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This document is copyright under the BSD Documentation License: Copyright c 2007 Evan Malone. All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and compiled forms (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modication, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the rst lines of this le unmodied. 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY Evan Malone AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL Evan Malone BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Contents
1 Overview 1.1 Introduction to the Fab@Home project . . . . . . . . 1.2 Learning from the history of the computer revolution 1.3 Goal of this project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Requirements Development Document . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 3 3 4 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 18

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2 Frequently Asked Questions 2.1 Can I buy a complete kit, or even a fully assembled machine? . . . . 2.2 What is the dierence between a Clear Unit or Colored Unit and Complete Kit on the Koba Industries website? . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Where can I go to discuss my ideas about Fab@Home or fabbers? . . 2.4 How do I join the Fab@Home project or contribute to the Wiki? . . . 2.5 How do I edit the Fab@Home wiki? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 How much does a Model 1 cost? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 How large is a Fab@Home? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 How long does it take to build a Model 1? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 What materials can be used with a Model 1? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 How large an object can the Model 1 build? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11 How accurately can the Model 1 build an object? . . . . . . . . . . . 2.12 How do I tell the Model 1 what I want to build? . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13 Can I use a Model 1 to build objects as part of my business? . . . . . 2.14 How does a Model 1 compare to a commercial RP machine? . . . . . 2.15 Can the Model 1 perform CNC milling? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.16 If everything is open-source, where is the source code? . . . . . . . . 2.17 How does Fab@Home dier from RepRap? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.18 Where can I nd a high-resolution photo of Fab@Home? . . . . . . . 2.19 Where can I learn more about the Model 1? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.20 What does SFF mean? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.21 Still Have a Question? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Gallery of Projects 3.1 Flashlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

ii Frosting as Support Material . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Silicone Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Trapezoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Bouncy Ball/Sphere . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Epoxy Propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Lego Car Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 House of Cheese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.2 Other Cheesy Images . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Silicone Watchband with Embedded Watch . 3.6.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Frosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.1 Crayola Cake Icing . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.2 Betty Crocker Easy Squeeze Frosting 3.8 Box in Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Chocolate Structures (edible) . . . . . . . . 3.9.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.2 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Silicone Squeeze Bulb . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10.1 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 18 20 21 22 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 29 30 30 30 32 33 33 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 46

4 Links 4.1 Fab@Home in the Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 General audience (popular) papers and articles . . . . 4.3 Reference and related web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Commercial SFF/RP Systems and Contract Services 5 Model 1 Overview 5.1 Buy a Model 1 Kit . . . . 5.2 Five steps to get you going 5.3 Overall Design . . . . . . . 5.4 Structure . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Positioning . . . . . . . . 5.6 Material Deposition Tool . 5.7 Electronics . . . . . . . . . 5.8 Software . . . . . . . . . . 5.9 Building a Model 1 . . . .

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CONTENTS 6 Background Material 6.1 Stepper motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Fundamentals of Operation . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Haydon Switch and Instrument Co.: Leadscrews . 6.3 HSI 35000 Series: Size 14 Linear Actuators . . . . 6.4 HSI 28000 Series: Size 11 Linear Actuators . . . . 6.5 Deposition Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Syringe Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.2 Ink-jet Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3 Fountain Pen Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.1 Embedded design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.2 Higher Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.3 Large Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.4 Programming Environments . . . . . . . . 6.6.5 Interrupt Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.6 Development platforms for hobbyists . . . 6.6.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7 Universal Serial Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.3 Host controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.4 Device classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.5 USB signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.6 USB connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.7 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.8 USB compared to FireWire . . . . . . . . 6.7.9 Version history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.10 Related technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8 STL (le format) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.1 ASCII STL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.2 Binary STL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.3 Colour in Binary STL . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.4 The Facet Normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.5 History of use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.6 Use in other elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.9 Xylotex: Automation, Motion Control & Robotics 6.10 Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10.1 Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10.2 Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii 49 49 50 54 54 57 63 68 68 70 71 73 74 74 75 76 77 77 79 80 81 81 83 83 85 85 88 89 91 92 93 93 94 94 94 95 96 96 97 97 97 98 100 100 101

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iv 6.10.3 Evolved rmware uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10.4 Firmware and device drivers . . . . . . . . . . 6.10.5 Firmware support challenges in PCs . . . . . . 6.10.6 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.11 NXP Semiconductors Corp: LPC2148 Microcontroller 6.11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.11.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 103 104

7 Assembly Tools 107 7.1 Assembly Tools for Model 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.2 Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 8 Styling 8.1 Colors of Parts . . . . . . 8.2 Etched Logos and Images 8.3 Parts with Styled Shapes . 8.4 Show your Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 109 110 110 111 113 113 113 114 114 120 121 122 122 123 123 125 127 127 128 129 130 131 133 137 137 140 141

9 Model 1 Bill of Materials 9.1 Bill of Materials Spreadsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Current Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2 Legacy Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Acrylic Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 Oset by 0.0055 for 35W Epilog Helix Laser Engraver . . 9.3.2 Oset by 0.0000 (nominal size) for Waterjet cutting . . . 9.3.3 Oset by 0.0035 for 85W Laser Cutter (Koba Industries) 9.4 Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Preferred Vendors (tested) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Alternative Vendors (untested) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Model 1 Cables 10.1 Power Supply Cable . . . . . . . 10.2 Cable Extensions for HSI Motors 10.3 Cables for Limit Switches . . . . 10.4 Ribbon Cables . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Amplier Enable Cable . . . . . . 10.6 Bundling and Routing the Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 Assembly Tips 11.1 Threaded Inserts for Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Stripping Cable and Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Tinning Stripped Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Soldering Motor Cable Extensions . . . . Making IDC Ribbon Cable Connectors . Making Limit Switch Connectors . . . . Using Protective Braiding for Cables . . General Soldering/Desoldering Methods Soldering Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.9.2 Installing a component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 141 144 147 152 153 153 153 154 157

12 Model 1 Base Assembly

13 Model 1 XY-Carriage Assembly 179 13.1 Parts Needed for Building XY Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 13.2 Assembly Instructions for XY Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 14 Model 1 Z-Carriage Assembly 225 14.1 Parts Needed for Building Z Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 14.2 Assembly Instructions for Z Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 15 Model 1 1-Syringe Tool 15.1 Bill of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Acrylic Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2.1 Oset by 0.0035 for 85W Laser Cutter (Koba 15.2.2 Layout DXF le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Solidworks Assembly Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Part Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Model 1 1-Syringe Tool Assembly Diagrams . . . . . 15.6 Mounting the 1-Syringe Tool to the Model 1 Chassis 15.7 Syringe Tool Dispensing Components . . . . . . . . . 15.7.1 Parts list with pricing, vendor, part number . 15.7.2 Preferred vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8.1 Structural Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8.2 Elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8.3 Conductive inks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8.4 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8.5 Edible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 248 248 249 249 250 250 251 259 261 262 262 262 263 264 264 264 264

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industries) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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16 Model 1 2-Syringe Tool 279 16.1 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 16.2 Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 17 Model 1 Chassis Assembly 281 17.1 Model 1 Chassis Assembly Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

vi 18 Model 1 Electronics Assembly 18.1 Constructing the Model 1 Electronics . . . . . . 18.2 Modify Xylotex Board for Limit Switches . . . . 18.3 Attach the Enable Cable to the Winford Board 18.4 Mounting the Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 Electronics Picto-Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5.1 Visio Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5.2 Cable Attachment Images . . . . . . . . 18.6 Electronics Pinouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.6.1 Current Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 291 292 292 294 295 299 299 300 302 302 303 303 303 303 304 305 305 305 305 307 311 312 312 313 314 315 319 319 319 319 320 320 320 320 320 320 323 323 325 327 329

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19 Model 1 Firmware Installation 19.1 Firmware Object Code Downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.1 Current Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.2 Legacy Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2 Programming your LPC-H2148 with Rowley Crossworks v1.6 . . . 19.3 Firmware Development Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.1 Download Rowley CrossWorks for ARM . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.2 Download Chip Support Package for the LPC2000 Family 19.3.3 Install CrossWorks and Request Evaluation License . . . . 19.4 Programming your LPC-H2148 Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . 19.5 JTAG Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5.1 JTAG for Rowley Crossworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5.2 JTAG for ARM GCC Toolchain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.6 Rowley Crossworks for ARM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.7 Olimex JTAG Programmer (from Sparkfun Electronics) . . . . . . 19.8 Sparkfun Electronics: JTAG Programmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Model 1 User Software Installation 20.1 Application Download . . . . . . . 20.1.1 Current Version . . . . . . . 20.1.2 Beta Version . . . . . . . . . 20.1.3 Legacy Version . . . . . . . 20.2 Drivers Download . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.1 Current Version . . . . . . . 20.2.2 Beta Version . . . . . . . . . 20.2.3 Legacy Version . . . . . . . 20.3 Installation instructions . . . . . . 21 Model 1 Commissioning 21.1 Mount the belt . . . . . 21.2 Truing the XY Carriage 21.3 Adjusting motor current 21.4 Leveling the Z-Table . .

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CONTENTS 22 Using Model 1 22.1 Video Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Quick Start User Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.1 Step 1: Make Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.2 Step 2: Install Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.3 Step 3: Run Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.4 Step 4: Initialize Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.5 Step 5: Power On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.6 Step 6: Verify Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.7 Step 7: Adjust Motor Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.8 Step 8: Dene Tool/Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.9 Step 9:Load and Manipulate STL File(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.10 Step 10: Assign Properties to Part Geometry . . . . . . . . . 22.2.11 Step 11: Inserting/Removing Syringes and Changing Materials 22.2.12 Step 12: Cover Build Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.13 Step 13: Set Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.14 Step 14: Plan Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.15 Step 15: Verify Material Flow / Flush and Wipe the Nozzle . 22.2.16 Step 16: Execute Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2.17 Step 17: Power O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3.1 Application runs, but hardware is not responsive at all . . . . 22.3.2 Software stops working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3.3 Other questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4 Materials Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.4.1 Loading a Syringe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5 Design Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.1 Free CAD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.2 Commercial CAD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.5.3 Misc Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.6 Design Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.6.1 Test les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.6.2 Simple parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 333 333 333 333 334 334 335 336 336 337 337 339 340 340 342 342 343 343 344 344 344 344 345 345 345 345 346 347 348 348 349 349 349

CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Overview
1.1 Introduction to the Fab@Home project

Universal manufacturing embodied as todays freeform fabrication systems has like universal computers the potential to transform human society to a degree that few creations ever have. The ability to directly fabricate functional custom objects could transform the way we design, make, deliver and consume products. But not less importantly, rapid prototyping technology has the potential to redene the designer. By eliminating many of the barriers of resource and skill that currently prevent ordinary inventors from realizing their own ideas, fabbers can democratize innovation [1,2,3]. Ubiquitous automated manufacturing can thus open the door to a new class of independent designers, a marketplace of printable blueprints, and a new economy of custom products. Just like the Internet and MP3s have freed musical talent from control of big labels, so can widespread RP (Rapid Prototyping) divorce technological innovation from the control of big corporations. Despite the formidable potential of rapid prototyping technology, its acceptance over the last two decades has remained disappointingly slow [4]. At present SFF (Solid Freeform Fabrication) systems remain very expensive and complex, focused on production of mechanical parts, and used primarily by corporate engineers, designers, and architects for prototyping and visualization. These factors are linked in a vicious cycle which slows the development of the technology: Niche applications imply a small demand for machines, while small demand for machines keeps the machines costly and complex, limiting them to niche applications. Alternatively, if one could provide either a large market for SFF machines and products or a simple and cheap SFF machine with which end users could invent products and applications, then this same feedback coupling could instead drive a rapid expansion in SFF technology and applications. 1

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

1.2

Learning from the history of the computer revolution


Early home computers trying to break into home market. (a) The Honeywell Kitchen Computer cost $7000 and targeted the cooking as the killer app; (b, c) The general purpose Altair 8800, credited as starting the home computer revolution, came as a $400 kit [7].

