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Naming Ionic Compounds, Molecular Compounds, and Acids
Monatomic and Polyatomic Ions Monatomic ions are single atoms that have lost or gained electrons. Metals typically lose electrons to form monatomic cations, and nonmetals typically gain electrons to form monatomic anions. Transition metals, however, are more unpredictable.

Polyatomic ions are made up of two or more atoms, and the collection has an electric charge. AP Chemistry

Naming Ionic Compounds, Molecular Compounds, and Acids
Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions and are named according to the cations and anions of which they are built. The name of the positive cation is given first, followed by the name of the negative anion. With transition metals that can form cations of multiple charges, remember to indicate the charge using a Roman numeral.

Ex. 1 CaBr2 is calcium bromide. Since Ca is always 2+, there is no need for a Roman numeral. Ex. 2 Co2O3 is cobalt (III) oxide. As a transition metal that can either be 2+ or 3+, it is necessary to use the Roman numeral.
Molecular Compounds Whereas ionic compounds consist of a metal and a nonmetal, molecular compounds always involve nonmetals. Molecules formed from combinations of two nonmetals are often called binary compounds. compounds To name binary compounds, write the names using appropriate prefixes, and remember to put –ide and the end of the second nonmetal. Remember to use common names when applicable (e.g. water, not dihydrogen oxide).

Ex. 1 NO2 is nitrogen dioxide. Ex. 2 NH3 is ammonia.
Acids Binary acids, in which hydrogen is combined with another nonmetal, are named by writing “hydro” followed by the name of the other element modified to end in –ic. The exception to this rule would be HI, which is actually spelled hydriodic acid.

Ex. 1 HF is hydrofluoric acid. Ex. 2 HBr is hydrobromic acid.
Oxyacids consist of hydrogen with polyatomic ions. Remember “ate-ic, ite-ous” when naming these acids. This refers to the ending of the polyatomic ion the acids is based on.

Ex. 1 H2SO4 is sulfuric acid. SO4 is sulfate, so it becomes sulfuric acid. Ex. 2 H2SO3 is sulfurous acid. SO3 is sulfite, so it becomes sulfurous acid.

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