Collection development in cyberspace: building an electronic library collection Author(s):Diane K. Kovacs, Angela Elkordy Library Hi Tec !

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Collection development in cyberspace: building an electronic library collection
Diane K. Kovacs, Angela Elkordy

The Authors
Diane K. Kovacs, Diane K. Kovacs is President of Kovacs Consulting Internet & World Wide Web Training, runs!ick, "#io, $%A. Angela Elkordy, Angela Elkordy is Director of &ibrary and &earning Tec#nologies at t#e 'ic#igan Isla(ic Acade(y in Ann Arbor, 'ic#igan, $%A. Abstract 0uilding a 1eb2based e2library may be t e most important t ing a library ever does. An important role *or librarians in all types o* libraries is t e planning and3or building o* 1eb2based e2libraries. 4**ers a practical discussion o* developing and implementing a collection plan *or building 1eb2based e2libraries. T e starting point *or developing any collection plan is an assessment o* t e *unction o* and need *or an in*ormation collection and t e audience it 5ill serve. Discusses some guidelines and practical strategies on 5 ere and o5 to *ind, identi*y, evaluate and select appropriate 1eb2based in*ormation resources. .ocuses on 1eb2based in*ormation resources rat er t an ot er electronic in*ormation resources suc as CD2)46 or *ee2based databases t at ave been discussed e7tensively in recent literature. Article Type: Tec nical paper Keyword(s): Collection development! 1orld 1ide 1eb. Content Indicators: )esearc %mplication 2 8 9ractice %mplication 2 888 4riginality 2 88 )eadability 2 888
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Introduction An e2library o* ig 2?uality 1eb2based or 1eb2accessible in*ormation resources is an ambitious pro@ect. %t is comple7 and involved precisely because it entails creating a ne5 collection o* un*amiliar resources in a variety o* *ormats.

Today, being a librarian means e7panding t e range o* resources t at 5e provide *or our patrons to include t ose available in electronic *ormat, especially 1eb2based or 1eb2accessible in*ormation resources. T e general pattern o* our pro*essional activities remains recogniAably similar to 5 at it as been *or t e last al* century and more. Librarians still evaluate in*ormation resources, connect patrons to t e in*ormation t ey need, and organiAe in*ormation *or easier access by our patrons. 1it t e advent o* 1eb2based resources, 5e are *inding t at our role as in*ormation intermediaries demands a ne5 sub2set o* ?uasi2tec nical skills and a5areness. Librarians must not only identi*y and *acilitate access to electronic in*ormation resources! 5e also must educate library patrons about o5 to access t em and 5 en to use t em. T e creation o* a locally available e2library collection is one 5ay o* making sure t at our library and in*ormation center patrons ave t e same kind o* evaluated, selected and organiAed access to t ese 1eb2based in*ormation resources as t ey ave ad traditionally to print and locally eld electronic databases. 9rior to t e %nternet, suc databases 5ere stored on CD2)46 and magnetic media or stored on main*rame computers made available to subscribers t roug dial2 up remote access. T e %nternet and 1orld 1ide 1eb ave enabled access to many types o* in*ormation resources t at 5ere previously di**icult to obtain. T ese include data and in*ormation in digital *ormats 5 ic may be po5er*ully manipulated or additionally processed suc as databases, *ull2te7t reports, books, articles and data sets, or materials t at are Buni?ueC to t e 1eb environment suc as ypermedia or online communities o* uman e7perts o* one kind or anot er. 4t er traditional types o* in*ormation D ne5spapers, ne5sletters, @ournals, books, dissertations, bibliograp ic databases, and even television and radio ne5s transcripts D are being made accessible, adapted or incorporated into ne5, 1eb2based products 5it po5er*ul additional capabilities. )esources once only available regionally in libraries or agencies are no5 accessible globally, e.g. government in*ormation, community or campus speci*ic in*ormation, library catalogs. .or t e most part, t e 5ritings on collection development o* electronic resources ave *ocused on t e t eoretical, or t e p ilosop ical issues rat er t an describing t e actual process o* locating and selecting 1eb2based resources. T is article is a practical discussion o* developing and implementing a collection plan *or building a 1eb2based e2library! 5e 5ill discuss considerations t at 5ill *orm t e *ocus o* your collection building activities suc as patron in*ormation needs, service levels and patron e7pectations. 1e 5ill also discuss starting points in terms o* 5 ere and o5 to *ind, identi*y, evaluate and select appropriate 1eb2based in*ormation resources. T is article *ocuses on 1eb2based in*ormation resources rat er t an ot er electronic in*ormation resources suc as CD2)46 or *ee2based databases t at ave been discussed e7tensively in recent literature.

Definitions: electronic library digital library !eb"based library and virtual library T e aut ors posted a ?uestion to t e :ettrain E%nternet trainersF discussion list, asking t e subscribers to elp in clari*ying t e *ollo5ing *our de*initions:

#. '. ;. &.

E#F electronic library Ee2libraryF! E'F digital library! E;F 1eb2based library! and E&F virtual library.

6ost people 5 o responded de*ined an e2library as a collection o* electronically *ormatted in*ormation resources *rom a variety o* sources, including t e %nternet and t e 1eb. E2libraries mig t consist o* 1eb2based or 1eb2adapted resources 5 ic ave been BcollectedC 5it a particular client group in mind. 9 ysically, suc a collection usually appears as a 1eb site or compilation o* links publis ed on a 1eb server to 5 ic D depending on t e content or ot er aspects o* t e library D t ere may be access *rom t e global %nternet. Digital library is t e most clearly de*ined concept. T e digital library is a collection o* scanned, *ull2te7t materials created *rom print or olograp ic primary documents. T e 1eb2based e2library is simply de*ined as a 1eb2publis ed collection o* 1eb2based resources. T e term 1eb2based library catalog re*ers to 1eb2accessible 49AC+. T e term Bvirtual libraryC is used almost interc angeably 5it e2library, 5it per aps a 5ider perceived scope o* providing services as 5ell as resources. T e term Be2libraryC allo5s *or all t e *eatures described as digital or virtual library. 1eb2based e2library is t e term c osen *or t e purposes o* t is article. A 1eb2based e2 library collection mig t include links to: • 9rint resource directories or bibliograp ies, suc as print re*erence sources or special collections 5 ic ave been converted to 1eb pages or ot er electronic *ormat. • A range o* services t at may ave been adapted to an online environment, suc as re*erence service, interlibrary loan and document delivery re?uest services. • %nternal resources t at ave been digitiAed, suc as pat *inders, blueprints, reserves lists, *loor plans, images, descriptive in*ormation about t e library and its oldings. • Content speci*ically developed *or t e 1eb environment, suc as interactive tutorials, yperlinked papers and online te7tbooks, 5orks ops or courses. • "alue2added collections o* links to 1eb2based resources organiAed in a manner t at is meaning*ul to t e library client population. • .ree and3or *ee2based electronic resources delivered over t e 1eb, suc as *ull2te7t, bibliograp ic or image databases Ee.g, 9ub6ed, Edgar, -+ patent and trademark databases, Le7is3:e7isF.

#iterature review A great deal as been publis ed on topics related to BcollectingC 1eb2based resources speci*ically in t e *ields o* digital Evirtual or electronicF libraries, %nternet resource discovery and evaluation, as 5ell as t e selection, ac?uisition and access o* electronic resources in general. Also e7tensively discussed are net5orking and licensing issues, access and retrieval o* 1eb2 based resources, in addition to debates on t e best BcatalogingC met ods, organiAational sc emes, metadata and automated agents *or collection development. Little practical in*ormation on %nternet collection development as been added to t e literature since #GG< 5 en Demas et al. and 9iontek and Harlock 5ere some o* t e *irst librarians to discuss practical guidelines *or collection development o* %nternet resources. A main t eme o* t e Demas et al. E#GG<F discussion is t at collection o* %nternet resources can and s ould use t e same collection criteria as more traditional resources. T e BTa7onomy o* %nternet resourcesC introduced by Demas et al., as been used by subse?uent researc ers and as a practical guide by many librarians. Demas et al. also clari*y t e analogous relations ips bet5een %nternet

