage
follows the input voltage. As the input voltage drops into the negative half of the first cycle,
the diode is going to be forward biased. This causes the diode to behave like a wire, which
cannot dissipate any voltage.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram.
2. Set Sine wave of amplitude 10V (PeakPeak) in the Signal generator.
3. CRO connected across the load.
4. Note the input, output waveforms for clippers and clampers.
TABULATION FOR CLIPPER and CLAMPER:
TYPE AMPLITUDE (V) TIME (T)
Input Signal
Positive Clipper
Negative Clipper
Output Signal
Positive Clamper
Negative Clamper
RESULT:
The input and output waveforms of Clipper and Clamper are plotted.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is clipper?
2. What is clipper?
3. What are the different types of clippers?
4. What are the different types of clampers?
5. What is the use of clipping circuits?
6. What is the use of clamping circuits?
Circuit Diagram
VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM
Circuit Diagram
RPS
(030)V
V
(030)V
MC
1K
1K
2K
Fig (1)
RPS
(030)V
1K
1K
2K
A
(010)mA
MC
Ex:No Date:
VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM
AIM:
To verify the Thevenin`s theorem for the given electric circuit .
APPRATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 DC Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
2 Resistor 2KΩ 1
1KΩ 2
3 Ammeter (010mA),MC 1
4 Voltmeter (030V),MC 1
5 Bread Board  1
Thevenin`s Theorem – Statement
Thevenin`s theorem states that “A circuit with two terminals can be replaced by an
equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source in series with a resistance (or) impedance”
THEORY
A linear, bilateral, lumped element with open output terminals can be reduced to a simple
circuit consisting of a single voltage source in series with a resistance. The value of the
voltage source is equal to the open circuit voltage across the open terminals and the value
of resistance is equal to the resistance seen in to the network across the open terminals.
Consider the circuit given below
I
R
1
2
R
E
3
R
4
R
The value of the current I is found using Thevenin’s theorem. First R
L
is disconnected and the
terminal is opened .
R
3
E
R
2
1
R
th
V R
th
,
TABULATION (from given circuit)
S.No Input Voltage
(v)
Theoretical Practical
Vth (V) Rth(Ω) IL(mA) Vth (V) Rth(Ω) IL(mA)
Equivalent Circuit
Tabulation (from Equivalent Circuit)
S.No. Input Voltage
(V)
Load Current
(mA)
PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. RPS is switched on and kept at a constant value.
3. Load terminals AB is open circuited and a voltmeter is connected across R
3
to
measure the practical value of the V
th
4. Voltage source is measured with respect to terminal AB
5. Now the load resistor is connected to measure the load current
6. The value of load current is calculated the correctly and it is checked with the
practical value.
The voltage across the open circuit terminals is called as Thevenin‟s Voltage V
th
. The
value of R
th
is found to after replacing the voltage source E by short circuit.
Thevenin‟s Equivalent circuit is drawn with V
th
and R
th
. The disconnected element is
placed and the open circuit terminals of the Thevenin‟s equivalent circuit.
th
V
Thevenin's Equivalent circuit
R
L
th
R
The current through R
L
is found as
Calculation
Viva Questions
1. Steps to solve Thevenin’s Theorem
2. Steps to solve Norton’s Theorem
3. What is the load current in a Norton’s circuit?
4. What is the load current in a Thevenin’s circuit?
5. What is the max power in a circuit?
6. Define active and passive network.
7. Types of dependent sources?
8. What are the limitations of thevenin’s theorem?
9. What is Duality?
Inference
Result
Lab Performance 10
Observation 10
Viva 10
Total 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
RPS
(030)V
220 100
330
RPS
(030)V
RPS
(030)V
220 100
330
RPS
(030)V
A
(010)mA
MC
RPS
(030)V
220 100
RPS
(030)V
A
(010)mA
MC
Ex:No: Date:
VERIFICATION OF NORTON’S THEOREM
AIM:
To verify the Norton`s theorem for a given electric circuit.
APPRATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 DC Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
2 Resistor 2.2KΩ 3
10KΩ 1
3 Ammeter (010mA),MC 1
4 Voltmeter (030mA),MC 1
5 Bread Board  1
NORTON`S THEOREM – STATEMENT
A linear network containing sources and passive elements can be replace by an
equivalent circuit consisting of a current source in parallel with a resistance or impedance
with respect to any two terminals
THEORY
A linear, bilateral, lumped element with open output terminals can be reduced to a
simple circuit consisting of single current source in parallel with a resistance.
The value of current source is equal to the current passing through the short
circuited output terminals. The value of the resistance is equal to the resistance seen into
the network across the output terminal. Consider the given circuit
I
R
1
3
R
E
3
R
4
R
R
1
2
R
E
3
R
N
I
TABULATI ON (FROM GI VEN CI RCUI T)
S.No I nput Voltage Theoretical Practical
I N (mA) RN(KΩ) I L(mA) I N (mA) RN(KΩ) I L(mA)
MODEL CALCULATION
The current through the short circuited output terminals is called Norton Current I
N
. , the R
th
value is found across the open circuit terminals as found in Thevenin‟s theorem, after short
circuiting the voltage source E.
Norton‟s equivalent circuit is drawn with I
N
and R
th
.
I
N
I
Norton's Equivalent Circuit
R
L th
R
The disconnected element R
L
is placed across the open output terminal.
Now Norton equivalent circuit
I
N
I
Norton's Equivalent Circuit
R
L th
R
Current through R
L
is found as
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:
Viva – questions
1. State Thevenin’s theorem.
2. State Norton’s theorem.
3. Steps to solve Thevenin’s Theorem.
4. Define electrical Potential or Voltage.
5. What is meant by resistance?
6. Define Conductance.
7. Define Electric power.
8. What is the result of resistance in series?
9. What is the Result of resistance in parallel?
PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram.
2. Short the terminals AB and find the current by connecting the ammeter
3. The load resistor is removed and source is short circuited the equivalent resistance is
measured with respect to terminal AB.
4. Value of load current is calculated theoretically and verified with practical value
5. The experimented is repeated for different values of source voltages.
INFERENCE
RESULT
Lab Performance 10
Observation 10
Viva 10
Total 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
A
A A
RPS
(030)V
1K
3K
2K
(010)mA
MC
(010)mA
MC
(010)mA
MC
OBSERVATION
S.No RPS Voltage (Volts) I(mA) I
1
(mA) I
2
(mA)
Ex:No: Date:
VERIFICATION OF KIRCHO$Ff`s LAWS (KVL & KCL )
AIM:
To verify the laws governing the electric circuits
i. Ohm`s law
ii. Kirchoff`s Current Law (KCL)
iii. Kirchoff`s Voltage Law (KVL)
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No. Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Resistors 1KΩ 1
100Ω 2
2 Ammeter (025)mA, MC 3
3 Bread board  1
4 DC Regulated Power Supply (030)V 1
OHM`s LAW – STATEMENT
Ohm`s law states that “potential difference across the end of the conductor is
directly proportional to the current flowing through it at a constant temperature.”
KIRCHOFF`s CURRENT LAW – STATEMENT
Kirchoff`s current law states that “In any electrical network the algebraic sum of the
current entering at any node is zero”
KIRCHOFF`s VOLTAGE LAW – STATEMENT
Kirchoff`s law states that the algebraic sum of the voltage around any closed path is
zero
OHM`s LAW
S.No RPS Voltage (Volts) I(Practical)mA I
(Theoretical) (mA)
KIRCHOFF`s CURRENT LAW
S.No Practical Theoretical
I(mA) I
1
(mA) I
2
(mA) I = I
1
+ I
2
mA
I(mA) I
1
(mA) I
2
(mA) I = I
1
+ I
2
mA
PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. For different ranges of voltages, the ammeter I, I
1
,
I
2
reading was noted
3. Tabulate the readings
4. From the tabulated readings, ohm`s law, Kirchoff`s current law and Kirchoff`s
voltage law are verified.
