# Pressure loss in vacuum lines with water vapour

The diagram in ﬁg. 1, is calculated from the formula:
Dp Pressure loss in mbar Dp‘ Pressure loss in N/m² K  Total resistance coefficient = S z = sum of individual resistance w Flow velocity in m/s r Density of the flowing Medium in kg/m³

CALCULAtION
ReSISTaNCe COeFFICIeNTS

(1) Acceleration from 0 " w (2) I nlet contraction in the case of angular inlet (3) G  ate valve with full cross section Gate valve with constriction DIN straight-way valve DN 200 (4) Pipe bend D/d = 3; 90° (5) for pipe friction losses l = Pipe friction coefficient according to ﬁg. 2 l = Pipe length in m d = Pipe diameter in m
EXaMPle

1.0 0.4 0.1 – 0.2 1 4.5 0.16

Error # 10 % of Dp, if Dp · 6 # p1
fIg. 1

Pressure loss Dp in mbar and Dp‘ in

Piping DN 200 Velocity Pressure (inlet) (1) Acceleration from 0 " w (2) Angular inlet (3) 1 gate valve with full passage (4) 3 pipe bends 90° (5) Pipe length
CalCUlaTION

d = 0.2 m w= p1 = 50 mbar

l = 13 m

Total resistance coefficient (1) for accelaration (2) ) for inlet contraction (3) 1 gate valve Temperature in °C (4) 3 pipe bends (5) f  or pipe friction from ﬁg. 2 l = 0.024

K=Sz z = 1.0 z = 0.4 z = 1 · 0.2 = 0.2 z = 3 · 0.16 = 0.48

SL = Saturated line

K = S z = 3.64 Pressure loss from diagram, ﬁg. 1

Determination of the pressure loss The pressure loss with air at the same temperature is 1.6 times greater.
fIg. 2

Nominal diameter in mm

*) T  he characteristics for the determination of the pipe friction coefficient l are based on a wall roughness of k = 0.3 mm (according to Colebrook and White).

Determination of the pipe friction coefficient l

www.gea-wiegand.com

Fax: +49 7243 705-330 · E-mail: info.gewi.de@geagroup.com

abl9 09

GEA Wiegand GmbH

Pipe friction coefficient

76275 Ettlingen · Germany · Tel.: +49 7243 705-0

21

Pressure loss in water pipes

The chart, ﬁg. 1, is calculated from the following formula:

SOlUTION :

From table:

1)
lE  Equivalent

pipe length in m for shaped pieces and valves 2) From diagram ﬁg. 1:

From diagram ﬁg. 1:
Dp Pressure loss in mbar

Dp100  Pressure loss for 100 m pipeline in mbar l d r w Pipe length in m Pipe diameter in m Density of the flowing medium in kg/m³ Flow velocity in m/s
fIg. 1

The chart is valid for water at 15 °C in steel and cast iron pipes. The formula is sufficiently accurate for

and

EXAMPLe
GIVeN :

Water flow
Pipe nominal diameter d in mm

Piping DN 80 Pipe length

d = 0.08 m l = 70 m

The following is installed in the pipe: 3 tube bends 90° 1 diaphragm valve
PaRaMeTeRS TO be FOUND:

1) Pressure loss in the pipeline 2) Water velocity

å = Water flow

Velocity w in m/s

EQUIVALeNt PIPe LeNgtH IN m fOR SHAPed PIeCeS ANd VALVeS
Nominal diameter (mm) Pipe bend 90° Free-flow valves Diaphragm valves 25 0.4 1.7 1.9 32 0.5 1.8 2.0 40 0.6 1.9 4.3 50 0.8 2.0 5.0 65 1.1 2.5 9.5 80 1.2 2.6 10 100 1.6 2.8 13.6 125 2.0 3.0 15 150 2.4 3.6 24 200 3.2 4.8 29 250 4.0 6.0 –

abl9 09

22

GEA Wiegand GmbH
www.gea-wiegand.com

76275 Ettlingen · Germany · Tel.: +49 7243 705-0 Fax: +49 7243 705-330 · E-mail: info.gewi.de@geagroup.com