T ere are revie5 @ournals. :orman E#GG>F. 5e must buy t e e?uipment and build t e necessary computing and telecommunications in*rastructure to andle a variety o* electronic publications! and 5e must learn to educate our patrons in t eir use Ep. +o e asked i* t e library ad been BmainstreamingC collection development o* %nternet resources. selecting and evaluating in*ormation based on an in2dept kno5ledge o* t e patronIs needs and currently available resources. t e publis ing industry is 5ell2organiAed. )iou7Is metap or o* e2 library collection development as BHunting and gat ering in cyberspaceC is an amusing and use*ul 5ay to t ink about t e process. E#GG<F article to guide is survey. 5 ic revie5s t e practical literature up to #GG> and also describes t e collection tools t at 5ere e7tant *or use in collecting %nternet resources. vine2tangled 5ilderness *ull o* unkno5n species. %n uilding Electronic &ibrary Collections) T#e Essential *uide to %election Criteria and Core %ub+ect Collections EKovacs '(((F.or e7ample. especially 1orld 1ide 1eb. 5 ere t e *armer3librarian goes into a 5ell2tended *ield to arvest a crop o* kno5n type and ?uality. #. %tIs muc more like *oraging in t e @ungle! a trackless. and providing service 5it t ese publications.(F. percent ad been and t e rest planned to. T e book includes core collections and 1ebliograp ies o* collection development sources *or multiple sub@ect areas. 9iontek and HarlockIs E#GG<F article is primarily a 1ebliograp y3gop erograp y o* collection development tools. and subscription agents are al5ays appy to elp keep t ings neat and tidy. He *ound t at >. E#GG<F! 6orville and 1ick orst E#GG/F! )iou7 E#GG>F! and Tennant E#GG$F all argue 5ell *or t e development o* Bsub@ect guidesC or Bsub@ect bibliograp iesC as t e proper role *or librarians in ameliorating access to %nternet resources *or our clients. %n addition to er e7cellent revie5 o* t e literature prior to #GG>. t is book provides support and practical kno5ledge *or e2library builders. Developing a collection o* %nternet. Joc elson et al. Joc elson et al. . >'F. but also o* %nternet resources. cataloging. T e uni?ue and inspiring . Coutts E#GG$F reports on collection development and electronic resources *or researc collections in t e -K. T e librarian collecting electronic resources is not a arvester o* cultivated crops but a unter and gat erer o* 5ild *ruits and ot er treasures Ep. )osen*eld et al. :ormanIs article is t e report o* a study 5 ic surveyed #< mid5estern academic libraries on t eir andling o* electronic in*ormation source in t eir collection development policies and practices. %tIs a little like agriculture. T e :orman study is particularly use*ul as it not only surveyed *or t e andling o* commercial electronic resources suc as CD2)46. Anot er use*ul aspect o* is study is t at :orman used t e Demas et al. Demas et al.resources and ot er types o* resource *ormats. E#GG>F 5rote a andbook *or Library o* Congress Brecommending o**icersC. 5e must develop t e sta** skills in selecting. -sing case studies o* e2library collections. . E#GG>F and Coutts E#GG$F ave all t oroug ly revie5ed t e literature relating collection development o* electronic resources in general and %nternet resources in particular. $teps to create an e"library collection plan T e de*ining c aracteristics o* an e2library s ould re*lect t e librariansI or in*ormation pro*essionalsI e7pertise in identi*ying. . practical %nternet collection development strategies and skills are t e main t eme.edunok E#GG>F. E#GG<F discussed t eir de*inition o* BmainstreamingC: To ac ieve t e BmainstreamingC or integration o* electronic *ormats. resources is anot er situation altoget er.edunokIs E#GG>F article provides a synt esis o* #$ library electronic resource collection policy statements. + e says: 4ver t e centuries librarians ave pretty muc got a andle on building collections o* resources in t e p ysical media like print and *ilm. some o* 5 ic look appetiAing but may be poisonous and ot ers o* 5 ic look drab and unappealing but may 5ell be t e most nouris ing. 5it support *rom t e collection development literature.

+ave yoursel* a great deal o* time and energy and send your patrons to t ese 1eb sites instead. suc as: B1 o are our patrons and 5 at are t eir needsKC Also you must t ink about o5 5ill you organiAe t e resources and o5 your patrons 5ill access t em. T e issues you 5ill address in considering t e purpose o* your e2library 5ill direct your collection activities and selection o* resources. 0y aving a clear understanding o* 5 at is involved to create an e2library. consider t e *ollo5ing planning areas: • Patron .tradition o* making resources *reely available over t e %nternet adds unusual c allenges and *reedoms to providing intellectual access to t em via 1eb guides or compilations o* links. 1 at is t e service *unction o* your virtual collectionK • Access. 4ur recommended steps are discussed in detail belo5. Collect. intellectual D 5 at skills or kno5ledge 5ill be e7pected *rom patrons in order to access t e e2library collectionK . %t is important to remember. • +tep . 5e must re2e7amine *amiliar issues. you can ma7imiAe opportunities to educate management decision makers as 5ell as your users about t e process and its possibilities. Design. unconstrained by budgets. 9 ysical D 5 ere and o5 5ill t e e2library 1eb pageEsF be publis edK • Access. A small. $tep %& Determine the purpose of your e"library %t is essential t at *rom t e outset your goals *or t e e2library collection are 5ell de*ined. A mission or statement o* purpose is essential *or s aping any collection development plan. more so in t e 1eb2based environment t an ot ers. but care*ully conceived e2library collection can be an in*ormation centerIs public relations dream solution! a large collection organiAed poorly can be a nig tmare *or patrons and maintainers on every level.. Alt oug t is is tec nically true o* all our collection development activities. 5 ile allo5ing room *or gro5t . 9otential problems can be avoided by developing and *ollo5ing a t oug t*ul e2library collection plan.o. Determine t e purpose o* your e2library. • +tep '. 1 o are t e potential patrons o* your siteK . Alt oug 5e implicitly consider our patrons in c oosing in*ormation resources. evaluate and select resources *or your e2library collection. T e c allenge is to si*t t roug masses o* in*ormation to locate and identi*y ?uality resources. 9er aps most important. create and maintain your 1eb2based e2library collection 1eb site. Develop a collection development plan. 1 y collect 1eb2based resourcesK 1 ic resources s ould be collectedK 1 at sub@ect areasK 1 at dept o* coverage or educational level or resources s ould be includedK • %ervices.ulation. our muc 2a5aited e**orts 5ill usually be ig ly visible E*iguratively. because o* t e access met odology and delivery o* t e electronic resources. and o*ten. because most o* us 5ill cra*t our e2library collections *rom t e ground up. %n addressing t e issue o* t e purpose o* your e2library. T ey are: • +tep #. politicallyF. in ot er 5ords. i* you are planning to simply do t e same. t at including materials in an e2library collection means an endorsement. • +tep &. to make a list o* related links 5it out evaluating t em or customiAing t em *or your patron base D do not. a recommendation and an approval. T is *reedom involves librarians being able to c oose a variety o* %nternet resources 5e t ink are appropriate *or our collections.or 5 om 5ill you be creating t e e2library collectionK • -esources. you must ans5er t e ?uestion: B1 y do 5e need an e2library collectionKC +ince it is ig ly likely t at someone else as already created a 1eb listing o* resources in your topic areaEsF.

• Access. tec#nical D 1 at speed and type o* %nternet connection 5ill be available to your patron populationK 1 at 5ill be t e primary 1eb bro5ser used to access t e in*ormation and 5 at *unctions 5ill be available t roug t is so*t5areK Patron population 1 o are your library patronsK 1 at service levelEsF and resources do t ey needK 1 at are t eir tec nological capabilitiesK Ho5 receptive or adaptable are t ey to ne5 tec nologies and trainingK 4nce oriented to t e 1eb environment. and all ypermedia. t at 1eb2based resources are not direct e?uivalents o* t eir print counterparts. t is kno5ledge o* library patrons allo5s us to make in*ormed and critical decisions 5 en collecting any kind o* resources *or t eir use. articles. and i* so.or people *or 5 om Englis is a second languageK )ecreational readersK 4r per aps providing a pool o* resources *or groups 5orking on researc pro@ects Edesigning a ne5 bridge. in many cases. ome sc ooling *amiliesK %t is e7tremely important to look beyond t e obvious ans5ers to t ese ?uestions! *or e7ample. 5 ic ma7imiAe t e multimedia and electronic databases aspects o* t eir . ospital.o nIs 1ort in laboratory studiesFK 1ill you be providing library services in a distance learning situation. %t is important to note.MF. some sc olarly communications and researc publications. and multimedia 1eb2based instruction are. and at 5 at levelK 1ill you be collecting *or an academic or researc community E*aculty and students. it is crucial to understand your target population in 5ays t at you may not ave previously considered. Resources Electronic resources suc as computeriAed bibliograp ic databases. o5ever. t en t ey 5ill not be able to access. or *or researc sta** in a university. *olk living in rural areas 5it out access to traditional ig er education. ne5spaper. to 5 omK Adult learners studying materials *or academic credentials. company. suc as T" or radio program transcripts. or a segment o*. 1 en developing an e2library collection. books. T is understanding o* t e in*ormation needs. suc as vision or earing impairment or dysle7iaK Do you receive public *unds t at re?uire you make your 1eb site accessible to users 5it special needsK E. %* t ey cannot access or make sense o* t e resources.or more in*ormation about making your 1eb pages accessible to users 5it disabilities. *ull te7t databases. Are t ere any patrons in your service population 5 o ave learning disabilities or ot er disabilities t at mig t a**ect o5 t ey vie5 or use electronic resources. appropriate and accurate in*ormation. researc ers or business decision2makers. replacing traditional print resources or databases accessed t roug ot er mec anisms. and t ere*ore to provide. tec nological capabilities and limitations is 5 at 5ill allo5 you to e**ectively add value to your collection bot in your selection o* resources and in t e design and organiAation o* your 1eb site. pro*essionals trying to earn certi*ication. +ome resources are only produced or designed in electronic *ormat.or c ildren E5 at age groupsFK . %s t e goal o* your e2library collection to serve all. c ildren doing ome5ork. reports. or researc ing t e impact o* +t . t e Center *or %n*ormation Tec nology Accommodation EC%TAF siteL'M or t e 1ebA0LEN+iteL. )at er 1eb resources. see t e Alliance *or Tec nology Access siteL#M. your patron population. or *or a division or departmentFK 1ill you be collecting *or t e general publicK . 5ill t ey be able to use t e e2library 5it out assistanceK As in*ormation pro*essionals. researc assistants or @unior members o* sta** may be conducting t e actual searc es *or pro*essors.