INFERENCE
KIRCHOFF`s VOLTAGE LAW
S.No Practical Theoretical
RPS
Voltage(V)
I
1
R
1
I
2
R
2
V=I
1
R
1
+I
2
R
2
RPS
Voltage(V)
I
1
R
1
I
2
R
2
V=I
1
R
1
+I
2
R
2
CALCULATION
Viva – questions
1. Define energy.
2. Define power.
3. Define charge.
4. What is meant by linear and nonlinear elements?
5. What is meant by active and passive elements?
6. What is meant by Unilateral and bi lateral elements?
7. Define ideal voltage source.
8. Define KCL
9. Define KVL.
10. Define Electric current.
RESULT
Lab Performance 10
Observation 10
Viva 10
Total 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Case i
RPS
(030)V
33 18
330
RPS
(030)V
A
(0100)mA
MC
Case ii
RPS
(030)V
33 18
330
A
(0100)mA
MC
Case iii
Ex:No: Date:
VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
AIM:
To verify the super position theorem for the given electric circuits
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 DC – regulated power supply (0  30)V, 2A 2
2 Ammeter (025)mA, MC 1
3 Resistors 1KΩ 3
4. Voltmeter (030)V, MC 1
5 Bread Board  1
SUPERPOSITION THEOREM – STATEMENT
The super position theorem states that “the response in a linear circuit having mare
than one independent source can be obtained by adding the responses caused by the
separate independent source acting alone.
THEORY
Theory:
The superposition theorem states that “In a linear, lamped element, bilateral electric
circuit that is energized by 2 or more sources the current in any resistor is equal to the
algebraic sum of the separate current in the resistor when each source acts separately.
While one source is applied, the other sources are replaced by their respective internal
resistance”. To replace the other sources by their respective internal resistance, the voltage
sources are shortcircuited and the current sources open circuited.
Consider the given electric circuit:
I
L
2
E
1
R
1
L
R
E
2
R
TABULATION
S.No. Voltage Source PRACTICAL THEORY
Voltage (V) Current (mA) Voltage (V) Current (mA)
CALCULATION
To find the current through R
L
, first short circuit the voltage source E
2
by the internal
resistance.
I'
L
1
R
1
L
R
E
2
R
Let I
L
‟
= current through the load while source E
1
acting alone.
And find current through I
L
‟
= (E/(R
1
+R
L

R
2
)) * (R
2
/ (R
2
+R
L
))
Now short circuit the voltage source E
1
by the internal resistance and energize the voltage
source E
2
I''
L
2
E
R
1
L
R
2
R
Let I
L
‟‟
= current through the load while source E
2
acting alone.
And find I
L
‟‟
= E
2
/ (R
2
+ R
1

R
L
) * (R
1
/(R
1
+R
L
))
I
L =
I
L
‟
+ I
L
‟‟
PROCEDURE
Case i
1. Connections are mode as per circuit diagram
2. Power supplies are switched on and voltage is kept at V
1
and V
2
3. The ammeter and the voltmeter readings are noted down for different voltage in
both voltage sources
Case ii
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. Voltage source V
2
is short circuited
3. Voltage source V
1
is switched on note down ammeter and voltmeter readings for
different voltages
Case iii
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. Voltage source V
1
is short circuited
3. Voltage source V
2
is switched on note down ammeter and voltmeter readings for
different voltages
Viva Questions
1. Define ideal current source.
2. What is meant by source transformation?
3. What are ideal elements?
4. Define form factor.
5. Define peak factor.
6. Define Ohms Law.
7. State superposition theorem.
8. Define ideal voltage source.
9. Define ideal current source.
10. .What is meant by source transformation
INFERENCE
RESULT
Lab Performance 10
Observation 10
Viva 10
Total 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
RPS
(030)V
330
(010)mA
MC
A
DRB
Ex:No: 11 A Date:
VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM
AIM:
to verify the maximum power transfer theorem for the given electric circuit.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Dc – regulated power supply (030)V 1
2 Ammeter (010)mA 1
3 Source resistance 10KΩ 1
4 Decade Resistance Box  1
5 Bread board  1
MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM – STATEMENT
Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is transferred from
source to load, when the load resistance is equal to the source resistance.