In attempt to break the vicious cycle of expensive equipment and niche applications, there are many lessons to be learned from the rise and growth of an equivalently universal technology: The computer. The parallels between universal computation technology and universal manufacturing technologies are astounding. Though the universal computer in its modern architecture was realized in the 40s [6], two decades passed before it reached any signicant commercial acceptance. Early inventors themselves could not foresee its huge potential, famously anticipating a need for as many as ve or six machines in the US [6]. The early commercial mainframes of the 1960s were used mostly for niche applications such as payroll and military calculations. Like todays rapid prototyping machines, these early mainframes cost tens and hundreds of thousands of dollars, required hours to complete a single job, had the size of a large refrigerator and required trained technicians to operate and maintain. Though it was clear to early manufacturers that the home market oered great potential, it was unclear how to successfully capture that market. Early attempts of the computer industry to break into the home market through niche killer apps failed miserably: Some brands targeted niche domains such as Honeywells kitchen Computer geared towards recipes (Figure a). Its high cost and narrow application prevented it from achieving success. Though several other home computers came out in the early 1970s [8], the MITS Altair 8800 (Figure b,c) is generally credited as sparking the home computer revolution. Designed and sold through Popular Electronics as a $400 kit ($2015 in 2005 dollars), the Alltair 8800 broke the chicken-and-egg cycle: Hobbyists and experts could now aord to dabble with computers, develop and exchange software and numerous hardware accessory projects. The availability of computers made it worthwhile to write software, and the availability of software made it worthwhile to buy computers. Computer history had entered its exponential growth era. Based on this history, it seems reasonable to imagine a low-cost multi-material SFF system in ones home, which could produce objects or even complete integrated devices from designs which are shared or purchased online [3]. Should such systems become as available as personal computers or printers are today, the invention and

1.3. GOAL OF THIS PROJECT

personalization of small devices could become as ubiquitous as music sharing is today. MITs FabLab project [1] provides ample evidence that providing people with automated fabrication tools serves as an innovation catalyst; ordinary folk, with seemingly no technical background quickly learn to exploit these tools to design and realize new inventions. The only thing now missing is the low cost, hackable rapid prototyper kit.

1.3

Goal of this project

Inspired by this history, the goal of this project is to oer an open-source, low-cost, personal SFF system kit, which we call Fab@Home. The aim of this project is to put SFF technology into the hands of those same curious, inventive, and entrepreneurial citizens. In addition, through the Wiki web site (http://www.fabathome.org) we hope to inspire users of Fab@Home to exchange their ideas for applications and their improvements to the hardware and software with us and each other. Several machines are already in use.

1.4

Bibliography

1. Burns M., (1995) The Freedom to Create, in: Technology Management, Volume 1, Number 4. http://www.ennex.com/fabbers/publish/199407-MB-FreedomCreate.asp 2. Gershenfeld N., (2005) FAB: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop: From Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication, Basic Books. http://cba.mit.edu/projects/fablab/ 3. Lipson H. (2005) Homemade: The future of Functional Rapid Prototyping, IEEE Spectrum, feature article, May 2005, pp. 24-31. http://www.mae.cornell.edu/ccsl/papers/Spectrum05 Lipson.pdf 4. Bowyer A., RepRap: The Replicating Rapid-Prototyper, http://reprap.org 5. Wohlers T., (2006), Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing State of the Industry, Wohlers Assoc. http://www.wohlersassociates.com/ 6. Ceruzzi P.E., (2000) A History of Modern Computing, The MIT Press 7. Klein E.S., Vintage Machines, http://www.vintage-computer.com/altair8800.shtml 8. Blinkenlights Archaeological Institute, http://www.blinkenlights.com/pc.shtml

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

1.5

Requirements Development Document

This document is intended to preliminarily establish denitions, stakeholders, context, and scope for the full Fab@Home Project. It is intended that this document will serve as a basis for the development of a full Project Requirements Document. Project Description: The Fab@Home Project has been created to design, develop, and publish software for, hardware designs of, and knowledge related to low-cost, open-source, fabbers. The project contains multiple components: 1. Overall System (a) The Fab@Home Model 1 Fabber Project i. Hardware ii. Electronics A. Electric Motors B. Circuit boards iii. Firmware iv. Software A. Application B. Drivers v. Documentation A. Assembly instructions B. Operation instructions C. Design documents D. Code documentation E. Examples of use F. Parameter les (b) The Fab@Home website (c) Open-source System Architecture for Future Fabbers 2. Denitions: (a) Fabber: a fabber is a machine which constructs (fabricates) objects described by feasible models by depositing, assembling, condensing, reacting, and/or solidifying one or more materials under computer control. Also known as a 3D printer or rapid prototypers. (b) Production platform: a device capable of translating a production head in 3 dimensions, typically using a Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate systems. (c) Production Head: device mountable on a 3D production platform which performs additive or subtractive action using particular tools, media, or processes.

1.5. REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT

(d) Feasible model: a feasible model is a description of the object which the user desires to have the fabber build, and which the fabber is capable of building. (e) Open-source: the technical documentation required to recreate the software application, hardware, or other results, is made available to the general public without licensing restrictions that limit use, modication, or redistribution 3. Systems Engineering References: (a) Engineering Complex Systems with Models and Objects, Oliver, Kelliher, Keegan. http://www.fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/8/ 8a/EngComplexSys-OKK.pdf (b) IEEE Standard on Systems Engineering Process. http://www.fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/4/4b/IEEE1220-1998.pdf (c) Vitech Inc. Document on Standard Diagrams for Systems Engineering Process. http://www.fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/4/4f/ CommonGraphicalRepresentations 2002.pdf (d) OMG SysML Specication Document. http://www.fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/2/24/OMGSysML-FAS-06-05-04.pdf 4. Project Stakeholders (a) Developers i. Software: involved in design and development of software components for fabbers ii. Hardware: involved in design and development of hardware components of fabbers (b) Users: interested in using fabbers to produce objects or products (c) Retailer of Kits/Built Machines: selling kits or fully assembled fabbers (d) Cornell University: host institution for the Fab@Home project (e) Open Source community: norms, rules, legality, best practices for open source projects (f) Other open source fabber projects RepRap project: rst open-source fabber project, competition/collaboration, citation http://www.reprap.org (g) US government: patent enforcement, other legality, export rules (h) Foreign governments: importation rules (i) Manufacturers: of commercial, proprietary RP machines 5. Originating Requirements

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW (a) The project shall develop fabber systems which shall i. be easy to build ii. be easy to operate A. have well-written user documentation iii. be easy to modify iv. be inexpensive to build v. be inexpensive to operate vi. be compact vii. produce little waste viii. accept product description data (a model or design) from clients A. clients may be humans B. clients may be software ix. assist the client in developing a feasible model x. accurately fabricate any feasible model xi. rapidly fabricate any feasible model xii. automatically fabricate any feasible model (b) The project shall provide open-source documentation of all aspects of its fabber systems i. Distributed documentation shall be sucient to allow non-expert hobbyists to construct and operate their own fabbers 6. Interfaces (a) Objective: Having a common hardware and software interface for print heads will allow the easy development and integration of a wide variety of print heads. Includes hardware (physical mounting, electrical connection, maximum/required dimensions) and software (required class interfaces, functions) (b) Hardware i. System shall have well-dened interface for mounting print heads to production platform. ii. System shall have well-dened electrical interface for powering and controlling print heads (c) Software i. System shall have well-dened software interface for print head control 7. Print heads (a) Types i. Additive A. Syringe-based

1.5. REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT

silicone Solder/soldering iron chocolate ice (rapid cooling tip, for making ice sculptures) ceramics wax (for making candles) ii. Subtractive A. Dremel-type carving polishing sanding others iii. Combination/Miscellaneous A. Laser Diode laser, liquid laser, etc. Enables 3D laser cutter B. Heat gun I saw something using a heat gun to toast bread, making images. . . (b) Separate print tool from storage tool i. Desirable to optionally have print material storage away from print head. Material storage cartridge mounted to xed point, connected to print head which dispenses material 8. Miscellaneous list of thoughts: (a) Possible Application Development Tools/Libraries: i. Boost C++ libraries: dual license. http://www.boost-consulting.com/index.html ii. CGAL computational geometry library: dual license. http://www.cgal.org/ iii. Qt GUI library: dual license. http://doc.trolltech.com/3.3/index.html iv. OpenGL: free, open source. http://www.opengl.org (b) Possible Embedded Development Tools/Libraries/OSs (for ARM): i. FreeRTOS: open source embedded real-time kernel. http://www.freertos.org/ ii. Micrium uC/OS-II embedded real-time operating system: dual license. http://www.micrium.com iii. GNUARM toolchain: http://www.gnuarm.org

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW (c) Possibly consider avoiding the word fabber, which seems ambiguous and informal. Ok when used in proper noun (e.g Fab@Home), but might be better to use a more self-explanatory name i. 3D production platform ii. 3D printer iii. Rapid Prototyper (d) Microfabber concept i. Use standard ATX computer case as framework for small fabber A. Benets Low cost of case Standard mounting holes Able to mount material storage cartridges and logic/power boards in drive bays Built-in power supply w/multiple voltages Easily transportable, stronger frame than acrylic B. Drawbacks Mounting holes may not be in ideal locations Limited maximum size of fabricated object May not be feasible/practical (e) Improve electronics i. Design custom circuit board for motor control electronics and processor A. More reliable operation B. Cheaper C. Use lower-cost motors Issues with HSI motor orders High cost for motors in low quantities (>10 markup) Investigate tradeos between servo & stepper motors

Chapter 2 Frequently Asked Questions


2.1 Can I buy a complete kit, or even a fully assembled machine?

While you cannot yet order a fully assembled machine, you can now buy a complete kit from Koba Industries of Albuquerque, NM, USA. Koba can ship internationally as well!!!! You still need to build the machine yourself, and you can still buy the parts on your own. Remember, everything in Fab@Home is free and open-source under the BSD License.