or book reservation and catalog veri*ication services. 5 ic also *unction to keep material in static book *orm *res and up to date bet5een editions. 1eb2based components combined 5it traditional te7ts are becoming increasingly popular. Having *irst determined t e scope o* your patron population you need to ans5er some ?uestions about t em in order to determine t e scope o* t e resources t at you 5ill collect *or your e2 library: • 1 at types o* resources are t ey likely to needK . auditoryF. as 5ell as providing ne5 strengt s suc as po5er*ul inde7ing and searc ing capabilities. %n t e latter. %nvest time in providing t e services. scripts and data storage and retrieval capabilities. access is o*ten immediate to end product. especially 1eb2based products. 4t er reasons 5e mig t c oose to build a virtual collection include our patronsI pre*erences *or t e medium. Also. but e2mail access to re*erence assistance is *re?uently used and valued by e2library patrons. Anecdotal evidence E*rom pro*essional listservs suc as 1eb&Lib. C oose resources t at ma7imiAe t e potential o* t e 1eb as a delivery mec anism rat er t an 5orking in t e collecting2everyt ing2t at2e7ists2on2t e2topic mode.g. appeal to a variety o* di**erent learners Evisual. Electronic resources o*ten save time. T e scope o* your service c oice is a matter primarily o* t e sta** available to provide t e services. T ey may encourage us to *acilitate access and provide guidance to 1eb resources because t ey like t e immediacy o* electronic resources and t e *ormat more t an traditional resources. 4t er services t at are o**ered t roug 1eb2based e2libraries can include .ull2te7t or bibliograp ic databasesK :e5sK LibrariesK E2@ournalsK 1ebliograp iesK Hypermedia tutorialsK Data setsK Audio recording or visualsK • 1 at purposes 5ill t ey be used *orK )ecreationK )esearc K • %n 5 at sub@ect areas are resources neededK :ursingK 0usinessK Legal issuesK LiteratureK Computer +cienceK "isual ArtsK )eady re*erenceK Educational resourcesK • 1 at educational level and3or age group 5ill your e2library be servingK • Does t e library and its intranet ave enoug computer resources to provide access to a given resourceK E1eb2based resources tend to demand a considerable amount o* computing *acilities to use because o* t eir grap ics. to yperlinked tools Ee. T e purpose o* t ese supplements varies *rom providing a multimedia aspect to t e 5ork Esuc as online ?uiAAes or glossariesF. %t is important to be selective 5 en building a collection o* electronic resources. KovacsI yperlinked 1ebliograp y on Collection DevelopmentF. 6aterials produced in ypermedia *ormat 5it activated links currently ave no non21eb counterparts. annotations and directions *or resource use s ould be su**icient. multiple inde7es can be searc ed simultaneously and patrons can ave a success*ul researc e7perience in less time t an by si*ting t roug print resources and possibly 5it out p ysically visiting t e library.medium.F • %s t e searc system easily usedK Are t e inde7ing and searc ing mec anisms ade?uate to locate in*ormation in t e databaseK • Can t e database be net5orked or be used 5it a locally developed end2user inter*aceK Services Do you 5ant to e7tend library services beyond t e ours t e library is actually open and beyond its p ysical scopeK 4r 5ould you like to provide basic guidance and access to 1eb2based resourcesK 4r bot K %n t e *irst case you mig t 5ant to include some kind o* e2mail based or c at based interaction 5it library sta**. Dig)e* and :ettrainF is t at live re*erence assistance t roug c at and ot er *acilities is not eavily used. electronic resources can be updated more *re?uently t an paper editions.

t e p ysical location o* your patron population. E. Access: intellectual – what skills or knowledge Jou 5ill ave to assume a basic skill level *or any patrons o* t e e2library. or rent 1eb2server space *rom an %+9! and 5 en t e sub@ect matter o* t e e2library is o* general interest. interlibrary loan services and even document delivery services! some institutions are e7perimenting 5it digitiAing reserve materials. Training mig t be *ormal sessions taug t in t e library. Keep in mind 5 en planning your e2library t at some segments o* your patron population 5ill not be able to access and use t e resources. #.F Available only on stand2alone 5orkstations: • • • • 5 en t e library cannot a**ord access to a 1eb2server or to install and maintain a net5ork! 5 en t e library does not ave t e *acilities Ecomputer or uman resourcesF available to support o**2site access! 5 en t e patron population is internal to t e libraryIs organiAation Ecompany. #. participate in s ared 1eb server services. sc oolF! 5 en t e patron population is a ig ly secret researc group suc as in a researc and development division o* a company! and 5 en licensing agreements 5it database providers restricts access to on2site patrons only. as 5ell as potential content. or 1eb2based tutorials. 5 ile per aps planning to provide training *or patrons 5 o are not able to access t e e2library t roug lack o* skill in using t e %nternet and 1eb bro5sers. sc oolF! and 5 en t e patron population is a ig ly secret researc group suc as in a researc and development division o* a company.rene5ing materials. . E'F Available only on a local area net5ork or on an intranet: • • • • 5 en t e library does not ave t e *acilities or resources Eincluding computer resources as 5ell as available sta** time and3or e7pertiseF available to support o**2site access! 5 en t e patron population is internal to t e libraryIs organiAation Ecompany. simply providing one2on2one assistance at t e re*erence desk. Access: physical T e c oice is based on t e *inancial or tec nological limitations o* your library. E#F Available on t e %nternet Eanyone any5 ere 5it an %nternet connection and a 1eb bro5ser can access itF: • • • • 5 en t e patron population is t e general public on a variety o* sub@ects! 5 en t e patron population is internationally located! 5 en t e library can a**ord to run t eir o5n 1eb server. %n general t e p ysical access to t e e2library collection involves t ree possibilities made *or t e *ollo5ing reasons: #.

ava+cript or . revered and reviled 5orks in t e *ield. T ere are undreds o* ot er e2 libraries. playback o* multi2media *iles. t en you can design a 1eb page 5it *eatures suc as *rames. multimedia *iles. Ho5ever. t ere is simply no need to try to build an e2library collection *rom scratc *rom t e undreds o* t ousands o* %nternet resources currently available. )emember.or e7ample. Jou must ave at least a good general idea o* your patron populationIs tec nical resources. individuals 5 o are visually impaired or 5orking 5it assistive devices 5ill be severely limited in t eir ability to access a 1eb2page 5it *rames. 0egin 5it some kind o* idea as to t e kinds o* in*ormation and resources t at you 5ould like to add to your collection. T e most important reason is to provide en anced. i* you are making your e2library available to t e general public you cannot assume t at t ey ave ig speed connections or even 1eb2bro5sers t at allo5 display o* grap ics. %* you are providing in2library access only via a LA:. t eir needs and t e currently available 1eb2based resources. grap ics 5it out te7t alternatives. according to your patronsI needs. but 5ill also vary 5it t e sub@ect matter E*or e7ample. tec nologies or business. T e ongoing processes o* developing an e2library collection are essentially based in researc oriented and a**iliated activities. %* you kno5 t e speed o* t e %nternet connection and you kno5 e7actly 5 ic 1eb bro5ser 5it 5 ic capabilities is available. Additionally. 0e*ore you start planning in earnest. sub@ect 1ebliograp ies and ot er specialiAed in*ormation services Esee Appendi7: 1ebliograp y o* collection development toolsF. t en you can ave a better idea o* 5 o is using your e2 library. A typical collection development met odology *or non2electronic media mig t consist o*: • revie5ing curricular3*aculty3researc er needs! • revie5ing current oldings! • consulting Bsub@ect e7pertsC or guides suc as ALAIs ooks for College &ibraries Eout o* . . +o5ards E#GG$F discusses several possible typologies *or ready re*erence 1eb sites.ava interactivity. but not very elp*ul in t e visual artsF. it makes sense to begin by building on or consulting t e 5ork o* ot ers and by becoming *amiliar 5it t e collection development BtoolsC available to you. E#GG<F described a ta7onomy o* %nternet resources 5 ic provides a use*ul *oundation 5 en supplemented 5it t e suggestions belo5. Jou can ave a ig 2tec multi2media e2library and also provide a lo52tec . *rames or allo5 . or 5 o may simply pre*er speed over grap ics. o* course. intranet or standalone 5orkstations.Access: technical – speed and kind of Internet connection T is is per aps t e most important access aspect to be considered *rom t e practical point o* vie5 in creating a 1eb2based e2library. customiAed services *or patrons based on in2dept kno5ledge o* your patrons.ava+cript menus and ot er interaction *eatures 5it out *ear o* e7cluding patrons *rom your e2library. . As 5it any serious researc pro@ect you 5ill need to become ac?uainted 5it t e respected. T is 5ill vary. $tep '& Develop a collection development plan Creating an e2library collection involves a large investment in time and personnel.ava or . Demas et al. ig resolution grap ics. . it is al5ays possible to maintain t5o or more versions o* any 1eb site. basically designed te7t version *or *olks 5it limited tec nological access. Alt oug t ere are no establis ed standards *or e2libraries. %n order to @usti*y t ese signi*icant investments t ere must be a compelling reason to dive into t e realm o* ep emeral resources. collecting data sets mig t be elp*ul *or science. it is also elp*ul to ave a sense o* 5 at ot er institutions are practising in terms o* collection development o* electronic resources.ava+cript programs t at generate aspects o* t e page.