THEORY
Many circuits basically consist of sources, supplying voltage, current or power to the
load. Sometimes it is necessary to transfer maximum voltage, current or power from the
source to the load. It is a fact that more voltage is delivered to the load when the load
resistance is small compared to the source resistance.
The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power is delivered from
a source to a load when the load resistance is equal to the source resistance.
+

V
S
R
S
R
L
I
TABULATION
S.No R
L
(KΩ) I
L
(mA) P
L
= mW
CALCULATION
Current in the circuit is
Power delivered to the load R
L
is P = I
2
R
L
= V
S
2
R
L
/ (R
L
+R
S
)
2
To determine the value of R
L
for maximum power to be transferred to the load, the first
derivative of the above equation with respect to R
L
should be equal to zero.
0 2 2 2
2 2 2
= ÷ ÷ + +
L S L L S S S
R R R R R R R
L S
R R =
So, the maximum power will be transferred to the load
when the load resistance is equal to the source resistance.
PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The voltage is kept constant by adjusting RPS.
3. By changing the value of R
L
with the help of DRB, the ammeter reading is tabulated.
( ) ( )( ) { }
( )
4
2 2
2
L S
L S L L S S
R R
R R R R R V
+
+ ÷ +
=
( ) ( )( ) { } 0 2
2
= + ÷ +
L S L L S
R R R R R
Viva – questions
1. State maximum power transfer theorem.
2. Steps to solve maximum power transfer Theorem
3. What is a Dual Network?
4. Steps to draw a Dual Network.
5. What are the limitations of Maximum power transfer theorem?
6. Write some applications of maximum power transfer theorem.
7. What is the condition for maximum power transfer.
INFERENCE
RESULT
Lab Performance 10
Observation 10
Viva 10
Total 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Case i
Case ii
3K 10K
2K
RPS
(030)V
A
(01)mA
MC
Ex:No: Date:
VERIFICATION OF RECIPROCITY THEOREM
AIM:
To verify of the reciprocity theorem for the given electric circuit.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Dc – regulated power supply (030)V 1
2 Ammeter (025)Ma, MC 1
3 Resistors 1KΩ 2
1.5 KΩ 1
4 Decade Resistance Box  1
5 Bread board  1
RECIPROCITY THEOREM – STATEMENT
In a linear bilateral single source circuit the ratio of excitation to response is constant
when the position of excitation and response are interchanged. Here the excitation is either
a voltage source or a current source and the response in either current or voltage in a
element (R,L,C). this theorem will be satisfied only by circuits or network which does not
have dependent sources.
THEORY
The reciprocity theorem states that, “In a linear, bilateral, network a voltage
source V volts in a branch gives rise to a current I in another branch, the ratio V/I is
constant when the position of V and I are interchanged”.
According to this theorem if a source voltage and ammeter are interchanged, the
magnitude of the current through the ammeter will be the same. Consider a network with
two loops A & B. if an ideal voltage source Vs in loop A produces a current I in loop B, then
interchanging positions, if an ideal source in B produces the same current I in loop A. The
network is said to be Reciprocal.
TABULATION
S.No. INPUT VOLTAGE CURRENT FOR CASE i
mA
CURRENT FOR CASE ii
mA
THEORITICAL PRACTICAL THEORITICAL PRACTICAL
CALCULATION
PROCEDURE
Case i
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. Set of the RPS volt for the required voltage
3. Measure the corresponding current I
2
also calculated it theoritically
Case ii
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. Set of the RPS volt for the required voltage
3. Measure the corresponding current I
2
also calculated it theoritically
Result
Thus Reciprocity Theorem was verified and the values were tabulated.
