Teachers’ Awareness and Readiness for Using Mobile Phones as Support and Tutorial tool in Teaching

Adedoja Gloria and Abimbade Oluwadara Department of Teacher Education University of Ibadan. i!eria sadedoja"yahoo.com# dara$ip"yahoo.com

Abstract The study attempts to determine the e%tent of ownership of a mobile phone# awareness# readiness and preparedness to use mobile devices to support teachin!. The respondents are from && 'econdary 'chools from all parts of the city (Ibadan). *ost of the respondents are 'ocial 'tudies teachers. The findin!s indicate that +, percent of teachers are aware of mobile learnin! and that ,, percent of the respondents are ready to use mobile devices as support tool for their students. The findin!s also indicate that a!e and educational bac-!round have a si!nificant influence on teachers. readiness# while !ender has si!nificant influence on the independent variables. The paper hi!hli!hts the findin!s and implications to the m/learnin!.

Introduction
In recent years# education has e%perienced an increased interest in usin! technolo!y0 this has brou!ht in activities to au!ment face/to/face teachin!. Usin! technolo!y in teachin! and learnin! is much different from traditional classroom e%perience0 it has chan!ed the social dynamics of education# puttin! everyone (students and teachers) on e1ual footin!. Technolo!y in the classroom does not just improve the way children learn0 it allows teachers and students to do thin!s they have never done before *ac2innon (3443). To e%tract the full value of technolo!y and create optimum condition for technolo!y to wor- in the school settin! teachers must be able to successfully inte!rate technolo!y into their teachin!. *ac2innon (3443) e%plains that the real issue is not if technolo!y is used in the classroom# it is whether or not technolo!y is enhancin! the learnin! process. 5e must !o beyond drill and practice to hi!her order level thin-in! s-ills# trainin! must be hands/on# preferably concurrent with use and at the appropriate level for the teacher. 6oice (3477). The instructor who has been trained to inte!rate technolo!y into e%istin! curricula may teach differently than the instructor who has received no such trainin!# (8hristensen# 3443). There have been studies about teachers need to be specifically trained and prepared in order to inte!rate technolo!y in their teachin! (9acobsen# 8lifford : ;riesen# 34430 <ildirim# 3444)# this is because teachers need more help# there are several challen!es they face when tryin! to embrace technolo!y. =earnin! new software is just one challen!e# developin! lesson plans that incorporate new technolo!y is another# >hou# >han! :=i (3477). In the same vein# Goundar (3477) states that teachers re1uire trainin! to understand how to teach differently (especially usin! technolo!y)# how methods li-e student centered learnin! can be applied to the classroom# and show how learnin! style will increase educational outcomes. Also# providin! trainin! for teachers to inte!rate technolo!y enable them to continue to develop new peda!o!ical and technical s-ills. 5herever one loo-s# the evidence of mobile penetration and adoption is irrefutable? cell phones# @DAs# *@& players# portable !ame devices and laptops abound. o demo!raphic is immuned from this phenomenon# from toddlers to seniors# people are increasin!ly connected and are di!itally communicatin! with each other ways that would have been impossible to ima!ine only few years a!o. Thou!h mobile telephony and services in i!eria are just at the be!innin! of broadband and broad scale adoption# however# mobile technolo!ies have already clearly chan!ed many lives. *obile technolo!ies can help teachers personali$e their own professional learnin!# (6jerede and Dede# 3477) cited in U E'8O (3473) states that teachers usin! mobile devices have more fle%ible access to a wider variety of professional development options. *obile courses and trainin! pro!rammes are bein! developed that deliver content in small increments# allowin! teachers to ta-e advanta!e of naturally occurrin! downtime to