generalF! and • tutorials or 1eb2based training courses Esub@ect speci*ic. current events and ig lig ting o* resourcesF! • ready re*erence! • re*erence Esub@ect speci*icF! • revie5 sites Esub@ect speci*icF! • searc engines D general and sub@ect speci*ic! • sub@ect gate5ays! • specialiAed libraries or academic departments! • statistical sources! • survey sites Eby time period. uilding Electronic &ibrary Collections) T#e Essential *uide to %election Criteria and Core %ub+ect Collections Kovacs E'(((F. o5ever. +ome o* t e resource types t at you 5ill *ind and ave to make decisions about include: • meta2sites or e2libraries! • directories ElistingsF! • sub@ect guides! • associations and organiAations! • current a5areness tools! • e2@ournals Eand3or arc ivesF! • electronic lists or con*erences Eand3or arc ivesF! • electronic te7ts Eand3or arc ivesF! • electronic reserves! • databases available on t e 1eb E*reeF! • government sources! • image banks! • products and services Esuc as ne5sletters. unc arted territory 5it out standards. suc as t e 1ebIs unstructured nature. 1it electronic media. %n addition to di**erent evaluation criteria and sources to consult *or Bac?uisitionsC. 1ebF. t ere are ne5 considerations. and t e *act t at *or t e most part 5e are 5orking in ne5. bot . along 5it its companion 1eb sites provides recommendations *or core re*erence collections *or a number o* sub@ect areas. 5 ic may be used as t e kernel *or your . t e lack o* Bcore collectionsC and e7amples. to 1eb2based resources. sub@ect or industry oriented current a5arenessF! • pus tec nologies EcustomiAed ne5s. guidelines or precedents. All t is. t is task mig t seem over5 elming 5 ic is 5 y it is especially important to remain *ocused and task2oriented.• • • printF! searc ing *or revie5s o* materials! soliciting suggestions *or ac?uisitions *rom patrons! and comparing t e current collection 5it ot er libraries. $tep (& Collect evaluate and select resources for your e"library collection -ntil you are *amiliar 5it t e kind o* resources available. p ysically and pedagogically. or resource speci*ic and o* course. per aps by using automated analysis met ods suc as 1L:Is Conspectus or 4CLC3Amigos. 5 ile accounting *or t e ep emeral and rapidly c anging nature o* resources and t e reality t at t ey may disappear or c ange radically overnig t. 5e must *acilitate access. pro*essional development training.

-nlike bro5ser mec anisms 5 ic save bookmarks to a local *ile. t is takes time. +ources t at do provide an assessment o* sites are tremendously use*ul 5 en .e!s. Jou may also 5is to use ot er e2library collections to *orm t e core *or yours. attainable goals EB1 at are t e best *ive *ree databases in t e ArtsKC or B1 at are t e important electronic @ournals in environmental engineeringKCF. -se t e evaluation essentials c ecklist and *lo5c art to elp you ?uickly make an initial assessment o* sites E*irst level criteriaF and to guide you t roug a more in2dept analysis. but saves a lot o* con*usion later: B1 y did % save t is -)LKCF Jou may 5is tentatively to organiAe links by saving t em into directories. To stay organiAed. %n addition to sub@ect2speci*ic terms. +uc sources add annotations. :e7t. Library . 6ake notations to t e sites t at you BvisitC. +tay *ocused by aving de*ined. %* you are in any doubt. T e ?uality and relevancy. ratings. combined 5it guides or directories or 1ebliograp ies or resources or per aps even revie5s.ournalIs 1eb5atc . t e patron is given no guidance regarding t e ?uality or t e sources included in t e directory. %mportant sites in t is regard do not include t e ubi?uitous Ja ooNAlt oug a 5onder*ul resource in itsel*. still building on t e kno5ledge o* ot ers. Ariadne as 5ell as many pro*essional publications suc as C#oice ave annotated 1ebliograp ies. rankings. you must eit er cite t em or 5rite your o5n annotations and en ancements. 1 ile it is permissible to add t eir collection o* links to your e2library. %nitially it is most e**icient to stick to directed searc ing and bro5sing. being sure to BcollectC links t at are interesting but irrelevant to t e task at and in an organiAed manner Eyes. 4nline bookmark managers are use*ul 1eb utility programs t at 5ill allo5 you to BcollectC and organiAe links EbookmarksF in cyberspace. classi*ication or descriptive cataloging to assist t e patron. . seek permission be*ore linking. o* link compilations or virtual libraries 5ill ?uickly become apparent because o* t e inclusion or absence o* certain resources. 1eb2based online bookmark managers are mac ine independent and t ere*ore accessible *rom any computer t at supports %nternet access. 1 en consulting t ese guides.ournals suc as College and -esearc# &ibraries . consult value2added directories or databases.o5n e2library. or online. consider t e *ollo5ing: • 1 at is t e aut orIs *ocusK %s t is a Hovernment documents librarian 5riting about government sites o* general interestK 4r 5orking tools *or t e librarianK • 1 at are t e most *re?uently cited resources *or your patron groupK • Do you agree 5it t e aut orIs assessmentK Search browse directories 1 en you begin to get a sense o* Bmust2 aveC resources. use an online bookmark manager suc as 6y -)LIsL&M or 0ookmarks ' HoL<M. it 5ill be muc easier ?uickly to assess t e ?uality o* *inding aids suc as 1ebliograp ies or 1eb directories. Search for Webliographies and compilations Conduct literature searc es in Library Lit and ot er appropriate inde7es o* pro*essional literature suc as E)%C. use key5ords suc as 1eb or %nternet or electronic. Do not *orget to searc 1eb2based publications suc as t e Internet -esources . e2mailing t e -)Ls to yoursel* and organiAing t em into B*oldersC or by setting up 1eb pages on general topics and adding t e -)Ls as you go along. it may also become a distraction *rom t e main task. Alt oug serendipitous resource discovery on t e 1eb is great *un. or lack t ereo*. but remember t at t e annotations and en ancements added to t ese e2libraries are copyrig ted materials 5 ic belong to t e compilers and3or t eir organiAations.e!sletter *or revie5s o* 1eb2based resources.

i* t e sponsors are not suitable *or your clients. 6any sites are sponsored by businesses 5 ic 5ill e7ert t eir presence in one *orm or anot er. present uni?ue c allenges in t at t ey are t e sum o* t eir parts D t e content o* some o* 5 ic may not be directly controlled by t e 1eb site o5ners and 5 ic may c ange over time. statisticians may *ind spreads eets and data visualiAation tools more appropriate t an data presented 5it in te7tF.building a collection. E7amples are included in t e annotated 1ebliograp y in Appendi7 # Ean online version is also availableL/MF.igure #a and . and presentation Eis t e in*ormation clearly and logically presented in a *ormat t at is use*ul to t e target audienceK . a site on pet grooming tips mig t be under5ritten by a discount pet products supplierF. t e businesses *unding or ot er5ise supporting a site Eper aps by reciprocal linksF may be inappropriate *or your audiences. 1eb sites. evaluating suitability *or your target audience is *or t e most part *airly straig t*or5ard. a commercial site on educational resources mig t provide a link to revie5s on so*t5are. !valuation criteria: suitability for audience C oosing resources t at are appropriate *or your clients ac?uires ne5 dimensions 5it 1eb2 based resources! traditionally.igure #b *or suggestions *or key areas to evaluate *irst. Web site evaluation – a practical perspective 1 ile t e process o* evaluating 1eb2based resources may seem over5 elming at *irst. +ometimes businesses may provide a service or product 5 ic may be elp*ul E*or e7ample. T e application o* t ese criteria speci*ically to 1eb2based resources is discussed in more detail belo5. t e *ollo5ing criteria s ould be considered 5 en critically evaluating and selecting 1eb2based resources *or your e2library: • suitability *or audience! • content! • timeliness! • presentation! • ease o* use! • appropriateness *or digital31eb2based *ormat! and • special c aracteristics o* 1eb2based resources. . in practice your in2dept kno5ledge o* your patrons 5ill allo5 you to per*orm a rapid preliminary assessment o* a site. +ee . +ometimes. 1it non2electronic resources. because t e entities ultimately responsible *or t e content are static and clearly kno5n.or e7ample. or links to t eir sites. %n general. subtle Eor not so subtleF posturing. o5ever. o5ever. accessibility Eis t e source 5ritten in language appropriate to t e discipline and understandable to t e target audienceKF. but t e site provides links to a dating service D . look *or anot er site E*or e7ample. 4nly 5 en sites are acceptable in t ese ma@or key areas s ould you continue 5it t e more time2consuming aspects o* evaluating t e resource. %* t e siteIs per*ormance is poor in one o* t ese areas t ere 5ill be no point in *urt er evaluation. )emember t at by including a site in your e2library you are endorsing site content! alt oug t e site content mig t be e7cellent. 5 en 5e are assessing resources. so it is e7tremely important to kno5 5 ic organiAations are a**iliated 5it a site. you may *ind an e7cellent compilation o* searc engines. 5e consider issues suc as scope or level o* coverage. suc as advertising banners.igure #. especially sub@ect speci*ic resources.