Viva – questions
.
1.State reciprocity theorem
2.What are the limitations of reciprocity transfer theorem?
3.Write some applications of reciprocity theorem.
4.Steps to solve reciprocitys Theorem
5. Steps to solve reciprocity Theorem
6.What is a Dual Network?
7.Steps to draw a Dual Network.
Circuit Diagram
A
(010)mA
MI
AC
Function
Generator
2K 50m
0.02F
Model Graph
F(Hz)
V
f
r
Experiment No: Date:
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SERIES RESONANCE CIRCUIT
Aim
To design a RLC series resonant circuit and to obtain the frequency response and
resonant frequency.
Apparatus Required
SI
NO
Particulars Range/Rating Quantity
1 Resistors DRB 1
2 Inductor Inductance box 1
3 Capacitor 0.02 µF 1
4 CRO 1
5 AFO 1
6 Connecting wires
7 Bread Board
Formula
Resonant frequency fr = 1
_________
2 π √LC
Theory:
The resonance of a series RLC circuit occurs when the inductive and capacitive
reactance are equal in magnitude but cancel each other because they are 180 degrees apart
in phase. The sharp minimum in impedance which occurs is useful in tuning applications.
The sharpness of the minimum depends on the value of R and is characterized by the "Q" of
the circuit. It has a minimum of impedance Z=R at the resonant frequency and the phase
angle is equal to zero at resonance. The expression for resonant frequency is given by
LC
fr
t 2
1
=
Design Procedure
Assume suitable values of R and L.Resonant frequency fr is given.
1
then , C= _________
(2π) 2fr2L
Tabulation
SI
NO
Frequency in Herzt Voltage across R
V
volts
Current through the
circuit
I=V/R
Amps
Procedure
1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. A voltage of constant magnitude is set in the AFO.
3. The magnitude of voltage across the resistor is measured using CRO.
4. The procedure in step 3 is repeated for various values of frequencies and is tabulated.
5. Plot the graph for voltage vs frequency
Result:
Thus the series RLC resonant circuit was designed and the frequency response curve
was drawn and the resonant frequency was obtained.
Resonance frequency =___________________
Viva – questions
1.What is transient?
2.Why transients occurs in electric circuits?
3.What is free and forced response?
4.What is complementary function?
5.What is particular solution?
6.Define time constant of RL circuit.
7.Define time constant of RC circuit.
8.Define quality factor.
9.What are half power frequencies?
10.Write the characteristics of series resonance.
I
F (Hz)
Fr
Circuit Diagram
A
(010)mA
MI
AC
Function
Generator
2K
50m 0.02F
Model graph:
Experiment No: Date:
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF PARALLEL RESONANCE CIRCUIT
Aim
To design a RLC parallel resonant circuit and to obtain the frequency response and
resonant frequency.
Apparatus Required
SI
NO
Particulars Range/Rating Quantity
1 Resistor 1KΩ 1
2 Inductor 7.04 mH 2
3 Capacitor 0.1µF 1
4 CRO 1
5 AFO 1
6 Connecting wires
7 Bread Board
Formula
Resonant frequency fr = 1
_________
2 π √LC
Theory:
In parallel RLC circuits the circuit behaves purely resistive at resonance. But current
supplied by source is minimum and hence called as anti resonance. Resonance is a state in
which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance (X
L
= X
C
) at a specified
frequency.
The frequency at which X
L
= X
C
is called
parallel resonance and this is satisfactory
if resistances are
small. Otherwise the frequency at which parallel impedance is maximum
may also be called as parallel resonant frequency.
Because inductive and capacitive reactance currents are equal and opposite in
phase, they cancel one another at parallel resonance. If a capacitor and an inductor, each
with negligible resistance, are connected in parallel and the frequency is adjusted such that
reactances are exactly equal, current will flow in the inductor and the capacitor, but the
total current will be negligible. The parallel CL circuit will present almost infinite
impedance. The capacitor will alternately charge and discharge through the inductor.