2.2

What is the dierence between a Clear Unit or Colored Unit and Complete Kit on the Koba Industries website?

The Clear Unit and the Colored Unit are only the acrylic parts, and are not a complete kit of parts for a Model 1. If you purchase either of these, you will still need to order the other components listed in the Model 1 Bill of Materials in order to build a Model 1. At present, obtaining the parts for a Model 1 will cost $2300 if you buy them from the vendors yourself, or a bit more if you order a complete kit from Koba (http://www.kobask8.com/servlet/Categories?category=Fab

2.3

Where can I go to discuss my ideas about Fab@Home or fabbers?

There is a GoogleGroups forum for people interested in Fab@Home which simplies online discussions - please visit: Fab@Home Forums on Google Groups 9

10

CHAPTER 2. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

2.4

How do I join the Fab@Home project or contribute to the Wiki?


Click create account in the upper right hand corner of the page. Fill in the information and click Create Account or By Email

If you have not already done so, make yourself an account:

Please also consider adding yourself to the Guest Book If you are building a fabber, please describe it on the Fabbers of the World page.

2.5

How do I edit the Fab@Home wiki?


If you see your username at the top right of the page, you are logged in Otherwise click Login at the top right corner of the page

Make sure you are logged in:

Click the edit tab (at the top) of the page you want to change Edit the wiki text to make the changes you would like to make click Show Preview at the bottom of the page to make sure that the results are what you want If you are satised, click Save Page at the bottom of the page Now everyone can see your contribution! For more details on editing wiki text and contributing, please see: Editing Help MediaWiki Editing Instructions (osite)

2.6

How much does a Model 1 cost?

Buying all of the parts for a Model 1 currently costs about $2400. Interestingly, the Altair 8800 minicomputer kit, credited with starting the personal computer revolution, cost $400 in 1970, or $2015 in 2005 dollars.

2.7

How large is a Fab@Home?

The Model 1 stands at 18.5 (47cm) wide, by 16 (40.6cm) deep, by roughly 18 (45.7cm) tall.

2.8. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO BUILD A MODEL 1?

11

2.8

How long does it take to build a Model 1?

Once you have all of your parts and tools in hand, the Model 1 can be put together in an intense weekend of 18-24 work hours by someone with basic hobby skills (e.g. soldering). If you nd that it takes you much more or less than this, please contact Evan.

2.9

What materials can be used with a Model 1?

The 1-Syringe Tool of a Model 1 is designed to work with almost any kind of liquid or paste that you can imagine dispensing from a syringe. We have tried using household silicone rubber caulk, epoxy, cheese, chocolate (with a small heater attached to the syringe tool), cake frosting, ceramic clay (when mixed with sucient water), PlayDoh, gypsum plaster. This is merely a list of the materials we have had time to play with - many, many more materials are possible, and it is the intent of Fab@Home to make it easy for you to try your own materials. A good material is soft/uid enough to push through a syringe, but rm enough that it will stack up. See the Model 1 User Manual for info on setting up a new material.

2.10

How large an object can the Model 1 build?

The build volume of the machine is roughly 8 cubed. The current record for the tallest object is a bit under 4, but that was only limited by patience.

2.11

How accurately can the Model 1 build an object?

The accuracy and repeatability depend upon the material you are working with (does it ow?, does it change shape with time?), the time you have spent tuning the deposition parameters, and the the nozzle diameter, as well as on the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the machine. For a good material that does not ow, the X-Y (layer plane) resolution is roughly twice the diameter of the nozzle, and the Z (height) resolution is roughly equal to the nozzle diameter. In theory, this holds until you approach the positioning resolution of the machine, which is roughly 25 micrometers. The accuracy and repeatability of the positioning system of the Model 1 have not been measured. At a rough guess, without special attention paid to setup, the repeatability will be roughly 100 micrometers.

12

CHAPTER 2. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

2.12

How do I tell the Model 1 what I want to build?

You need to provide the Model 1 with a 3D model of the object you would like to build. You can generate the model using either 3D design software or a 3D scanner. The Fab@Home Model 1 software reads STL (stereolithography) les, which you can export from programs such as SolidWorks, Autodesk Inventor, CosmicBlobs, etc - see the Design Tools section. Alternatively, a 3D scanner, such as David or NextEngine can be used to scan objects to produce a model, which can then be converted into an STL le that Fab@Home can build.

2.13

Can I use a Model 1 to build objects as part of my business?

While we would be thrilled to see this happen, and all of the content of this website is free for commercial or hobby uses, the Model 1 will not be able to compete with a commercial RP system in terms of resolution, and the reliability of the Model 1 for long-term use is not yet known. If your business would like to use a Model 1 for producing very detailed parts, very frequently, we would have to recommend that you stick with outsourced RP service such as XPress3D or a commercial RP machine (if you can aord one). Fab@Home is helping to make RP/fabbing technology opensource, so that users can try their own materials, and improve the machine according to their needs, all for far less money than purchasing a commercial machine. If you are interested in helping to make Fab@Home competitive with commercial machines, or want to experiment with multiple-material RP, then please do build a Fab@Home machine.

2.14

How does a Model 1 compare to a commercial RP machine?

See Can I use... above. Most commercial machines can build larger objects, faster, and with smoother surfaces and ner details. Several commercial machines also can build with materials such as ABS, Nylon, and polycarbonate - tough engineering thermoplastics, although parts must be made entirely of one material, so you cannot have dierent portions of the same part made of dierent materials. Commercial machines are 10 to 100 times as expensive as a Fab@Home, the materials are proprietary and expensive, and you typically cannot modify the machines, materals, or software to suit your own needs. The Fab@Home Model 1 allows you to use your own, low-cost materials, and to build objects that contain multiple materials. The Fab@Home Project is trying to popularize rapid prototyping/fabbing technology, to make it open source, and to make it inexpensive, all to get as many people as possible to use and experiment with fabbers. We believe that fabbing will be a revolutionary

2.15. CAN THE MODEL 1 PERFORM CNC MILLING?

13

technology, possibly as important in the future as computers are today, and that introducing the public to fabbers in a way which invites experimentation and improvement is an essential part of realizing this revolutionary potential. Having said that, the Fab@Home Model 1 is targeted at experimentation and hobby use, and is probably not ready for the demands of commercial application. Join the Fab@Home project, and help develop the future Fab@Home models!

2.15

Can the Model 1 perform CNC milling?

The Model 1 is not very rigid, since depositing material produces almost no lateral force. To make the Model 1 into a mill would require building the chassis out of something stier and stronger than acrylic. If milling is your real interest, then Fab@Home is not your best starting point. Try http://www.cncci.com/resources/links.htm.

2.16

If everything is open-source, where is the source code?

A Source Forge project has been set up to facilitate the open-source software development for Fab@Home, since they provide lots of nice tools for management. The project can be found at http://sourceforge.net/projects/fabathome. The application source is there, and the rmware and USB driver code will be added as soon as possible. Evan 19:20, 27 January 2007 (EST)

2.17

How does Fab@Home dier from RepRap?

There are two main dierences. The rst is that the RepRap is oriented toward selfreplication - trying to make a machine that can make many of its own parts, while Fab@Home is aiming to get as many people as possible to play with/hack/improve fabbers. The second is that RepRap has a screw extrusion deposition tool that is designed for use with polycaprolactone plastic as the intended building material, while Fab@Home uses a syringe tool that allows you to use a wider variety of materials. The RepRap requires a bit more technical prociency and quite a bit more in terms of the tools you need. For instance, with RepRap, you need to build the circuit boards and need metalworking machinery to make some of the parts, while Fab@Home is a snap-and-screw-together kit, with bit of soldering as the most challenging part. Of course the RepRap is cheaper for this same reason. The two projects have a lot to oer each other - you could easily mount the deposition tool from one onto the other - e.g. polycaprolactone screw extruder on Fab@Home or syringe tool on the RepRap Darwin.

14

CHAPTER 2. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

2.18

Where can I nd a high-resolution photo of Fab@Home?

Several popular photos are available at the bottom of the home page of the website (http://fabathome.org/). Many of the other photos on this website are of highresolution - see especially the Fabbers of the World, and Gallery of Ideas pages. Click on the photo to go to the main page for that photo, where the photo size and a link to the highest resolution version will be displayed.

2.19

Where can I learn more about the Model 1?

Please see Chapter 5 for a more detailed overview of the Model 1.

2.20

What does SFF mean?

SFF stands for Solid Freeform Fabrication - basically an umbrella term for 3-D printing, Rapid Prototyping, additive manufacturing, etc. - building things by having a machine deposit material under computer control. Some people prefer Rapid Prototyping, but since we are trying to use it for more than just prototyping, I kind of prefer fabrication, and since it isnt really that fast, we usually ditch the rapid. Maybe Additive is better? 3-D printing is actually a trademark of Z-Corp., so I shy away from that as well. See also Wikipedia denition and Castle Island RP/SFF reference site.

2.21

Still Have a Question?

If the information provided does not answer your question, please contact Evan Malone (evan.malone@cornell.edu).

Chapter 3 Gallery of Projects

3.1

Flashlight

Recently, Dan Periard has been experimenting with printing electrical circuits with conductive silicone and conductive ink, while Evan Malone has been testing out epoxy as a structural material. Meanwhile, the Fab@Home Project has had the great honor of being included in an upcoming exhibition Plasticity - 100 years of making plastics at the Science Museum London, starting May 22nd, 2007. We have put together a Model 1 for the museum to display, which will be added to their permanent collection, and also needed to provide a sample of the Model 1s capabilities. Since this is for posterity, we racked our brains a bit, pulled out all of the stops, and came up with what you see below: an LED ashlight which combines printed silicone, printed conductive silicone, printed epoxy, and cast epoxy materials; Dans printable electrical switch and ap-door inventions; an embedded LED (ultra-bright orange) as the light source; commercial AA batteries which can be dropped in via the back end; and a rugged, yet handsome and comfortable rubber over epoxy body. The whole thing was printed in 2 steps: Step 1 (8 hours) was to print the the entire body with embedded LED, conductive contacts, switch, and endcap, and Step 2 (30 minutes) was to link the endcap to the LED by printing and embedding a conductive silicone circuit. We developed a few neat techniques that allowed us to achieve all of this; well try to document these on the techniques page in the near future. 15

16

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

3.1.1

Images

Just to prove it could be done, and to seize the Fabber of the Month title, Dan spent 7+ hours to make an enormous 100mm tall hexagonal silicone ashlight body as a prototype

After building the monster prototype ashlight body, Dan tested out the idea of laying the body on its side and then printing the conductive trace (silver-lled silicone) into a groove he designed into the body

After the prototyping, we designed a complete production version. Here is the CAD model of that design. Here Dan is testing out embedding (covering over) the conductive trace to protect it and to improve the aesthetics of the product

3.1. FLASHLIGHT

17

A view of the end cap underway - the rounded channel and hole are part of the electrical switch You can see the cast (poured) epoxy in between the inner and outer printed silicone walls of the body, and the channel left for the conductive trace (at left)

The embedded trace technique being used to connect the thumb switch on the end cap (right) to the LED anode (embedded in the left-hand end) Proof of the height - about 115mm tall - the Z-axis couldnt move down any further (note to designers of Model 2!)