Accordin! 9ames (344C)# mobile devices such as di!ital assistants (@DAs)# smart phones# etc. It is on this basis that m/learnin! readiness was conducted amon! teachers.or teachers to be trained in mobile learnin! to support their teachin!# their level of awareness and readiness to use the technolo!y must be assessed# because accordin! to 9ones (3447) cited in 6uaben!/Andoh (3473) teachers are implored to adopt and inte!rate I8T into teachin! and learnin! activities# but teachers. Other important factors are to be considered includes the technolo!ical readiness# attitude and acceptance by the end/users. *obile devices also increase opportunities for collaboration# as teachers can participate in professional learnin! communities and communicate with coaches and mentors to as. 5a!ner (344D) stated that the use of technolo!y alone is insufficient to ensure success in learnin!. readiness# there must be provision for on!oin! trainin!# opportunities for teachers to collaborate# and access to technolo!y support# and modelin!. and the society at lar!e# they must be e1uipped with necessary s-ills to do so throu!h effective trainin!.complete courses in five/ to ten/minute intervals# rather than carvin! out lar!e bloc-s of time from their already busy schedules (Aanthournout and 2och# 344B) cited in U E'8O (3473).urther# the low level application of mobile learnin! connotes the loss of inherent advanta!es in its adoption. The Study 5hile evidence has shown that mobile learnin! is not a new phenomenon# mobile learnin! is still at its infancy particularly in i!eria0 research in this area is rare. It would suffice to summit that before teachers are trained to use mobile devices# their readiness to use the device should be assessed.environments also play roles in a teacher. The inherent problem here is that the future of e%tensive adoption and inte!ration of mobile learnin! as support and to promote teachin! appear slow. . Teachers. . preparedness to inte!rate I8T into teachin! determines the effectiveness of the technolo!y and not by its sheer e%istence in the classroom . 5hile many researches have been done in mobile learnin! outside the country# few studies have been carried out in the country# and apparently# there is the need for e%tensive wor.to be done to fill this !ap in literature. Goundar (3477) says to enhance teachers. readiness to use it. Until we invest in trained teachers who will be comfortable usin! technolo!y to improve their teachin! activities# we are not !oin! to ma-e much difference with the current !eneration of teachers and learners Aota (3477). The professional learnin! and !rowth of teachers would improve the 1uality of education in the country but disre!ardin! the professional needs of teachers is# in effect# inimical to the pro!ress of i!eria. learnin!. It is in the li!ht of this that this study attempts e%aminin! such issues that are pertinent to the level of awareness# readiness and intention of use of teachers to use mobile learnin! as supportFtutorial tool. Trainin!# preparation# and wor.s educational system. In the case of mobile phone/enabled projects# less time is devoted to trainin! teachers on how to use mobile phones# and more emphasis is placed on how mobile learnin! platforms can be inte!rated into instructional strate!ies U E'8O (3473). The 1uestions the study attempt to answer includes? G 5hat is the level of awareness of teachers in mobile learnin!H G 5hat is the level of readiness of teachers in mobile learnin! as a supportFtutorial toolH .s readiness to use technolo!y. If teachers do not feel comfortable with the technolo!y# they are less inclined to incorporate it into their plans.1uestions# discuss ideas# and share video clips# lesson plans and other resources online. 5hat is lac-in! today are the s-illed teachers that can ta-e a mobile device and incorporate it from the paper/based or blac-board based classroom lessons# into student/centric learnin! deployed via mobile devices. In the developin! countries# there is no trainin! available for teachers on how to use technolo!y to teach or to improve students. 'ince these devices are small# smart and portable# they are comfortable to utili$e. As stated by Goundar (3477) the issues that face developin! countries usin! mobile devices in education are very different from those in the developed countries. it is therefore necessary to find out the awareness and readiness of teachers in usin! mobile learnin! as a tutorialFsupport tool.# are carryin! powerful functions as personal computers. As such a settin! which ma-es students less nervous and interactive# sharin! of ideas and view points0 and a host of other benefit are lost. This is worrisome !iven that i!eria is la!!in! far behind in the innovative use of mobile learnin! technolo!y to impart -nowled!e. If teachers must respond to the needs of Edi!ital learners. 'imilarly ( 8E' 3444) cited in 9ones (3447) says inte!ratin! technolo!y into classrooms depends on the teachers. readiness to use technolo!y in their classrooms will be increased with stron! support systems. It felt necessary to determine if teachers are ready for m/learnin! as an additional learnin! support durin! their interaction with students.