Design Procedure
Assume suitable values of R and L Resonant frequency fr is given.
Tabulation
SI
NO
Frequency in Herzt Voltage across
R
V
volts
Current through
the circuit
I=V/R
Amps
1
then , C= _________
(2π) 2fr2L
Thus, in a parallel RCL, the net current flow through the circuit is at minimum because of
the high impendence presented by X
L
and X
C
in parallel.
L
CR
LC
fr ÷ = 1
2
1
t
If ratio CR/L is less than one the resonant frequency is
LC
fr
t 2
1
=
Procedure:
1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. A voltage of constant magnitude is set in the AFO.
3. The magnitude of voltage across the resistor is measured using CRO.
4. The procedure in step 3 is repeated for various values of frequencies and is tabulated.
5. Plot the graph for voltage vs frequency.
Result:
Thus the Parallel RLC resonant circuit was designed and the frequency response curve
was drawn and the resonant frequency was obtained.
Viva – questions
1.What is anti resonance?
2.Write the characteristics of parallel resonance.
3.What is Band width and Selectivity?
4.Properties of a series RLC circuit.
5.Properties of a parallel RLC circuit.
6.What is critical resistance?
7.What is critical damping.
8.What is critical resistance?
9.What is natural and damped frequency?
10.What does series aiding mean?
11.What does series opposing mean?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
RL CIRCUIT:
TABULATION:
S.NO. TIME CHARGING DISCHARGING
(msec) CURRENT (I) A CURRENT (I) A
Experiment No: Date:
TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF RC AND RL CIRCUITS FOR DC INPUT’S.
AIM:
To construct RL & RC transient circuit and to draw the transient curves.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO. NAME OF RANGE TYPE QTY.
THE
EQUIPMENT
1. RPS (030)V DC 1
2. Ammeter (010)mA MC 1
3. Voltmeter (010)V MC 1
4. Resistor 10 K  3
5. Capacitor 1000 µ F  1
6. Bread board   1
7. Connecting  Single strand As required
wires
THEORY:
Electrical devices are controlled by switches which are closed to connect supply to
the device, or opened in order to disconnect the supply to the device. The switching
operation will change the current and voltage in the device. The purely resistive devices will
allow instantaneous change in current and voltage.
An inductive device will not allow sudden change in current and capacitance device
will not allow sudden change in voltage. Hence when switching operation is performed in
inductive and capacitive devices, the current & voltage in device will take a certain time to
change from pre switching value to steady state value after switching. This phenomenon is
known as transient. The study of switching condition in the circuit is called transient
analysis.The state of the circuit from instant of switching to attainment of steady state is
called transient state. The time duration from the instant of switching till the steady state is
called transient period. The current & voltage of circuit elements during transient period is
called transient response.
MODEL CALCULATION & ANALYSIS:
FORMULA:
Time constant of RC circuit = RC
MODEL GRAPH:
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
RC CIRCUIT:
MODEL GRAPH:
CHARGING DISCHARGING
CHARGING DISCHARGING
PROCEDURE:
 Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
 Before switching ON the power supply the switch S should be in off position
 Now switch ON the power supply and change the switch to ON position.
 The voltage is gradually increased and note down the reading of ammeter and
voltmeter for each time duration in RC.In RL circuit measure the Ammeter reading.
 Tabulate the readings and draw the graph of Vc(t)Vs t
TABULATION:
CHARGING:
S.NO. TIME VOLTAGE CURRENT
(msec) ACROSS „C‟ THROUGH
(volts) „C‟
(mA)
MODEL CALCULATION & ANALYSIS:
TABULATION:
S.NO. TIME VOLTAGE CURRENT
(msec) ACROSS „C‟ THROUGH
(volts) „C‟
(mA)
MODEL CALCULATION & ANALYSIS:
RESULT:
Thus the transient response of RL & RC circuit for DC input was verified.