18

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

A nice view of the LED embedded in printed epoxy in the front end. The ashlight has a very nice heft and feel the silicone layers make a nice soft grip over the solid epoxy body

(Excuse the poor focus) It works! Once 2 AA batteries are dropped in via the end cap, the ashlight can be turned on by pressing (and holding) the switch in the end cap.

3.1.2

Video

Flashlight300X.wmv,(32MB .WMV); A movie of the LED ashlight being printed and demonstrated, accelerated 300X (total elapsed time, 8h 8min): http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/1/1b/Flashlight300X.wmv.

3.2

Frosting as Support Material

Here we used normal frosting (same as below, albeit a dierent color) to act as a support material for various silicone objects. By creating an individual part for each material, we could have the Fab@Home print the frosting rst, then lay the silicone down afterward.

3.2.1

Silicone Bridge

The rst attempt at support materials: this is simply a silicone bridge sitting on top of a block of frosting.

3.2. FROSTING AS SUPPORT MATERIAL

19

The foundation to our bridge (notice The rst bridge: the silicone doesnt that the paths are quite a bit tighter stick real well to the frosting, so the than the pictures below). bridge is pretty hideous.

A completed bridge on the left, and a Cool pattern on the bridge. I totally second bridge during construction. meant to do that. . .

Breaking away the frosting (I let the Some more breaking. . . silicone harden overnight).

20

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

With most of the frosting cleaned out.

Its a bridge!

3.2.2

Trapezoid

Second attempt at supports - this involves building a silicone shape completely supported by the frosting. Yes, this particular shape could have been printed upsidedown, but its way cooler to do it this way.

The nearly completed trapezoid. It First layer of silicone laid out on top of turned out much prettier than the the frosting. bridge.

Breaking away the frosting.

Its a trapezoid!

3.2. FROSTING AS SUPPORT MATERIAL

21

3.2.3

Bouncy Ball/Sphere

Third, and most glorious, attempt - Printing a silicone sphere!

A look at the mold, roughly a dozen layers in.

Mold, nearly completed.

Completed mold. Can see that there Initial silicon layering. are some stragglers in the bottom. . .

Mmmm. . . look at the frosting inteAlmost done. . . grated directly into the silicone. Tasty!

22

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

Complete!

Looks like a snow-cone. Maybe I could shape the mold dierently next time. . .

The sphere wasnt exactly centered when it started printing, so it pushed out one of the corners.

Ball out of mold (reusable mold, perhaps?).

Not quite a sphere, but pretty close.

Breathtaking, isnt it?

3.3

Epoxy Propeller

Here we used the Fab@Home to produce a silicone rubber mold for a 7.5 diameter propeller suitable for an RC airplane or a rubber-band powered balsa plane. We manually lled the mold with epoxy while it was being fabbed so that overhanging parts of the mold would not cave in. The mold did not release cleanly from the epoxy,

3.3. EPOXY PROPELLER

23

and the propeller needed some manual clean up with a Dremel to remove adhering silicone and some rough edges. In the end, the propeller really works, as can be seen in the video, where we tested it as a hand powered helicopter toy.

3.3.1

Images

The silicone propeller mold (black GE The completed mold, in place on the Silicone II), completed, and partially build surface of one of our Model 1s. lled with epoxy

The mold, birds-eye-view - note that the build time of the mold was 5 hours. The propeller right after removal from The mold could be made a closer t to the mold before manual clean-up. the propeller to reduce build time.

24

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

The propeller after being cleaned up Edge view of the propeller, mounted on and balanced; we used a Dremel with a a balsa stick as a toy helicopter small grinding bit.

3.3.2

Video

PropellerMovie.mpg, (35MB Hi-res); A movie of Evan testing out the epoxy propeller as part of a toy Requires Windows Media Player 11: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/2/2d/PropellerMovie.mpg.

3.4
3.4.1

Lego Car Tire


Images

Black silicone replica of a Lego tire

Closeup of tire showing treads and spoked interior

3.5. HOUSE OF CHEESE

25

Lego tire mounted on lego hub and axle Lego tractor repaired with fabbed tire

3.5
3.5.1

House of Cheese
Images

A house, complete with car and driveway, made of edible spray- A second view of the cheese house cheese,deposited on a saltine cracker

A birds eye view of the cheese house

26

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

3.5.2

Other Cheesy Images

Test shape for cheez-whiz

The cheese holds its shape pretty well.

Printing on an object is a matter of eyeA cheap knock-o of Cornells logo on balling it: hence the guy on the right is a cracker a little o.

3.6
3.6.1

Silicone Watchband with Embedded Watch


Images

Image of CAD design of watch band

Screenshot of Fab@Home application with watch band model

3.6. SILICONE WATCHBAND WITH EMBEDDED WATCH

27

Closeup of part about 2/3 done

Wider view of part in machine

Finished part on build surface with emThe latest thing in fashion! bedded watch

3.6.2

Video

WatchbandDemoMovie.wmv, 28.5MB Movie of watchband fabrication: http:/fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/5/51/WatchbandDemoMovie.wmv

28

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

3.7
3.7.1
Images

Frosting
Crayola Cake Icing

A rectangular box made of Crayola Cake Icing

3.7.2

Betty Crocker Easy Squeeze Frosting

Easily the best-tasting bunch of models... Hopefully we can print a cookie, then bake it, then frost it, all on the Fab@Home machine (minus the baking, I suppose).

Images

A frosting arrow through a red arrow Arrow through the heart - all edible! heart under construction

3.8. BOX IN CYLINDER

29

3.8

Box in Cylinder

This demonstrates the multiple material capability of the Model 1, and a neat feature of fabbing - it is possible to make one object (in this case a brown box) completely enclosed inside of another object (in this case a transparent cylinder). This would be

30 very dicult to make any other way.

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

3.8.1

Images

A brown silicone box completely en- A second view of the box inside the closed in a clear silicone cylinder cylinder

3.9
3.9.1

Chocolate Structures (edible)


Images

High Resolution - smaller size: can t to your palm or your nger tip

3.9. CHOCOLATE STRUCTURES (EDIBLE)

31

Getting rid of the air

32

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

A view of the heated syringe arrangement - just a thermostatically controlled exible heater wrapped around the syringe barrel, then covered with insulation.

3.9.2

Video

Chocolate1.mpg, 2.1MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/4/47/Chocolate1.mpg Chocolate2.mpg, 5.2MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/8/87/Chocolate2.mpg Chocolate3.mpg, 7.2MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/b/b0/Chocolate3.mpg Chocolate4.mpg, 40.6 MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/1/17/Chocolate4.mpg

3.10. SILICONE SQUEEZE BULB

33

3.10
3.10.1

Silicone Squeeze Bulb


Images

CAD model of a rubber squeeze bulb Screenshot of Fab@Home Home application with squeeze bulb model

Image of squeeze bulb at about layer 60 Image of squeeze bulb at about layer of 337 layers 180 of 337 layers

Side view of squeeze bulb at about layer 182 of 337 layers

Side view of squeeze bulb at about layer 250 of 337 layers

34

CHAPTER 3. GALLERY OF PROJECTS

Top view of squeeze bulb at about layer Side view of squeeze bulb at about layer 250 of 337 layers 315 of 337 layers SqueezeBulbDemoMovie.wmv, 16MB Movie of squeezebulb fabrication: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/b/bb/SqueezeBulbDemoMovie.wmv.

Chapter 4 Links
4.1 Fab@Home in the Media

Two television technology shows have recently visited the Fab@Home Labs at Cornell University to cover the project for upcoming episodes! The Science Museum, London, UK is including a Fab@Home Model 1 in an exhibit entitled Ingenious - centenary of plastics commencing in May, 2007! The New York Times, April 5, 2007 (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/7/73/ NYTimes4-6-2007web.pdf) The Guardian, UK newspaper, March 29, 2007, (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/8/81/TheGuardian3-29-2007.pdf) The Cornell University Daily Sun, March 7, 2007. (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/6/67/CornellDailySun3-7-2007.pdf) Science Daily science blog picked up the Cornell Chronicle article, February 26, 2007 (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070226213551.htm) The Cornell Chronicle newspaper, Cornell University, February 26, 2007. (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/6/63/CornellChronicle2-26-2007.pdf) Newsweek International Print edition, February 5, 2007. (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/8/8d/NewsweekInternational2-5-2007print.pdf) Newsweek International Web edition, February 5, 2007. (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/7/77/NewsweekInternational2-5-2007web.pdf) Newsweek Russia, January 22, 2007. (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/b/bd/NewsweekRussia1-22-2007.pdf) Technovelgy.com, January 11, 2007. (http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=895) Wired Magazines Beyond the Beyond Blog, January 11, 2007. (http://blog.wired.com/sterling/2007/01/spime watch fab.html) New Scientist Magazines NewScientistTech.com technology magazine, January 9, 2007. (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/1/14/NewScientistTech1-9-2007.pdf) Slashdot technology blog, January 9, 2007. (http://hardware.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/01/09/2239206&from=rss) Hackaday technology hacker blog, December 8, 2006. 35

36

CHAPTER 4. LINKS

(http://www.hackaday.com/2006/12/08/fab-home/) YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e26MBnnQEIE)

4.2

General audience (popular) papers and articles

1. Lipson H. (2005) Homemade: The future of Functional Rapid Prototyping, IEEE Spectrum, feature article, May 2005, pp. 24-31. (http://www.mae.cornell.edu/ccsl/papers/Spectrum05 Lipson.pdf) 2. Gershenfeld N., (2005) FAB: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop: From Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication, Basic Books. 3. Burns M., (1995) The Freedom to Create, in Technology Management, Volume 1, Number 4. (http://www.ennex.com/ fabbers/publish/199407-MB-FreedomCreate.asp) 4. Ceruzzi P.E., (2000) A History of Modern Computing, The MIT Press 5. McMains, S. (2005) Layered Manufacturing Technologies, Comm. ACM, Volume 48, Number 6, pp 50-56. (http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1064858&coll=ACM&dl=ACM& CFID=13415255&CFTOKEN=78174790)