A simple e7ample: researc *indings on using Ec inacea 5ill ave di**erent emp ases and conclusions EbiasF depending on 5 et er t e aut oring agency is *or pro*it EcommercialF. Additionally. %n order to evaluate t e material e**ectively. T ese decisions a**ect t e contents o* 1eb databases and ence t e in*ormation available to t e user. many patrons are una5are t at portals 5 ic include searc engines and Bc annelsC Ecategories o* 1eb resourcesF may selectively list sites in 5 ic t ey ave a *inancial interest. 1 ile advertising banners are obvious indicators o* site sponsors ip. +ince t e 1eb is gro5ing at suc a p enomenal rate. most use*ully 5it a yperlinked 1ebliograp yK 1ould t e in*ormation actually be use*ul to your audiences in its present *ormat E*or e7ample. you 5ill need to ave an a5areness o* points o* vie5 or potential biases. T e main reason *or concern. Having establis ed t e aut orities responsible *or t e resource and t eir a**iliations. sc olars or seniors. 1 ile t is is true o* all resources 5e recommend *or our patrons. Heneral rule: i* t e aut or is not clearly identi*ied Eusually at t e bottom o* every page or t e B omeC page Etop tierF. do not use itN 4* increasing concern to t e 1eb community is t e practice o* c anneling unsuspecting patrons to products or services. 1eb sites may . is t e in*ormation accurateK Are sources cited. +uc portal sites can be time savers 5 en used in conte7t and *or t e rig t audiences! *or ot er communities o* users. *or establis ing bias or point o* vie5 o* site content. %n t e same line o* consideration. Kno5ing 5 o is responsible *or a 1eb site is critical to evaluating its content and.clearly t is is not 5 at you 5ould provide *or a sc ool audienceF. E7amples o* t is include 1eb searc engines t at allo5 1eb site o5ners essentially to purc ase ig er rankings *or speci*ied key5ords. at 5 at level and o5 *re?uently. 6ost important. T is is not only due to poor 1eb design D sometimes t e entities 5is to do5nplay t eir involvement. c ildren. ot er. less obviously. i* your clients need to manipulate data sets. !valuation criteria: content 1it 1eb2based resources. suc c anneling may be e7actly 5 at you are looking *or simply because someone as pre2selected sites o* potential interest to your clients 5 et er t ey are specialists or pro*essionals. an individual or an educational institution. o*ten one o* t e greatest c allenges is to *ind out 5 o is responsible *or t e siteIs content. it is impossible *or any current searc utility to inde7 all t e ne5 Eand e7isting materialsF so it stands to reason t at some c oices are being made about 5 ic sites to inde7. less obvious relations ips may e7ist. o5ever. an image o* statistics *rom a pd* *ile 5ill not be very use*ulFK %s t e language appropriate and accessible to your target usersK %s t e sub@ect matter covered in a suitable dept and scopeK Are t ere ?uality links to more in*ormation on t e topicK !valuation criteria: timeliness 4ne o* t e ma@or advantages o* t e 1eb is t at unlike print or ot er static media. sometimes 5e are lulled into *orgetting to c eck t is crucial point 5 en a 1eb site daAAles us. it is also important to revie5 t e sitesI banner advertisements and link collections so t at you are a5are to 5 om your recommended resource is pointing E yperlinkingF as 5ell as t e apparent sponsors. Conversely. is t at even seasoned 1eb users are una5are o* t ese practices. +ince t e 1eb is a sel*2publis ing medium. anyone 5it a connection to t e 1eb and an opinion can publis materials. spend time assessing t e material on t e site. T is results in t eir sites appearing ig er in t e searc results listing and t ere*ore more likely to be selected. Companies may pay *or t is BserviceC or ave an a**iliation 5it t e re*erring 1eb site Eusually some kind o* reciprocal or *inancial agreementF. gate5ays *unction in a similar capacity gat ering toget er resources.

no matter 5 at t e nature o* t e content. !valuation criteria: ease of use Closely aligned 5it presentation is ease o* use! i* t e resource is not designed to *unction almost intuitively *rom a userIs perspective. T e 5ay in 5 ic in*ormation appears and is accessed on a site s ould be appropriate *or t e targeted audiences D *or e7ample. and kno5 5 ere t ey are at all times. *or e7ample. 5eekly or even ourly. %* t e nature o* t e content re?uires *re?uent updating. 1it 1eb2based materials. screen *or potentially annoying *eatures suc as *las ing or pop2up banners. users s ould be able to trace t eir @ourney t roug t e site. t at adds *unction and utility to t e siteF. %* c anges are made. Links to ot er pages s ould be clear and easy to *ind. presentation is e7tremely important. Jour *irst task s ould be to e7amine t e siteIs navigational elements. Also. ne5 editions are publis ed. o* limited use*ulness. %n ot er 5ords. . 1it traditional resources. Ho5 o*ten e7ternal links are being updated is important. are icons and buttons clearly labeledFK Are menus elp*ul and 5ell t oug t outK %s it clear 5 ere you are E5 ic sub2levelF. t e internal links may c ange 5it 1eb ostsI maintenance and updates. T e siteIs user inter*ace s ould appear uncluttered. be sure to consider i* currency is an issue E*or e7ample. look *or Bte7t2onlyC options *or users in a urry. t e issue o* 5 et er or not a site is actively maintained is e7tremely important. garis grap ics do not instill con*idence *or legal researc ers. is t is being doneK 1 ile some resources may be sel* contained and not need regular updating. E7ternally linked sites may move. 5 ere appropriate. and not supplanting t e content. T e siteIs grap ics and ot er images s ould be appealing. but may t rill young adults. 0e sure to c eck o5 t e site appears in t e bro5ser most commonly deployed by your users. Kno5ing 5 en t e site 5as last updated is important. 5 ile online e7 ibitions or sites o* istorical interest may c ange only periodically. en ancing and supplementing t e material. easy to use and re*lect t e siteIs underlying content or in*ormation arc itecture. %t is important t at t ey s ould load ?uickly. .be easily updated. o5ever. since t ese can be con*using i* not implemented in a meaning*ul manner Ei. it is important to kno5 t at it is still an BactiveC pro@ect and not a Bg ostC pro@ect. cease to e7ist. T is means t at site content may t eoretically be updated mont ly. %s it clear o5 to maneuver t roug t e pages Et at is. be especially care*ul. overuse o* animated gi*s. t e aut or. o5 you got t ere and o5 to return to t e *irst tier Emain levelFK %s t ere a map s o5ing t e siteIs structureK %* B*ramesC are used.or grap ics intensive sites. get back ome. :avigational elements s ould be clearly and reasonably siAed so t at t ey are obvious to detect and not di**icult to select. %* you ave users 5it learning disabilities or special needs. Ho5 o*ten t e site s ould be updated really depends on its content! ne5s services must almost continuously update stories. A ig percentage o* dead links is a good indicator t at t e resource is no longer being maintained and ence. visually abrasive color sc emes or poor use o* 5 ite space D all o* 5 ic may make accessing and actually reading in*ormation *rom t e screen di**icult.e. +imilarly. veri*y t at t e layout o* t e site 5ill be easy to use Eor at least not di**icultF. it 5ill simply not be use*ul. 5rites a book or an article and 5e do not e7pect t is material to be updated. 9ay particular attention to type siAe. !valuation criteria: presentation 0ecause t e 1eb is suc a visual medium. o5ever. or c ange content. it may not be 5ise to discount an arc ival documents site because it as not been updated 5it in t e last t5o mont sF. t e *unctionality o* t e *rames implementation Ei* usedF. 1 en evaluating resources. and t e e**ective use o* grap ics and color contrasts.