. It is imperative for the researcher to select the sample usin! purposive non/probability samplin!. 3. 7.3I until now C.BI 7.44 7.44 7. I do not reali$e the e%istence of mobile learnin! .D &..44 4.CI) and so on.&I 3D.G 5hat is the relative influence of teachers.I C.+& )&** +**&*I) ST#& #$' 7. I am familiar with usin! mobile devices in the 3D.&I . Only one 1uestionnaire was !iven to each respondent..3I CC.7..I .4B 3...44 .BI 7. &.3I 7C.I +.4I 7.4 &. in usin! mobile learnin! as a support toolH Table ! result of teachers’ le"el of awareness 'F SA A # O.I +B.I CD. I am interested in usin! mobile devices for teachin! *obile learnin! will enhance teachin! I will li-e to use mobile devices to teach in my current class I will li-e to learn about mobile learnin! I am prepared to -now more about mobile learnin! 3+.44 7.I teachin! + I am aware that I can fulfill my teachin! desires ++. I do not have an e%perience of mobile learnin! +.BI 3DI 7.B.4..& ST#& #$' 7.BI BI . 5hat is the level of readiness of teachers. 6efore !ivin! the 1uestionnaires# all items were e%plained to the participants so they can easily complete the 1uestionnaire..44 7.3..DI B I have basic understandin! of mobile learnin! 77. A total of 734 social studies teachers were used in the research.33 &..I D4I &D.I .DI CDI 7.4B &. level of awareness of mobile learnin!# items such as EI am aware that mobile devices can be used in teachin!. The 1uestionnaires were self/administered and distributed amon! the one hundred and twenty respondents.I C7.%-& SA A # S# 7.BI .44 7.. The result indicates that the level of awareness is ++.s composite and relative influence of a!e# educational bac-!round and !ender on the use of mobile devices for supportFtutorial tool.DI J.I (eighted a"erage S# +4.DI ... in usin! mobile learnin! as a supportFtutorial toolH Table )! result of teachers’ le"el of readiness S.BI M$A% 3. Findings 5hat is the level of awareness of teachers. C.4.3I 7.44 Table 7 indicates the mean avera!e of teachers.I 73..&I my teachin! in the classroom &.&I .44 7. I have limited e%perience with mobile learnin! BI J3.BI . 7.7J 3.3..JC 3.+I# which is means that the teachers are aware of mobile learnin!.CI)# I am aware that I can fulfill my teachin! desires with *obile learnin! (JC.44 7.DI classroom 3 2nowled!e about mobile learnin! have not affected D4I &C.3I with *obile learnin! 3.DI .I . 3.44 7. !ender# a!e# and educational bac-!round on teachers. (D&.BI M$A% &. readiness to mobile learnin! as a support toolH The Instruments used are =evel of awareness scale# level of readiness 1uestionnaire0 these were developed to measure student.. 3.3I)# I do reali$e the e%istence of mobile learnin! until now (.BI B.3I .BI 7J..C.4I 3D.3.3I 7&..3I +D.7 7.BI D I am aware that mobile devices can be used in J.&J &. D.+4 &.

3 &.4. readiness to mobile learnin! as a support toolH TA34$ .s readiness while !ender do not have any si!nificant influence on teachers. This is with a view to further determinin! the relative influence of each of the three independent variables to predict teacher.rom the values of 6eta wei!hts and t/ratios for each independent variable# it becomes apparent that Educational bac-!round as well as a!e contribute to the prediction of teacher.BI +...444 K 6ac-!round KL si!nificant at pM4.DI)# *obile learnin! will help my students to catch up and revise their topics (B+. J.44 7.D7 .&I B3.B .C& 3.BI 7+.&D.BI 7.B. They are ready to learn more about mobile learnin!# this could be as a result of the pervasiveness of mobile devices in the country because accordin! to an analysis on i!eria.I &3.DC 3.s mobile mar-et by 6udde8omm# i!eria .&I 7D. !ender# a!e# and educational bac-!round on teachers. They are willin! and interested in usin! mobile devices for teachin! to a certain de!ree..BI .D3+ s A!e /74+B 3+& /&D. and educational bac5ground on teachers’ readiness& *odel Unstandardi$ed 'tandardi$ed T 'i! Decision 8oefficients 8oefficients 6 'td Error 6eta (8onstant) &4.44 Table 3 indicates the mean avera!e of teachers. age.+4J 77. 74.I CD..7+ &. readiness towards usin! mobile devices for supportFtutorial for teachin!. 5hat seems to be intri!uin! in the findin! is that many teachers a!ree they have limited e%perience on mobile learnin! but are aware that mobile learnin! can help them fulfill their teachin! desires and that they are aware that mobile learnin! can increase collaboration between teacherFstudents and studentsFstudents.&/0 11&/12 7.. I am not willin! to use mobile devices to support my instruction I see myself usin! mobile learnin! for my students I am not ea!er to !ive my students assi!nments on mobile devices *obile learnin! will help my students to catch up and revise their topics 'tudents will learn throu!h mobile learnin! (eighted a"erage 74. The result indicates that the readiness is ....44 7....I# which is means that the teachers are ready for mobile learnin!.I +.I .I 34I 7B. readiness to use mobile devices for supportFtutorial tool# items such as I am interested in usin! mobile devices for teachin! (J.444 Gender +7& J+C 4DD +&+ .CI) and so on. .+I)# I see myself usin! mobile learnin! for my students (D&. /C4+7 ..44 7.444 K Educational 3J+& . #iscussion The study reveals that teachers are aware of mobile learnin! to support their teachin!0 the teachers are able to provide responses to indicate they are familiar and have basic understandin! about mobile learnin!.BI D+.B3 .4I D+.+.! Significance tests of regression weights of teachers’ gender.DI 7.DI .. &JCB . . B.s readiness. 5hat is the relative influence of teachers.. The teachers e%press that mobile learnin! could actually enhanceF support their teachin! if ade1uate and necessary trainin! is !iven to them# this in effect could ma-e their students learn better.DI C+.7C 3.4D ns Lnot si!nificant In order to determine the relative influence of each of the independent variables# the standard re!ression wei!ht (6)# 'tandard Error of Estimate# 6eta# T/ratio and the level of si!nificance for each of the independent variables..I 3..I .74 7.