4.3

Reference and related web sites

1. Castle Island RP/SFF reference site (http://home.att.net/ castleisland/) 2. MIT FabLab Project (http://cba.mit.edu/projects/fablab/) 3. RepRap: The Replicating Rapid-Prototyper, Open Source Project, UK. (http://reprap.org) 4. Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing State of the Industry, Wohlers Assoc. (http://www.wohlersassociates.com/) 5. Vintage Machines, Computer History Site . (http://www.vintage-computer.com/altair8800.shtml)

4.4

Commercial SFF/RP Systems and Contract Services

Stratasys, Inc. of Eden Prairie, Minnesota. (http://www.stratasys.com) Z-Corp of Burlington, Massachusetts. (http://www.zcorp.com) 3D Systems, Inc. of Valencia, California. (http://www.3dsystems.com) EOS GmbH of Munich, Germany. (http://www.eos-gmbh.de/) Desktop Factory of Pasadena, California. (http://www.desktopfactory.com/) Objet Geometries of Rehovot, Israel. (http://www.2objet.com/) Dimension 3D (A division of Stratasys). (http://www.dimensionprinting.com/) XPress3D Rapid Prototyping Services Quotations. (http://www.xpress3d.com/)

Chapter 5 Model 1 Overview


The Model 1 (Fig. 5.1) is the very rst Fab@Home fabber design. It includes everything necessary for basic, multimaterial desktop fabrication. It makes use of a basic syringe pump material dispensing tool, with disposable syringes to enable dispensing of a wide variety of materials. It uses linear stepper motors - stepper motors with lead screws attached - as the actuators, and has 4 axes of control - 1 for the syringe tool plunger, 1 for the Z axis (the vertical motion of the table on which parts are built), and 1 each for the X and Y axes to move the syringe tool along the paths required to build up a part layer by layer. The Model 1 Electronics include a 4-axis amplier for the 4 stepper motors, an LPC-H2148 ARM7 microcontroller with USB interface, limit switches to sense when the X, Y, and Z axes are at the end of their motion ranges, and some (passive) interface components (a breakout board and cables). The cost of the materials required for the Model 1 is about US$2300 before shipping, using the current known lowest cost vendors, and placing all of the orders yourself. It is now possible to order a full kit of parts from a single source, at a slightly higher price than if you place individual orders yourself. Please see below:

5.1

Buy a Model 1 Kit

If you would like to skip much of the do-it-yourself stu, and just buy a kit (youll still need to do the assembly yourself) please visit Koba Industries new store: http://www.kobask8.com/servlet/Categories?category=Fab

5.2

Five steps to get you going

1. Choose and build a Fabber. Visit the catalog page to pick out the fabber that you would like, and to nd information about building your own fabber. You will need to either buy a kit from Koba Industries, or purchase the parts for the fabber separately, and also some simple tools to build the machine with. We hope that in the near future maybe someone will also be willing to build and sell assembled machines <if you are, edit this page> 37

38

CHAPTER 5. MODEL 1 OVERVIEW

Figure 5.1: A Fab@Home Model 1 Fabber

5.3. OVERALL DESIGN

39

2. Install the software. Download and install the software binaries (USB driver and Fab@Home software). Check that it talks to the printer and you are able to manually jog the carriage. Later, you can download the source code, see how it works and improve it. 3. Select and buy some building materials. Visit the materials page to select some materials. Start with a simple material like playdough or 1-part silicone. Later you can move on to more sophisticated materials, cocktails, and multimaterial assemblies. 4. Download an object to print. Visit the Design Library page and download the model of an object to print. Import the model into your Fab@Home software. Start with something simple like a cube or a cone. Later you can explore more complex structures. 5. Print the object. Load your deposition tool with material, and print the object using the software. Please consult the Frequently Asked Questions section when you have diculties. If you solved any of these problems, please be sure to update the FAQ area with your solutions.

5.3

Overall Design

The Fab@Home Model 1 (Figure 5.2(a)) is a 3-axis Cartesian gantry positioning system driven by stepper motors attached to lead screws in a conguration called a linear stepper motor. Material deposition tools are modular, and the rst tool we have designed is a syringe-based extrusion tool which uses a linear stepper motor to control the syringe plunger position. The electronics of the current version of the system provide for 4 axes of bipolar stepper motor control at 24V, with 2 limit switches per axis of positioning, plus an optional one limit switch for the remaining 3 axes. The software and rmware support up to 6 axes of control in their current incarnation. A microcontroller controls the positioning of the axes and is in bidirectional USB communications with the PC. An application running on the PC displays the realtime state of the machine numerically and graphically, and allows the user to manually position the axes, import, assemble, and perform basic modications to STL geometry data, apply specic material properties to each STL, and to generate and execute tool paths in order to fabricate objects comprising multiple materials. One concern in developing our design has been that there probably exists a threshold of quality required in any new technology kit for hobbyists, below which the excitement of the new technology will be masked by the malfunctions, maintenance problems, and poor aesthetics. Users must have a sense of what the technology is capable of before they can grasp how to modify it and apply it to their own purposes. Our rst design has therefore focused more on ease of use, reliability, and aesthetics than on minimizing cost.

40

CHAPTER 5. MODEL 1 OVERVIEW

Figure 5.2: The Fab@Home Model 1 Design. (a) 3D CAD model of an assembled Model 1; (b) An example of assembly instructions

We have tried to assume a modest availability of technical tools and skills for the end user, and have tried to facilitate assembly by providing very detailed assembly documentation (Figure 5.2(b)). The builder needs to have a laptop or PC with a USB port, and basic assembly tools including Allen keys, screwdrivers, scissors, pliers, and a soldering iron. Assembly consists of snapping together the acrylic structure, inserting nuts and screws and threaded inserts, bolting together the positioning system components and mounting them to the structure, making cables to connect the microcontroller to the amplier boards, and the motors to the amplier boards, mounting the electronic boards to the chassis, and bundling and routing of cables. Soldering and crimping of cables and connectors are the most challenging assembly tasks, but the project documentation is exhaustive, oering advice, images and reference websites for these and almost every other task. The user is expected to have some patience as well: completely assembling a kit from parts to operation requires roughly 18 hours of labor. Currently, the parts cost is estimated to be $2300, including the cost of having acrylic parts laser-cut, and not including shipping costs (remarkably, the Altair 8800 cost adjusted to 2005 dollars would be $2015!). Table 5.1 summarizes the hardware parts and costs for the kit.

5.4

Structure

The structural components of our system are built from laser-cut acrylic sheet parts held together with snap-t joinery and simple T-nut style screw/nut fastening, in which a square or hex nut is inserted into a slot in one part, and a screw is threaded in through a hole in a perpendicular part. The tight manufacturing tolerances achievable with laser cut acrylic enable us to produce good orthogonality and alignment in the

5.5. POSITIONING Category Motors Electronics Bearings/Transmission Fasteners/Hardware Acrylic Control Software Totals # of Items / # of Types 4/4 24/15 53/18 360/23 5/2 3/3 447/62 Materials Cost $610.59 $367.78 $662.52 $158.73 $493.00 $0.00 $2292.62

41

Table 5.1: Model 1 Fabber: Hardware and Cost summary.

machine base, increasing the ease of setup and reliability of the machine. Our rst three units have been produced in-house with an Epilog Helix 35W laser engraver (Epilog, Inc.), cutting parts directly from SolidWorks (SolidWorks, Inc.) drawing les, which are in turn generated from a SolidWorks 3D CAD model of the complete system. There are 33 acrylic sheet parts in the chassis, plus an additional 7 acrylic parts for the syringe tool. Currently, 5 sheets of 18-inch 24-inch 0.236-inch cast acrylic are used to produce the acrylic parts. Cutting the parts for an entire machine requires three hours on our 35W laser cutter. We have arranged contract manufacturing service (Koba Industries, Albuquerque, NM, USA) for these acrylic parts to simplify the purchasing process for end users, and costs for this service will decrease as order volumes increase. An additional benet to having the structural parts laser-cut is that there is a large installed base of laser cutters/engravers in the sign making, and trophy and gift engraving industries. The custom nature of the work in these industries should make them amenable to kit builders approaching them to have parts made. In addition, most laser-cutting equipment used in these industries does not require specialized CAM software they operate from an application printer driver, so almost any image editing or vector drawing program can be used to design or modify designs for laser cutting and engraving. Thus, modifying the structure of a Fab@Home system does not require an investment in 3D CAD software to make or publish new hardware designs, and the bitmap engraving possible with these laser cutters allows them to customize the appearance of their machine with images and text.

5.5

Positioning

The linear motion components of the positioning system use o-the-shelf linear ball1 bearing pillow blocks running on 2 -inch diameter rails (McMaster-Carr, Inc.). The X and Y axes are in a gantry conguration with the deposition tool riding on the Y axis, which in turn rides on the X. The Z axis moves the build surface independently from the X and Y to minimize acceleration of parts as they are being fabricated. We have selected HSI Inc. linear stepper motors for our actuators because of their simple design, high resolution, and the semi-custom manufacturing focus of the company

42

CHAPTER 5. MODEL 1 OVERVIEW

Figure 5.3: (a) The standard design, single syringe tool, driven by a linear stepper motor; (b) A two-syringe version for a life-sciences laboratory.

which permits specifying precisely the leadscrew and bearing journal dimensions required for our application, simplifying the overall design and assembly. For the X,Y, and Z axes we use NEMA size 14 bipolar motors with rotor-mounted lead screws. External polymer lead nuts are mounted to the axes carriages. In the case of the X axis, a timing belt and pulleys (Stock Drive Products, Inc.) are used to couple a slave leadscrew to the motor leadscrew to achieve symmetrical drive of the gantry. The force, maximum speed, and positioning resolution all depend upon the lead screw threading selected in this case 15.8 m travel per full step, a nominal top speed of 25 mm/s (1600 step/s), and a maximum thrust of 120 N.