it is important to ?uestion 5 et er t e resource takes advantage o* uni?ue c aracteristics o* t e medium or is it @ust a bad BtranslationC *rom a print resourceK %* t e ans5er is no or i* a print Eor ot erF source *its t e in*ormation need better t en c ances are it is not 5ort it to t e user to invest t e time to use Eyet anot erF resource. printed. i* *ull te7t inde7ing is not available Emeaning t at t e searc utility does not searc 5it in t e actual te7t o* 1eb pagesF t e user must rely on 5 atever met od o* inde7ing is used *or t e site. T e bottom line is t at clients 5 o ave a c oice simply 5ill not invest t e time. T is is particularly t e case in large organiAations suc as universities 5 ere units prepare essentially t eir o5n Bsub21eb sitesC under t e umbrella o* t e main 1eb site. unless told. +ome 5ays in 5 ic 1eb2 based versions o* print resources are an en ancement or improvement include: • simultaneous use by multiple users! • portability Ecan be saved. t e user may not *ind somet ing. even t oug it is present at a site. 1eb2based resources s ould provide en anced access or improved presentation o* in*ormation over t eir print counterparts. %* t e site is searc able using an internal searc engine t is is an added plus. be sure to assess t e learning curve o* using t e resource *or t e users o* your e2library. 4* course. do t ey really add enoug value to motivate your users to be patient 5 ile t ey loadK Does t e site re?uire plug2ins suc as B+ ock5aveC t at may be di**icult *or your clients to install or time consuming to do5nloadK Do strange t ings appen 5 en you are trying to print *rom t e site E*or e7ample.T e 5ell2planned siteIs navigational and labeling elements en ance and re*lect t e underlying structure o* t e site. remember t at no database contains all 1eb pages. and used at multiple locationsF! • searc ability Euser can *ind speci*ic in*ormation t ey are interested in rat er t an reading t roug all o* a te7tF! . because o* t e use o* *rames or a 1eb designersI use o* 5 ite type 5 ic does not al5ays s o5 up on paper 5 en printedFK %n conclusion. 4rganiAation o* in*ormation s ould be logical. !valuation criteria: appropriateness for digital Web"based format +ince so many traditional print resources no5 ave 1eb2based counterparts. Labels Eused to describe or name sub2levelsF at 1eb sites *unction as indicators o* t e content available 5it in sub2levels! t ey s ould be concise and descriptive. 0e a5are t at 5it out a central database. 1it practice and e7perience it 5ill become clearer 5 ic databases are geared to5ards your target population Eand t ey 5ill be most grate*ul *or your educated recommendationsNF 6ore practical considerations: you s ould also consider o5 accessible t e site isK %* it is popular Eand per aps di**icult to access at timesF are t ere mirror sites 5 ere t e material is replicated in *ullK Also. a user 5ould not necessarily make t is connection. i* a site appears Eor isF di**icult or con*using to use. T e 1eb environment also propagates and sustains a user base t at 5ants ?uality in*ormation instantaneously. T is s ould be 5eig ted against t e siteIs use*ulness. )at er evaluate presentation o* results as 5ell as actual results by submitting t e same ?uery to several searc engines to @udge relevance. and elements s ould be 5ell t oug t2out *rom t e usersI perspective! 5 ile it makes sense *or a circulation librarian to go to an element called Blibrary catalogC to rene5 materials or to revie5 a patron record. i* t e site you are evaluating is a searc utility itsel*. T ere s ould be some aspect t at makes t is resource use*ul in electronic *ormatK E1 y not use printKF. o5 long does t e site take to loadK %* it is loaded 5it grap ics 5it out a te7t alternative. Ho5ever. Content or in*ormation arc itecture is t e key to t e storage and ence to t e retrieval o* t e actual substance o* t e site. 5 en evaluating a 1eb site *or your e2library. %* t is inde7 is not complete or is poorly conceived. inde7ing may be uneven! di**erent units may inde7 at di**erent levels using a variety o* key5ords and di**er on maintaining or rebuilding t e inde7 a*ter signi*icant c anges.

o5ever. so*t5are. 5e are continuing a tradition o* selecting ?uality resources *or our patrons based on t e same very basic criteria t at librarian and in*ormation pro*essionals ave al5ays used to build ?uality collections *or our patrons: • contains use*ul in*ormation! • language and level appropriate! • easy to use! • produced by kno5ledgeable e7perts! • en ances e7isting sub@ect oldings! and • sub@ect matter is supportive o* community needs. listen. !valuation checklist flowchart T e c ecklist in . Roundup A*ter some practice and e7perience. . %n addition to t e usual collection development responsibilities suc as revie5ing ne5 in*ormation resources and deciding i* t ey are needed and appropriate *or our patrons. c at.irst level criteria are time savers in t at you s ould be able to assess ?uickly 5 et er or not t e site is 5ort investing more time analyAing. e2@ournals. Selecting Internet resources Developing an e2library is an e7citing c allenge.• • • • ease o* use E omogeneous inter*ace. $tep )& Design create and maintain your !eb"based e"library collection Creating an e2library is a time2consuming process. course5areF! and uni?ueness o* resources available Esearc able. t ey do not necessarily de*ine t e ultimate use*ulness o* t e site. te7t. -ntil you reac t is point it is sometimes di**icult to @udge 5 ic criteria are more important! a*ter all. Tier t5o elements re?uire more time2consuming investigation o* t e siteIs content and access to it. statistics.igure # suggests a systematic met odology o* evaluating 1eb sites. or 5atc Et at is. tutorials. so*t5are t at provides some interactivityF! • di**erent access and printing met ods including a variety o* non2standard *ormats suc as Adobe Acrobat. arc ives o* discussion groups. or )eal9age! . evaluating 1eb2based resources *or your e2library 5ill become second nature. presentationsF! interactivity Elinks. %n doing so. 5e must learn about: • 1eb bro5sers and proprietary plug2in so*t5are to vie5. mass produced computer2based interactive media suc as t ose on t e 1eb are relatively ne5. ne5sgroups. *unF! ability to manipulate digital data3*ormat Ecan copy digital in*ormation *or use in ot er applications D grap ics. *orms. imagesF. 1 ile tier t ree elements are also important.

0elo5 are *ive suggestions t at 5ill elp to guide you in planning and implementing e2library collection maintenance: #. a revie5 o* t e 49L%: e2library 1eb site revealed a large number o* resources under t e broad category o* B0usiness in*ormationC under t e sub2topic o* B%nternational businessC. and take t eir comments into consideration. T ese t5o link2c eckers 5ere recommended by 1eb&Lib subscribers in spring. %t 5as decided to *urt er organiAe t ose resources under sub2 eadings by continentLGM. E'F -evie! and c#eck links. 9rovide a mec anism *or e2library clients to evaluate and comment on t e e2library 1eb site contents and organiAation.• • in*ormation and content arc itecture E o5 s ould t e data be best organiAed *or e**ective as 5ell as logical access and retrieval in t e 1eb environmentF! 1eb site design Eand i* you are t e library 1eb . 1eb server administrators may alter access to e2libraries by adding or deleting directories structures. . <. T e only limitation to t e gro5t o* an e2library collection is disk space on t e 1eb server and t e time and energy o* t e collectors and maintainers. . E<F -evie!. E#F %tay in touc# about soft!are u. E. c eck your links *re?uently. T is does not mean t e e2library manager does not need to kno5 anyt ing about t e tec nology. 9atrons 5ill ?uickly lose con*idence in your site i* t ey come across an ill2maintained page 5it broken or outdated links. and gro! t#e contents. 1eb development and constructionF. A simple mail2to link or a 1eb *orm s ould be provided so t at e2 library clients can comment or evaluate t e e2library contents and structure. c anging input permission status *or database access.. :e5 and better revie5 sources as 5ell as ne5 and . %t is no @oke t at 5 en upgrading so*t5are or ard5are. c ecking so*t5are can be used *or regular link2c ecking.F %olicit client feedback. +ubscribe to 1eb&lib or searc t e arc ives to *ind ot er recommended link2 c ecking so*t5are.dates and c#anges. '.ortunately t e problem 5as discovered Link by a responsible adult be*ore c ildren 5ere e7posed to t e c anged site. T is kind o* *eedback 5ill allo5 you to make in*ormed decisions about o5 5ell your e2library is serving your clients. %t saves time but it 5ill only reveal to you 5 et er t e links are 5orking and not 5 et er t e 1eb sites ave c anged. but t at it still provides t e same in*ormation as it did 5 en you originally annotated and added it to your e2library collection. 6aintenance o* t e e2library can be t oug t o* in terms o* Bcollection managementC. Dead2links means *rustration *or your clients and de*eats t e purposes o* t e e2library in providing good access to in*ormation. %magine your surprise i* a library client discovers t at t e great kids games and puAAles site you linked to is no5 a porn site. rat er t an 1eb server administration. u. Ho5ever you manage. a good sc edule to maintain is a site link c eck every t5o mont s or less. Depending on t e content o* your pages. Content s ould al5ays be revie5ed on an ongoing basis. 6aintaining a large listing o* links re?uires diligence or t e listing 5ill become ?uickly outdated. C ecking links manually allo5s you also to revie5 and veri*y t at t e 1eb site not only still links properly. E2library maintenance involves maintaining t e ?uality and content o* t e e2library collection. %t is recommended t at you do t is periodically as t ings really do c ange or go a5ay. E&F -evie! your organi/ation and reorgani/e as necessary.or e7ample. and ot er related system c anges. %n*ormation about Cyber +pider Link TestL>M andLinkbot L$M can be *ound on t e 1eb. #GGG. Collection development and current a5areness tools *or e2library collections continue to develop E*or a collection o* elp*ul current a5areness resources see B1eb2savvy: keeping current 5it 1eb2based resourcesCL#(M. &. Developing and maintaining good communications 5it 1eb server administrators can ensure t at you are not taken by surprise and t at you 5ill ave input into any ma@or c anges t at are planned. T is is a true story and really appened to an e2 library builder D 5 o 5is es to remain anonymous.