readiness to use mobile devices to support their teachin!# while a!e and educational bac-!round have si!nificant influence on teachers. The test of wei!ht of the variables was ta-en and !ender was found to have no si!nificant influence on teachers. Ne!ardin! performance when usin! a device# previous studies con!ruently show that older users usually have !reater difficulties in handlin! a computer device or in the ac1uisition of computer s-ills e. 5ith technolo!ical innovations and affordability# learnin! can ta-e place throu!h mobile devices. (3473). i!eria/ *obile mar-et/ Overview# statistics# and forecast# retrieve on 3D/77/ 77. mobile devices servin! as a memory aid).) A!e plays a major role in the interaction with technolo!y and older adults mi!ht particularly benefit from the utili$ation of mobile technolo!ies (e. Also# . percent of the teachers ima!ine themselves usin! their mobile devices. 5hile ar!ument ra!es on the !ender divide in the use of technolo!y# it has been observed in several studies that !ender divide is !radually fadin! ('am# Othman and ordin 344D)0 this may be because female teachers feel less intimidated# they have low level of an%iety and are motivated to use technolo!y in the classroom. 5ith the teachers readily to embarinto m/learnin!# it is important that schools form a partnership with industry players such as mobile telecommunication operators# manufacturers of mobile devices and pro!rammers who have interest in developin! the m/learnin!. Also# accordin! to @sycharis (344D) cited in Nashidah et al (3474) teachers could be ready in terms of resources (devices owned and the way they are bein! used) and also in terms of -nowled!e and s-ills in usin! their mobile devices. (3477).!.Netreived on 'eptember 3D# 3477 . 7&+/7DD. Aol. *eanwhile# schools should ensure that its m/learnin! will be interwoven with daily activities and blend with its current peda!o!ies to offer si!nificant and more meanin!ful learnin! e%periences that learners will find useful. Accordin! to >iefle and Arnin! (344.budde. concepts of Di!ital natives and Immi!rants# the youn!er teachers are capable of processin! information rapidly# learn by multi/tas-in!# prefer active rather than passive learnin! and the older teachers bein! the di!ital native are those who were not born into the di!ital world# but have learned and adopted many new technolo!ies. The sampled teachers in schools in Ibadan are ready for m/learnin! as .!. Establishment of such smart partnerships is e%pected to contribute positively to the teachin! and learnin! environment.auFreasearchFni!eria/mobile/mar-et/overview/statistics/and/forecast. References 6oice *..rom the sample obtained# ++ percent of the teachers are aware of mobile learnin!. This means that youn!er teachers are more inclined to inte!rate mobile technolo!y into their teachin! than their older counterpart. adoption and inte!ration of information and communication technolo!y into teachin!? A review of the literature International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT).www. A 8ollaborative *odel of Inte!ratin! Technolo!y 2 7+. readiness. The partnerships are e%pected to brin! richer and more meanin!ful learnin! opportunities to teachers and learners and resolve technical issues as well. .html.com. Accordin! to 'mith (344C) the e%ternal 1uality characteristics could contribute or influence overall readiness# characteristics such as functionality# maintainability# reliability and 1uality in use characteristics. 6onclusion Technolo!ical advancements have brou!ht many positive chan!es in the way we learn.com.73D *ichi!an Avenue E# 5ashin!ton D8 3447. The si!nificance of a!e could be e%plained in terms of @ren-ys. B# Issue 7# pp. (3477).s lar!est mobile mar-et with over J4 million subscribers.emale teachers stand at par with their male collea!ues in terms of technolo!y usa!e in the classroom. 6uaben!/Andoh 8.has overta-en 'outh Africa to become the continent. The research of Aen-atesh# *orris# Davis and Davis (344&)# show that older users (the di!ital immi!rants) were found to have more trouble acceptin! technolo!y. . Goodman# Gray# 2hammampad# and 6rewster# 344C.Education Technolo!y# Trinity 8olle!e.actors influencin! teachers. 6udde8omm 6udde.

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