5.6

Material Deposition Tool

We have selected a syringe deposition tool for inclusion in the standard Model 1 design because of the broad range of materials useable with such tools, and for the intuitiveness of operation. The syringe tool structure (Figure 5.3(a)) is also constructed of laser cut acrylic parts with snap t joinery and T-nut fasteners. A linear stepper

5.7. ELECTRONICS

43

motor controls the position of the syringe piston. We employ a NEMA size 8 frame motor with a rotor mounted lead nut. The lead screw, which is not captive in the motor, has 3.2 m travel per full step, and the motor can achieve a top speed of 5.8 mm/s (1800 step/s), and a maximum thrust of 90 N. For the 10cc syringes we use, this amounts to a 1.1 cc/s maximum volume ow rate, and a maximum syringe pressure of 460 kPa (67 PSI). The current syringe tool has been designed to allow 10cc disposable syringe barrels (EFD, Inc.) to snap in and out, and for the piston to be quickly attached and released from the motor leadscrew for quick changing of materials. A metal nut ts tightly inside of disposable syringe pistons (EFD, Inc.), and one end of the motor leadscrew has threading to match the nut. When rmly threaded into the nut, the leadscrew is prevented from rotating with the motor rotor, and hence the rotor motion is converted to linear motion. Manually unscrewing the leadscrew from the nut allows exchanging syringes, regardless of how full, without the need to move or remove the piston. This facilitates the fabrication of multiple-material objects, and conserves materials. We have also developed a dual syringe tool (Figure 5.3(b)) which allows two materials to be loaded simultaneously and independently deposited. As mentioned before, tools are bolted to the positioning system, and are modular.

5.7

Electronics

Personal computers today typically provide several USB connections, but no longer have RS-232 serial ports or parallel ports, though these are still heavily used by robotics and microcontroller hobbyists. As a result, we have opted to support direct USB connection to our Fab@Home Model 1 system, despite the additional development work and (internal) complexity that this entails. We chose to use a microcontroller with an on-chip USB 2.0 peripheral, the Philips LPC-2148 ARM7TDMI (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.). This is a very high performance, 60MHz, ash-memory microcontroller with a wealth of peripheral functions for future expansion, including ADC, DAC, PWM, counter/timers, real-time clock, high-speed GPIO, UARTs, SPI, I2C, not to mention the USB2.0 peripheral. In addition, it has 512kB of ash memory, and 40kB of RAM. The large program memory has enabled us to make a very easily understood and extensible packet data protocol for communication between the PC application and the rmware. We use the large RAM space to buer motion commands so that real-time motion does not depend on variations in communication bandwidth. With our current protocol, we can buer roughly 670 6-dimensional path points (for up to 6 axes of control). The microcontroller is powered by the USB, and thus can be communicated with even when the amplier electronics are not powered. The high computational performance of the device enables the system to handle receiving and buering path points, sending real-time status and position data, and controlling step and direction outputs for 6 axes at at least 5kHz. The microcontroller is available on a 1.5-inch 2.5-inch board (Figure 5.4(c)) with header connectors for all pins and a USB connector for $US39.95 in single quantity (LPC-H2148, Olimex, Inc.).

44

CHAPTER 5. MODEL 1 OVERVIEW

Figure 5.4: The electronics boards of the Model 1: (a) DB25 to screw terminal breakout board at top center; (b) 4-axis stepper motor amplier on the far right; (c) LPC-H2148 microcontroller board at bottom left

Currently, we are using a Xylotex 4-axis stepper motor amplier board (Figure 5.4(b)) to power the positioning system and syringe tool stepper motors. This board provides switch-mode current regulation for 4 bipolar stepper motors per board. The current regulation allows us to use a 30W laptop-style 24VDC power supply and 5V rated motors to get much higher acceleration (hence faster builds at ner resolutions), than would be possible at the nominal 5V. This is a design decision which increases cost signicantly (relative to using unipolar stepper motors) for the sake of making the technology more useable.

5.8

Software

The rmware for the LPC-2148 microcontroller was developed in C language, using Rowley CrossWorks for ARM integrated development environment (IDE) (Rowley Co. UK) which employs the free GNU GCC C/C++ compiler. CrossWorks is not essential - several freeware IDEs, such as GNUARM exist which work with GNU GCC compiler. The rmware performs the following main functions: receiving and parsing of packetized commands from the PC via the USB buering of motion path segments for fabrication paths immediate execution of jog motion and emergency stop commands conguration of limit switches (present/absent for each axis and direction)

5.8. SOFTWARE

45

Figure 5.5: A screenshot from the PC application displaying a model ready for fabrication and dialog boxes for positioning and real-time status information

communicating axes positions, limit switch states, and other system status to the PC via the USB controlling step and direction outputs for up to 6 axes at > 5kHz step frequency As mentioned before, the microcontroller has additional resources available for future expansion, and the rmware has been designed with ease of expansion in mind. A PC application has been written which enables the user to control the machine, import, position, assign material properties to, and generate and execute manufacturing plans for geometry data which is imported in the form of STL les. In addition, the application has been designed around the concept that while the core application may eventually be improved by the user community, in the short term, the hardware conguration, the types of materials, and parameters for depositing materials would be far simpler and more interesting to explore and share. Thus the hardware conguration, material properties, and material deposition parameters are described in plain text parameter les. These les describe, for instance, the color and geometry data used to render the Fab@Home machine, the speeds and threading of the stepper motors, presence of limit switches, etc. The PC application is currently targeted only for the Microsoft Windows (Microsoft, Inc.) operating system. It is written in C++ using the Microsoft Visual Studio .NET (Microsoft, Inc.) development environment, OpenGL (SGI Inc.) for

46

CHAPTER 5. MODEL 1 OVERVIEW

graphics rendering, and the Microsoft Foundation Class library for user interface components. The application has been designed with the aim of maximizing the intuitiveness of use. The user interface (Figure 5.5) includes a 3D rendering of a Fab@Home machine which moves synchronously with the real-time position information sent back by the microcontroller. Dialog boxes allow importing and assigning material and tool properties to the part geometry, manual jogging of the axes via buttons and mouse scroll wheel, including the syringe tool motor, as well as a numerical view of the real-time position and status data from the microcontroller. The application also allows a rudimentary simulation of the fabrication process the actual manufacturing plan is executed on a Fab@Home software emulator, and the motions are displayed in the GUI for quick checking of toolpaths. The workow for Fab@Home consists of the following: connecting PC to Model 1 via USB cable, and plugging in the Model 1s power supply selecting and/or modifying/tuning parameter les to match the hardware and materials to be used starting the PC application loading the parameter les loading a syringe with piston, material, and nozzle, and mounting it in the tool; threading the tool leadscrew into the piston nut importing the geometry of the part to be fabricated assigning material and tool properties to part geometry automatic generation of a manufacturing plan if desired, simulated execution of the plan establishing communications with the Model 1 homing of the axes so that GUI and physical positions match jogging axes to the desired origin for fabrication automatic execution of the manufacturing plan

5.9

Building a Model 1

To build and use a Model 1, you will need to do the following: 1. Buy tools required for assembly 2. Choose your style options

5.9. BUILDING A MODEL 1 3. Buy the parts for the Model 1 4. Build the cables 5. Build the Machine Base 6. Build the XY-Carriage 7. Build the Z-Carriage 8. Build the 1-Syringe Tool 9. Assemble the Chassis 10. Mounting the 1-Syringe Tool 11. Electronics Assembly 12. Program the LPC-H2148 with the Model 1 Firmware 13. Install the Fab@Home Model 1 Application 14. Commission the Model 1 15. Use the Model 1

47

48

CHAPTER 5. MODEL 1 OVERVIEW

Chapter 6 Background Material


6.1 Stepper motor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A stepper motor is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps, for example, 200 steps. Thus the motor can be turned to a precise angle.

1. The top electromagnet (1) is 2. The top electromagnet (1) is charged, attracting the topmost turned o, and the right electrofour teeth of a sprocket. magnet (2) is charged, pulling the nearest four teeth to the right. This results in a rotation of 3.6 . 49

50

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

3. The bottom electromagnet (3) 4. The left electromagnet (4) is enis charged; another 3.6 rotation abled, rotating again by 3.6 . When occurs. the top electromagnet (1) is again charged, the teeth in the sprocket will have rotated by one tooth position; since there are 25 teeth, it will take 100 steps to make a full rotation.

6.1.1

Fundamentals of Operation

Stepper motors operate dierently from normal DC motors, which simply spin when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, eectively have multiple toothed electromagnets arranged around a central metal gear, as shown in the gures. To make the motor shaft turn, rst one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gears teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnets teeth. When the gears teeth are thus aligned to the rst electromagnet, they are slightly oset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the rst is turned o, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a step. In that way, the motor can be turned a precise angle. There are two basic arrangements for the electromagnetic coils: bipolar and unipolar. Unipolar motor In a unipolar stepper motor, there are four separate electromagnets. To turn the motor, rst coil 1 is given current, then its turned o and coil 2 is given current, then coil 3, then 4, and then 1 again in a repeating pattern. Current is only sent through the coils in one direction; thus the name unipolar. A unipolar stepper motor will have 5 or 6 wires coming out of it. Four of those wires are each connected to one end of one coil. The extra wire (or 2) is called

6.1. STEPPER MOTOR

51

Figure 6.1: Because of induction of the windings, power requirements, and temperature management some glue circuitry is necessary between digital controller and motor.

52

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Figure 6.2: Dierent details of conguration have to be decided when choosing a motor. Almost everything is combineable.

6.1. STEPPER MOTOR

53

common. To operate the motor, the common wire(s) is(are) connected to the supply voltage, and the other four wires are connected to ground through transistors, so the transistors control whether current ows or not. A microcontroller or stepper motor controller is used to activate the transistors in the right order. This ease of operation makes unipolar motors popular with hobbyists; they are probably the cheapest way to get precise angular movements. (For the experimenter, one way to distinguish common wire from a coil-end wire is by measuring the resistance. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is always half of what it is between coil-end and coil-end wires. This is due to the fact that there is actually twice the length of coil between the ends and only half from center (common wire) to the end.) Bipolar motor There are only two coils, and current must be sent through a coil rst in one direction and then in the other direction; thus the name bipolar. Bipolar motors need more than 4 transistors to operate them, but they are also more powerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight. To be able to send current in both directions, engineers can use an H-bridge to control each coil or a step motor driver chip. Theory A step motor can be viewed as a DC motor with the number of poles (on both rotor and stator) increased, taking care that they have no common denominator. Additionally, soft magnetic material with many teeth on the rotor and stator cheaply multiplies the number of poles (reluctance motor). Like an AC synchronous motor, it is ideally driven by sinusoidal current, allowing a stepless operation, but this puts some burden on the controller. When using an 8-bit digital controller, 256 microsteps per step are possible. As a digital-to-analog converter produces unwanted ohmic heat in the controller, pulse-width modulation is used instead to regulate the mean current. Simpler models switch voltage only for doing a step, thus needing an extra current limiter: for every step, they switch a single cable to the motor. Bipolar controllers can switch between supply voltage, ground, and unconnected. Unipolar controllers can only connect or disconnect a cable, because the voltage is already hard wired. Unipolar controllers need center-tapped windings. It is possible to drive unipolar stepper motors with bipolar drivers. The idea is to connect the output pins of the driver to 4 transistors. The transistor must be grounded at the emitter and the driver pin must be connected to the base. Collector is connected to the coil wire of the motor. Stepper motors are rated by the torque they produce. Synchronous electric motors using soft magnetic materials (having a core) have the ability to provide position holding torque (called detent torque, and sometimes included in the specications) while not driven electrically. To achieve full rated torque, the coils in a stepper motor must reach their full rated current during each step. The voltage rating (if there is one) is almost meaningless. The motors also suer from EMF, which means that once

54

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Figure 6.3: A typical leadscrew and nut assembly.

the coil is turned o it starts to generate current because the motor is still rotating. There needs to be an explicit way to handle this extra current in a circuit otherwise it can cause damage and aect performance of the motor.