+ome o* t is Binter*erenceC is unavoidable. as 5ell as additions to t e BCore %nternet re*erence collectionsC. +o *ar. • Decision makers ave con*licting or inappropriate visions about t e 1eb site 5 ic may di**er *rom t e in*ormation centerIs mandate to collect and make in*ormation accessible EBt is s ould go up *irstC. because o* its importance 5it in t e organiAation. site navigation. 1it out t at e**ort and accomplis 4nce2*riendly colleagues ave eated e7c anges about t e in*ormation arc itecture. • u-pper management and t e board micromanage! t e everybodyIs2a21eb2e7pert strategy 5 ere micromanagement by t e misin*ormed and good2intentioned bring t e pro@ect to a alt 5it con*licting demands. Ho5ever. t is sounds like good ne5s. 0uilding a 1eb2based e2library may be t e most important t ing a library ever does. • -pper management c anges t e 1eb siteIs direction3grap ics3structure in mid2stream. Alt oug t is is a pessimistic assessment. Click on t e link BClick ere to be added to t e 6ailing List *or -pdates and :e5s. and almost everyone as an opinion about 5 at kinds o* sites are BessentialC and Bmust avesC. not a source o* in*ormationCF. suddenly everyone as a vie5point D Ban important perspectiveC D t at must be addressed. t e library or in*ormation centerIs 1eb site is particularly important. so 5 at are t e possible pit*allsK T is 5ill vary according to t e institution but t e kind o* BpoliticsC t at could ?uas t e pro@ect include: • -pper management agrees 5it t e importance o* t e pro@ect. internal politics can invigorate or ?uas an e2library pro@ect. or t e number o* sites to include. t e virtual collection is very likely to remain a utopian vision EKopp. but does not allo5 time or resources *or planning or implementation leading to t e poorly planned and managed 1eb site. p. Limitations o* time and t e print medium ave a**ected t e speci*ic revie5 sources and resources s o5cased in t e previous c apters.C i* you 5ould like to be e2mailed 5 en resources are added or updated. usually based on poor researc or re2evaluation o* Btarget audienceC.better 1eb2based in*ormation sources are made available literally every day. #GG>. %t demonstrates to our library clients and our communities and organiAations t at 5e are committed to *ul*illing t eir in*ormation needs. Bremember t is is a primarily public relations tool. %t also represents a 5illingness to c ange and progress as t e tec nological in*rastructure o* our international community and global economy s i*ts *rom t e paper2based transmission and storage o* in*ormation to t e computer based . care*ul planning and being a5are o* potential problems can elp minimiAe t eir impact. T e 1eb itsel* provides a marvelous solution to t is. Conclusions: a word or ten about politics Kopp E#GG>F 5as understating t e case 5 en e recommended: +eeking to understand t e politics o* t e virtual collection and to learn o5 to 5ork 5it t e political process at all levels 5ill aid considerably in t e realiAation o* t e virtual collection. 9er aps even 5orse is t e colleague 5 o *eels over5 elmed 5it all t e 1eb 5ork and does not participate at any level. it is important to be a5are t at 5 en you are 5orking on a 1eb site *or an institution. . %n a rat er surprising and uni?ue 5ay. T e companion 1eb site to KovacsI 5ork 5ill continue to annotate and include ne5 or ne5ly discovered or recommended e2library collection development tools. T e proposed 1eb presence at any institution is a 5idely visible and ig ly anticipated pro@ect. GGF.

G. 0ringing t at pro*essionalism to t e %nternet 5e 5ill certainly be 5elcomed as citiAens D BnetiAensC D in t e international community o* t e %nternet EKovacs.b'g. ttp:33555.org3 ttp:33555.kovacs.gov3cita3 ttp:33555. '(((.oplin. '. #G&F.o .ataccess.transmission and storage o* in*ormation. T e maintenance o* ig standards o* selectivity and in*ormation ?uality and an underlying p ilosop y o* education and service ave made librarians ip an essential pro*ession in t e -nited +tates and around t e 5orld. <. p. >.lib.1ebable..cyberspyder. $.com3 ttp:33555. /. T e survival o* libraries and t e institution o* librarians ip is related to t at 5illingness to progress and c ange. tml ttp:33555.t elearningsite.tetranetso*t5are.com3 ttp:33555.net3cyberlibrarian3elibraries3cybecurr. . &. #(. *otes ttp:33555. tml +igure % Education essentials .us3business ttp:33555.murl.com3 ttp:33555.

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edunok. E#GG$F. "ol.. "ol. pp.. pp. OT e politics o* a virtual collectionO. O#GG>O.$/2G(. .F. E#GG<F... &> :o. &ibrary -evie!. Kopp. pp.. 6cDonald. Collection 'anage(ent. pp. "ol.eferences Coutts..#3'. OCollecting *or t e researc er in an electronic environmentO.<3/.'><2G(. 6. E#GG>F. "ol. .$#2#((./ :o. &ibrary -esources and Tec#nical %ervices. Demas.#. in Hammurabi and t e electronic age: documenting electronic collection decisions EEdsF.-0.H. .. . +. La5rence.6. E.. OT e %nternet and collection development: mainstreaming selection o* %nternet resourcesO.G :o.'$'2G. 9.. +. '' :o... H.

et!orking A.lications and Policy .. ttp:33555. E'(((F. +. +. #'. K.gov3ac?3colldev3 andbook.pilot.. )iou7. Tennant. OCreating a 1orld 1ide 1eb resource collectionO.. . :o. E#GG/F.. in C ristiansen. :J. "ol. 6. ... C. Ammen. .. C. Larson. Demas.. #' :o..endiu(. 9iontek. "ander Kolk. pp. E#GG>F. :e5 Jork. EEdsF.#2'. tml./. E#GG<F. $ntangling t#e Web.'. +. C.H. E#GG>F.P<3so5ards3inde7. Internet -esearc#) Electronic .. ... "ol. 6. tml. in DiaA..eal4%c#u(an Aut#oritative *uide to Evaluating Infor(ation on t#e Internet. )osen*eld.Pioneering . Cooke. tml. A. &ibrary 1i Tec#. OCollection development *or t e electronic library: a conceptual and organiAational modelO. +o5ards. :e5 Jork. pp.<... +. OT e impact o* electronic in*ormation sources on collection development: a survey o* current practiceO. Harlock. 9. O0uilding sub@ect2speci*ic guides to %nternet resourcesO. Leat em. :e5 Jork.&. OCollection development and t e %nternet: a brie* andbook *or recommending o**icers in t e umanities and social sciences division at t e Library o* CongressO. T#e Internet Co(. :eal2+c uman.1. E#GG$F.anes..*irstmonday. -niversity o* :e5 6e7ico. C.e! %erials 2rontiers) 2ro( Petrogly.. "ol. E#GG>F.#'G2. OT e art and science o* digital bibliograp yO.#2#&. "ol.Kovacs.#>. E#GGGF. :eal2+c uman.H. +. 4. C. OCollection issues and overvie5O. OHunting and gat ering in cyberspace: *inding and selecting 5eb resources *or t e libraryIs virtual collectionO. . . E#GG>F. &ibrary 3ournal. .loc. :eal +c uman. E#GG/F. #& :o..'. pp. uilding Electronic &ibrary Collections) T#e Essential *uide to %election Criteria and Core %ub+ect Collections. ttp:33555/. tml. "ol. Joc elson. OLibrary selection criteria *or 111 resourcesO. K.#'2#$.edu3untangle3bald5in. 6orville.. 6.library. L.#. E#GG<F. pp.#'. :J.'>2. 2irst 'onday. Collection uilding. &ibrary 1i Tec#. :orman. EEdsF. Harvey... / :o. C..2. 6itc ell. D. :J.. pp. ttp:33lc1eb. +. ttp:33555.. A.ucsb. pp. E#GG$F. E#GG/F. 6cHinnis..).'$2G. #< :o.dk3issues3issue. .in*i. :o. .. 0ald5in.>#2$(. ). .net3∼carolyn3criteria. Cay5ood. .-eference %ources on t#e Internet) "ff t#e %#elf and onto .#s to Cyberserials . :6. 1ick orst. "ol.+. E#GG&F.6. pp. Albu?uer?ue. Huidas...

. +.edu3pubs3italmine.#(>2#. :eal +c uman. 6ooney. Collection 6anagement and Development Huides. . :e5 Jork. 6itc ell..eneral items Alp asearc D ttp:33555.. tml.. ttp:33555.calvin. . )osen*eld. :o. E#GG$F.. ttp:33555. pp. . in +tielo5. . +te5art. %erials &ibrarian. O%:.. OCollection development o* online serials: 5 o needs to do 5 at. :e5 Jork. Kaag.*uide for Training Collection Develo. #> :o.t#e Web. EEdsF. +.angel*ire. . +. :e5 Jork. .#<>2/(.. E. E#GG$F.. E#GG$F.(ent on t#e Internet ) A 1o!4to4 Do4It 'anual. E#GG/F. American Library Association. OCollecting aggregations o* 1eb resourcesO. E#GG/F. :J. 1eintraub. I2&A 3ournal. 6ogge.edu3library3as Contact: remeltQcalvin. tml. . "ol..ucr.. Infor(ation Tec#nology and &ibraries.L. E#GGGF.com3in3virtuallibrarian3eval.#2'. A. or alp abetical listing. Cleveland H. . . . +ebastapol.ales. pp. in . ttp:33in*omine. .H. E#GG/F... D. C.0.org3scomm3edir3. D. Appendi-& !ebliography of collection development tools . 1as ington.'. and 5 y... E#GGGF. .arl. Elkordy. '& +earc by 5ord or p rase *or revie5ed gate5ay sites! bro5se t em by resource type. OEvaluating 1eb2based resources: a practical perspectiveO. 1alter.. E#GG$F.46%:E: a model 1eb2based academic virtual libraryO. Association o* )esearc Libraries.$. E#GG$F. "ol.+. T omsen.. %L. L. Kuny. -eference and Collection Develo. T.Creating a 5irtual &ibrary) A 1o!4To4Do4It 'anual for Integrating Infor(ation -esources on t#e Web. :J.(ent &ibrarians . CA. Infor(ation Arc#itecture for t#e World Wide Web. C icago.. pp. :eal +c uman.. 6. :o. and 5 enO. Ha5ort 9ress. EEdsF.e!sletters Acade(ic Discussion &ists... :J.#(>2''. Kovacs. . DC. Infor(ation Tec#nology and &ibraries. A-& Directory of Electronic 3ournals. 4I)eilly and Associates. "ol.H. 1. OT e digital library: myt s and c allengesO. Demas. L. discipline.