6.1.2

Applications

Computer-controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of positioning systems, particularly when digitally controlled as part of a servo system. Stepper motors are used in oppy disk drives, atbed scanners, printers, plotters and many more devices. Note that hard drives no longer use stepper motors to position the read/write heads, instead utilising a voice coil and servo feedback for head positioning. Stepper motors can also be used for positioning of valve pilot stages, for uid control systems.

6.2

Haydon Switch and Instrument Co.: Leadscrews

Lead Screws The design of many devices require linear motion, there are several ways through which this can be achieved. One of the most eective ways to generate linear motion is through the use of a rotating screw and a nut that translates along the length of the screw. There are several thread forms that have been developed over the years that are tailored to specic needs. The 60 V thread is commonly used on fasteners due to its holding strength and ease of manufacture. The 29 Acme thread was developed over 100 years ago to eciently transmit thrust loads along the length of the screw, thus converting rotary motion into linear motion. Haydon has over 25 years of experience in converting rotary motion to linear motion in our line of linear actuators. As linear systems have evolved there are several features that have become critical to ensure proper function of the system. Some of these features include: accuracy, repeatability, life, maximum load and eciency.

6.2. HAYDON SWITCH AND INSTRUMENT CO.: LEADSCREWS

55

Figure 6.4: Anti-backlash nuts and nut assemblies.

When a leadscrew and nut are used to generate linear motion there are some clearances between the two parts to allow them to t together with no interference. These clearances are essential to the system but can lead to backlash or lost motion when reversing the direction of the load. Anti-Backlash Nuts & Nut Assemblies Haydon oers 4 dierent styles of nuts from a free wheeling non antibacklash nut to a user adjustable anti-backlash nut. All of these nut styles are available on screws ranging from 1/8 [3.2mm] to 5/8 [15.9mm] in diameter with leads as ne as 0.012 [0.3mm] up to fast leads as high as 1.25 [31.75mm]. Contact Haydon today for your custom linear motion solution. Haydons new series of nuts and nut assemblies for our hybrid external linear actuators are manufactured with a proprietary blend of self-lubricating polyacetal. This nut material in conjunction with our precision rolled 303 stainless steel screw material provides low drag torque and smooth operation throughout the life of the assembly. Hybrid Linear Actuators Haydons line of hybrid linear actuators opens new avenues for equipment designers who require high performance and exceptional endurance in a very small package. The various patent pending designs use a proprietary manufacturing process, which incorporates engineering thermoplastics in the rotor drive nut and a stainless steel acme leadscrew. This allows the motor to be much quieter, more ecient and more durable than the v-thread and bronze nut conguration commonly used in other actuators. Motor life is improved more than 10 times over the traditional bronze nut style and it requires no maintenance and does not aect the cost. An additional feature is the bearing pre-load adjustment which, unlike other designs, does not protrude from the motor conguration commonly used in other actuators. The Haydon hybrid actuators come in six sizes, from 21 mm square to 87 mm square. Each size has three designs available captive, non-captive and an external linear version. There are over twenty dierent travels per step available, from .00006 inch (.001524 mm) to .005 inch (.127 mm). Micro stepping can be used for even ner

56

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Figure 6.5: Hybrid Linear Actuators.

resolution. These linear actuators are ideal for applications requiring a combination of precise positioning, rapid motion and long life. Typical applications include X-Y tables, medical equipment, semiconductor handling, telecommunications equipment, valve control, and numerous other uses. Canstack Linear Actuators The Haydon line of can stack linear actuators provides both a broader range and, for a given size, signicantly higher thrust than previously available from ministeppers. Five basic frame sizes are available, 15 mm (.59), 20 mm (.79), 26 mm (1), 36 mm (1.4) and 46 mm (1.8). Available step increments vary with the motor frame sizes and are dependent on the basic step angle of the motor and the leadscrew pitch. A captive, external or non-captive shaft (leadscrew) option can be supplied for almost every size. The captive shaft conguration features a built-in anti-rotation design. The non-captive shaft option requires the customer to provide external anti-rotation. The external linear actuators incorporate a rotary leadscrew and an external translating nut. These motors are ideal for applications where there is no space behind the motor for a through-screw design. Both unipolar and bipolar coil congurations are available. Haydons patented design accepts a larger rotor than conventional units, improving eciency and eliminating the need for massive heat sinks. Unique Haydon features impart ruggedness and reliability that assure long life and consistent performance. Rare earth magnets are available for even higher thrust. All units are built with dual ball bearings for greater motion control, precise step accuracy and long life. Applications include medical instrumentation, machinery automation, entertainment, semiconductor, robotics, sophisticated pumping systems and other automated devices which require precise remote controlled linear movement in a broad range of temperature environments Haydon Switch and Instrument Company A Tritex Corporation Company 1500 Meriden Road Waterbury, CT 06705

6.3. HSI 35000 SERIES: SIZE 14 LINEAR ACTUATORS

57

Figure 6.6: Hybrid Linear Actuators.

Tel: 203-756-7441 Fax: 203-756-8724 Toll Free: 800-243-2715 Site Support by: Progressive Software Solutions

6.3

HSI 35000 Series: Size 14 Linear Actuators

See URL http://www.hsi-inc.com/index.php HSIs Size 14 hybrid linear actuators have been improved to provide higher force, longer life and improved performance. The various patent pending designs deliver exceptional performance and new linear motion design opportunities. Three designs are available, captive, non-captive and external linear versions. The 35000 Series is available in a wide variety of resolutions - from 0.00012" (.003048 mm) per step to 0.00192" (.048768 mm) per step. The motors can also be microstepped for even ner resolutions. The Size 14 actuator delivers thrust of up to 50 lbs. (23 Kg).

Captive

Non-Captive

External

58

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL Salient Characteristics - Series 35000 Size 14 Linear Actuator (Size 14: 35mm (1.4") Hybrid Linear Actuator 1.8 degree step angle) Captive 35H4(X)-V 35H6(X)-V Part No. Non-Captive External Lin. Wiring Operating voltage Current/phase Resistance/phase Inductance/phase Power consumption Rotor inertia Temperature rise Weight 2.33 VDC 1.25 A 1.86 2.8 mH 35F4(X)-V E35H4(X)-V Bipolar 5 VDC 0.57 A 8.8 13 mH 12 VDC 0.24 A 50.5 60 mH 5.7 W 27 gcm2 135 F (75 C) 5.7 oz (162 g) 35F6(X)-V E35H6(X)-V Unipolar** 5 VDC 0.57 A 8.8 6.5 mH 12 VDC 0.24 A 50.5 30 mH

Insulation resistance 20 M **Unipolar drive gives approximately 30% less thrust than bipolar drive. Linear Travel / Step Linear Travel / Step Screw 0.218" (5.54 mm) Screw 0.250" (6.35 mm) Order Order Code Code mm inches I.D. mm inches I.D. 0.00048 0.0121 J 0.00031250 0.007900 A 0.00024 0.0060 K 0.00062500 0.015800 B 0.00012 0.0030 N 0.00125000 0.031700 C 0.00096 0.0243 Q 0.00015625 0.00390000 P 0.00192 0.0487 R Standard motors are Class B rated for maximum temperature of 130o C. Special drive considerations may be necessary when leaving shaft fully extended or fully retracted.

6.3. HSI 35000 SERIES: SIZE 14 LINEAR ACTUATORS Salient Characteristics - Series 35000 Size 14 Hybrid Linear Actuator (Size 14: 35mm (1.4") Hybrid Linear Actuator 0.9 degree step angle) Captive 35K4(X)-V 35K6(X)-V Part No. Non-Captive External Lin. Wiring Operating voltage Current/phase Resistance/phase Inductance/phase Power consumption Rotor inertia Temperature rise Weight 2.33 VDC 1.25 A 1.86 0 mH 35J4(X)-V E35K4(X)-V Bipolar 5 VDC 0.57 A 8.8 0 mH 12 VDC 0.24 A 50.5 60 mH 5.7 W 27 gcm2 135 F (75 C) 5.7 oz (162 g) 35J6(X)-V E35K6(X)-V Unipolar** 5 VDC 0.57 A 8.8 0 mH 12 VDC 0.24 A 50.5 0 mH

59

Insulation resistance 20 M **Unipolar drive gives approximately 30% less thrust than bipolar drive. Linear Travel / Step Linear Travel / Step Screw 0.218" (5.54 mm) Screw 0.250" (6.35 mm) Order Order Code Code mm inches I.D. mm inches I.D. 0.00048 0.0121 J 0.00031250 0.0079 A 0.00024 0.0060 K 0.00062500 0.0158 B 0.00012 0.0030 N 0.00015625 0.0039 P 0.00096 0.0243 Q 0.00007800 0.0020 V 0.00006 0.0015 U Standard motors are Class B rated for maximum temperature of 130o C. Special drive considerations may be necessary when leaving shaft fully extended or fully retracted.

60

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL DIMENSIONAL DRAWING - 35000 SERIES SIZE 14 LINEAR ACTUATOR CAPTIVE SHAFT

DIMENSIONAL DRAWING - 35000 SERIES SIZE 14 LINEAR ACTUATOR NON-CAPTIVE LINEAR

6.3. HSI 35000 SERIES: SIZE 14 LINEAR ACTUATORS DIMENSIONAL DRAWING - 35000 SERIES SIZE 14 LINEAR ACTUATOR EXTERNAL LINEAR

61

62

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

6.4. HSI 28000 SERIES: SIZE 11 LINEAR ACTUATORS

63

Ramping can increase the performance of a motor either by increasing the top speed or getting a heavier load accelerated up to speed faster. Also, deceleration can be used to stop the motor without overshoot. NOTE: All chopper drive curves were created with a 5 volt motor and a 40 volt power supply.

6.4

HSI 28000 Series: Size 11 Linear Actuators

See URL http://www.hsi-inc.com/index.php

64

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

HSIs Size 11 hybrid linear actuators are one of our more compact additions to an extensive line of production proven miniature motors. The various patent pending designs deliver high performance, opening avenues for equipment designers who require performance and endurance in a very small package. Three designs are available, captive, non-captive and external linear versions. The 28000 Series is available in a wide variety of resolutions - from 0.000125" (.003175 mm) per step to 0.002" (.0508 mm) per step. The Size 11 actuator delivers thrust of up to 25 lbs. (11.5 Kg).