)evie5ed31 atIs .com3 Contact: 9atrick Douglas Crispen.mira. including anatomical models.beaucoup.tourbus. and uni*ied collection o* signi*icant 1orld 1ide 1eb E111F and ot er %nternet resources categoriAed using t e Library o* Congress classi*ication sc +ites are annotated.lib.+ites D 4vervie5 o* di**erent 5ays t at 1eb2based in*ormation mig t be organiAed.edu3libin*o3lrc Contact: galter2 lrcQn5u. social science.uk3link3 Contact: Alan Da5son. tml Contact: %rving E. tml Contact: d2levinQ . BAut oritativeC and Beasy2to2useC revie5s by e7perts o* books and electronic media.ok. . and la5. tm Contact: Herry 6ckiernan.net3users3gdlevin3 ome. tm Contact: Adam Todd.us3 Contact: 1ebmast Qbartlesville. and . computers. +cience.org3acrl3c oice3G$sup. 0eyond 0ookmarks: +c emes *or 4rganiAing t e 1eb D ttp:33555. a. 0artlesville 9ublic Library D BT4-)0-+ is a virtual tour o* t e best o* t e people in #'( Contact: clearing ouseQ argus2 inc. including topics o* parallel36eta.ala.public.ull +ervice online 4ver '.edu3∼CJ0E)+TACK+3CT1. ) ) An integrated 1eb gate5ay to digital collections. bot audio and multimedia CDs.T e Argus Clearing ouse D ttp:33555. services and Lists t e latest3ne5est 1eb sites in reverse c ronological order. T e %nternet Tourbus D Contact: Teri 6adden. crispenQnets?uirrel.C Learning Q 1eb.4berQucop.iastate.ala.galter. or bublQbubl. audiocassettes. 0arnes Learning )esource Center D ttp:33555. +earc or bro5se t e ierarc ically arranged directory.iastate.edu3∼CJ0E)+TACK+ Contact: gerrymckQiastate. videocassettes. but ot er topics are no5 available. 1ebmasterQ beaucoup. commercialQau. so*t5are Eincluding 5ord processing and e2mailF. 6usic. clearing ouse.da5sonQstrat . 0eyond t e 0lack +tump D ttp:33 ome.ok.o n. librarian2evaluated resources on all academic sub@ect %)ock5oodQala2 c or 0ob )ankin. interactive laser videodiscs. BCentraliAed. H6CK%E):Qg5gate. Healt .<mm slides. Also searc 111 by category.lib.org3acrl3c oice ttp:33555. computer2aided instruction ECA%F resources. revie5ed and rated by sub@ect e7perts ElibrariansF. BConciseC. suc as geograp y.org3 Contact: . C oice D Current )evie5s *or Academic Libraries D<(( searc sites. medicine. 0eaucoup D ttp:33555. searc ing t e searc engines. Cali*ornia Digital Library D ttp:33555. Cyber+tacks D ttp:33555. delivered by e2mail to over $(.edu T e L)C ouses t e libraryIs non2print collection.net3∼lions3ane5.C T is service emp asiAes t e *ields o* science and tec nology. Employment! coming soon.cdlib. 0-0L 3 <:#< D ttp:33bubl.o n 4ber.public. lib.

teen and @ust2*or2librarians sections. collection development.comtec nical or 1ebmasterQ britannica. electronic @ournals.com3in*oretriever3 Contact: "ianne Tang + a. administration. arc ives. etc.uk3sub@ect'3 Contact: nissQniss. guides to t e %nternet *or most disciplines. Co2ordinator! smitc %nternet )esources divided into *ive categories t en subdivided to more speci*ic topics.F or start one o* your o5n. + Ba librarians c oice *or best o* t e 1ebC.((( annotated databases.. business. tml Contact: 6argaret "ail Anderson. studies and con*erences.isleut . Directory o* :et5orked )esources D BA compre ensive 1eb database designed to provide a one2stop s opping center *or librarians to locate %nternet resources related to t eir pro* +earc able Bguide intended primarily *or senior ig sc ool educators 5 o 5ould like to en ance t eir curriculum and instruction using t e %nternetC.((( links. mvailQservtec . and inde7es *or easy retrieval. Kno5ledgeCite Library D %n*ormation on 5orks ops.ucr. and revie5s t ousands o* 1eb sitesC t en clearly and concisely rates.C E)e*erence. by sub@ect or by B-DCC Elibrary s el* classi*icationsF.lib. BegroupsII D ttp:33555.niss. Also links to a virtual re*erence +earc over . 6any gate5ays available at t is site. re*erence collection E5it Ask A Ruestion *eatureF.edu3∼ BClassi*ies. umanities.com3∼mvail3 Huge site 5it many easy2to2 use *eatures. te7tbooks and con*erence proceedings are among t e many types o* resources.us3 Contact: mktgQdetroit.g5u. Detroit 9ublic Library D ttp:33555. virtual e7 ibits. co2ordinator! mmooneyQcitrus.egroups.F %nternet 9ublic Library D ttp:33555.uk3services3elib3 Contact: elibQukoln. %n*omine: +c olarly %nternet )esource Collections 8 D ttp:33lib2555.C %nternet Library *or Librarians D tm Contact: 6artin Courtois.mi. 5 ic is a 5ay to connect t e p ysical location to t eir compre ensive virtual services.com3 Contact: *eedbackQisleut +earc alp abetically. Digital Librarian D ttp:33555. Electronic Library 9rogramme D B%n*omine contains over #&. rates according to consistent standards.govst. not revie5ed.ukoln. T e %nternet +leut D or 6argaret 6ooney.com3 .ipl.oin a discussion group regarding speci*ic areas o* interest Eeducation.org3 Contact: iplQipl. Encyclopedia 0ritannica %nternet Huide D ttp:33555.ucr.kno5ledgecite. Helman Library D +ubstantive databases.ucr. automation including: yout .edu3 Contact: +teve 6itc ell. Contact: editorQ britannica. categoriAed Art5ork 5as developed *rom actual bits o* t e library arc .itcompany.mi. courtoisQg5u.britannica.servtec .com3 Contact: marcrQkno5ledgecite.

ca3e2coll2e3inde72 -se t e Bneedle navigatorC to locate t e databaseEsFneeded *rom a large selection o* options.mi.gov3library Contact: lc1ebQloc. dre55eQmorrisville.publications.miningco. :ational Library o* Australia D ttp:33555.berkeley. org3c apter3ctor3toolbo73resource3inde7. online ne5spapers by country.org3 Contact: Carole Contact: +ue Davidsen.eQnlc2blc2ca T e beginnings o* an electronic collection 5 ic incorporates *ormally publis ed Canadian online books and @ournals! compre ensive site directory. :eedle in a Cyber+tack D ttp:33 ome.C A re*erence tool providing Bmulti2disciplinary searc ing across doAens o* researc 2grade databases in a 1eb B+elective sub@ect lists o* evaluated %nternet resources t at are easy to bro5se SC Also contains sub@ect lists o* e2mail discussion groups. and periodical databases. publis ers.loc.mspring. tmlTalls Contact: )od +troud. resources and databases organiAed by clientsI needs D public 0ro5se t e %nternet by sub@ect and use t e electronic re*erence desk at t is 1eb site. medical.edu3pages3library3 Contact: 1il*red Dre5.net3corpcom3cgi2bin3?uery2*ormb. :ational Library o* Canada D Electronic Collection D ttp:33collection. tm Contact: e.mindspring.C LibrarianIs %nde7 to t e %nternet D +ervices *or researc +elective collection o* in* Contact: reac usQminingco.nla. rstroudQnla. Director! davidsenQumic . edu Link to la5.o n reading room and librariansI s el* Etools. bot academic and popular sub@ects. cleitaQsunsite.com3 Contact: *eedbackQlibraryspot. pro*essional and tec Heneral. Library +pot D ttp:33555. specialiAed Eaut oriAation needed on someF. career in*ormation and 6orrisville College Library D ttp:33555.BS Limited to individuals a**iliated 5it one o* our subscribing B/(( guides mining t e net on t ousands o* topicsC D academic and popular. 6ind+pring Enterprises D ttp:33corpcom.nlc2bnc.au3internet.lib. musical libraries as 5ell as online libraries! ot er *eatures include arc ives. 6any collections.sla.cgi Contact: ttp:33555. and re*erence materials. educators. 6EL D 6ic igan Electronic Library ttp:33mel. mgrossQcam.revealed.libraryspot. . LibrariansI )esource Centre D ttp:33555. tml +earc *or sites *rom a large category list. T e Library o* Congress D ttp:33lc1eb. tml Contact: 6argaret Hross. 6iningco D ttp:33555.net3albee3 Contact: . albeeQrevealed. annotated and searc able collection o* %nternet resources Eacademic and popularF organiAed by sub@ect.morrisville. umor.

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