Captive

Non-Captive

External

6.4. HSI 28000 SERIES: SIZE 11 LINEAR ACTUATORS Salient Characteristics - Series 28000 Size 11 Linear Actuator (1.8 degree step angle) Captive 28H4(X)-V 28H6(X)-V Part No. Non-Captive External Lin. Wiring Operating voltage Current/phase Resistance/phase Inductance/phase Power consumption Rotor inertia Temperature rise Weight 2.1 VDC 1.00 A 2.1 1.5 mH 28F4(X)-V E28H4(X)-V Bipolar 5 VDC 0.42 A 11.9 6.7 mH 12 VDC 0.18 A 68.6 39. mH 4.2 W 9 gcm2 135 F (75 C) 4.2 oz (119 g) 28F6(X)-V E28H6(X)-V Unipolar** 5 VDC 0.42 A 11.9 3.3 mH 12 VDC 0.18 A 68.6 19.5 mH

65

Insulation resistance 20 M **Unipolar drive gives approximately 30% less thrust than bipolar drive. Linear Travel / Step Screw 0.1875" (4.76 mm) Order Code I.D. 1 2 3 7 9

mm 0.001000 0.002000 0.000500 0.000125 0.000250

inches 0.0254 0.0508 0.0127 0.0031 0.0063

66

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL DIMENSIONAL DRAWING - 28000 SERIES SIZE 11 LINEAR ACTUATOR CAPTIVE SHAFT

DIMENSIONAL DRAWING - 28000 SERIES SIZE 11 LINEAR ACTUATOR NON-CAPTIVE LINEAR

6.4. HSI 28000 SERIES: SIZE 11 LINEAR ACTUATORS DIMENSIONAL DRAWING - 28000 SERIES SIZE 11 LINEAR ACTUATOR EXTERNAL LINEAR

67

68

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Ramping can increase the performance of a motor either by increasing the top speed or getting a heavier load accelerated up to speed faster. Also, deceleration can be used to stop the motor without overshoot. NOTE: All chopper drive curves were created with a 5 volt motor and a 40 volt power supply.

6.5

Deposition Tools

A deposition tool is a device which is mounted on a Fab@Home chassis, and which can deposit material in a controlled fashion to allow the Fab@Home system to build up a three-dimensional object, layer by layer. Here you can look at all of the deposition tools developed for the Fab@Home family of fabbers.

6.5.1

Syringe Tools

A syringe tool is a deposition tool which controls the dispensing of material from a syringe. Syringe tools can be used with almost any uid or paste material. With the addition of temperature control, materials that are solid at room temperature can also be used. Additionally, the materials do not typically need to be very carefully ltered to achieve reasonable results. The drawbacks of syringe tools are: Resolution limited by needle/nozzle diameter - dicult to get below 100 micrometers Need to precisely control the height of the needle/nozzle relative to the object being built

6.5. DEPOSITION TOOLS

69

If too large a gap, the material will tend to bead up and drip from the syringe If too small a gap, the needle/nozzle will plough through previously deposited layers Many methods exist for controlling the ow of material from a syringe, including: A linear motor driving the syringe piston Controlled ow of compressed gas (e.g. air) into the syringe Constant pressure compressed gas behind the material in the syringe with a controlled valve at the syringe tip Model 1 1-Syringe Tool

The standard Model 1 1-Syringe Tool The Model 1 1-Syringe Tool is the standard deposition tool for the Fab@Home Model 1. It uses the linear stepper motor method of controlling syringe piston position, hence material ow. This is the recommended tool for beginner fabbers, in that it allows the use of a very wide variety of materials, the materials do not need careful preparation, it operates in an intuitive fashion, and allows simple swapping of material syringes to build objects with multiple materials.

70 Model 1 2-Syringe Tool

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

The standard Model 1 2-Syringe Tool The Model 1 2-Syringe Tool is a simple modication to the 1-Syringe tool, just wider, with 2 motors, and two syringes. At present only the SolidWorks design les are available. The assembly is essentially identical to that of the 1-Syringe tool. PLEASE NOTE: The 2-Syringe Tool has an additional motor which will require an additional motor amplier, and the addition of a couple of cable connections between the microcontroller and the additional amplier.

6.5.2

Ink-jet Tools

Ink-jet technology is very well developed for the document printing market. Commercial ink-jets require very carefully ltered materials to prevent clogging of the very ne jet orices. The materials must have very well controlled (and low) viscosity to form tiny droplets which can be ejected cleanly from the orice. Standard Ink-jet technology (printer heads) are currently being used for 3d fabrication for example Z-Corp (http://www.zcorp.com/products/ printersdetail.asp?ID=1) uses standard HP Ink-jet cartridges to spray an image a slice at a time onto a layer of powder once a slice has been printed a thin layer of powder is deposited the printer then prints another 2d slice the process is repeated until a 3D physical object has been created. The loose powder is vacuumed out leaving the physical object to be removed. The problem I see with homebrew systems using this technology is that the printer head rmware is tied up (i.e. closed to HP and aliates) meaning it is very dicult / impossible to code for it. To go down this route one would probably need to create there own print head controller as in: http://www.spritesmods.com/?art=inker I decided to take another approach and to use the existing HP rmware. I dismantled an old HP Inkjet and cobbled together a crude X axis controlled by a PIC

6.5. DEPOSITION TOOLS

71

4455 the trick is to move the X axis position the same distance as a piece of paper would move and to monitor position of the X axis so as home the X axis back to its original location so as to be able to print the next layer over the top of the rst and so on. Note before the X axis home(s)it is necessary to lower the base by the amount of the slice height the X axis then drags / scrapes a new thin layer of powder across the last slice printed then the printer continues printing the next slice. With regards to deposition material (binder) for the inkjet cartridge I mixed together sugar water using distilled water the idea being sugar dissolves and solidies acting as a glue to bind the powder. I could successfully print though the ink jet cartridges were quite old i.e. it had been relled with ink at least twice in the past. One benet of using this method is that the unused powder also acts as a support material for overhangs etc. Paragon 15:26, 15 November 2006 (EST)

6.5.3

Fountain Pen Tools

A fountain pen tool is a deposition tool which operates exactly like a fountain pen. A compliant (exible) nib or tip is dragged over the surface on which the material is to be deposited. The nib has a ne channel down which uid ows by capillary action. The uid needs to be carefully ltered, and of low viscosity (about like water). The fountain pen tool can achieve very high resolution (limited by the size of the nib tip, and the surface energy of the uid (the wettability) on the substrate or previous layer. A fountain pen tool is well-suited to drawing electronic circuits using conductive inks, organic polymer semiconductors, etc. Fuel Injectors On nding this fantastic website I emailed Evan with some thoughts and ideas that I have been working on. One of these ideas was with regards to using an electronic automotive fuel injector as a depositition tool. I had four injectors purchased via eBay which where like new removed from a mini. Over the weekend I carried out some basic tests. I hooked the terminals up to a MOSFET with the gate connected to the output of a PIC this allowed me to switch the injector on and o at various rates. I did not have a pump available so I used a large syringe that came with an inkjet rell kit connected to the input of the injector. Initially I lled the syringe with water to check the ow this owed with no problem. I then lled the syringe with a hand cream called E45 (It was all I had available)in the UK this is fairly viscous so I was concerned that the injector would become blocked. I am pleased to say it did not. I then connected a very ne hypodermic needle (which was left over from building a gas turbine fuel injector and not drug abuse! ;-)) to the output of the injector on switching the injector on and o a consistent very ne interrupted stream was witnessed. Paragon 15:24, 15 November 2006 (EST) Worm Driven Extruder A picture speaks a thousand words:

72

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Paragon 05:18, 16 November 2006 (EST) Laser I seem to recall an early rapid prototyping machine using a laser to solidify liquid plastic, then the model was lowered down into the plastic, one layer at a time. Has this been experimented with with the Fab@Home, or is it an outmoded method that would require too much time/eort to be truly practicable? I will do some research, as it seems that the deposition tool/material is the real sticking point for the whole program. (At least to my eyes) Stepper motor technology is mature, and well understood, as CNC machining is actually coming to the home market. Check out 5Bears, a guy who actually made his own CNC mill. But deposition, aye, theres the rub. Great stu here. Von Neumann, anyone? JoshuaViktor@gmail.com Laser prototyping can enhance the capabilities in the rapid prototyping (RP) arena, by allowing a greater range of materials to be used. It can even facilitate the RP of metalic objects. The approach is to heat a layer of metallic powder to near melting point and to trace a laser over areas to be fused. The extra energy that the laser adds is just enough to melt the material and fuses it to the object. Once the layer has been fused a new layer of powder is laid down and the process is repeated. Laser engraver for sintering? Ran across this and thought perhaps it might be adaptable for laser sintering nonmetals... Its a small computer driven laser engraver... If it can engrave something, it

6.6. MICROCONTROLLER

73

oughta be able to sinter it, right? If you could drive the mechanism directly, all youd need to add would be vertical travel on the tray, and a roller/grader to push a new layer of powder over the workpiece... Or maybe just mount the laser on the fab case and a couple of mirrors on the axis travel mechanism to point the laser down where the syringe would be... Just random thoughts, this isnt really my area of expertise. Yet. Anyway, heres the link... http://www.iehk.net/Products/IE300.html Kent It seems that the cheapest that you can get a second-hand CO2 laser in the 30-40W range is about $1000. Despite my initial feeling that its just a couple of of mirrors, some low pressure CO2 and a bulb it seems that they are not easy to build (but Im keeping an open mind, I feel that when your needs are specic there is usually a fudge/hack/shortcut that will get you there). Also delivering the beam from a CO2 laser is not easy. Unlike solid-state lasers, I dont think the price scales rapidly with power. I have been wondering how narrow we could focus a beam and how much power we would need. Clearly the rate of incoming energy / outgoing energy is a complicated thing, certainly not just a matter of x Watts per square meter. This all depends on grain size, material, focus, temperature etc. The only real solution is experimentation. But we need a plausible design to work with rst. Otherwise using a focussed and screened bulb or array thereof may be more suited to home-building. Again such an array is not easily mounted and it would be necessary to come up with a clever system for beam delivery. Casper Heres what seems to be a very detailed FAQ on CO2 laser DYI http://www.repairfaq.org/sam/lasercc2.htm and from the looks of it, building a laser is more expensive than buying a used one (save your money and look for a used laser draws my attention). But isnt the chassis of the Model 1 laser-cut plastic? Wouldnt it be nice if the laser were a tool included in the basic design? I still like the idea of the self-assembling machine shop. Michael

6.6

Microcontroller

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. (Discuss)

74

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip. A microcontroller (or MCU) is a computer-on-a-chip. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-suciency and cost-eectiveness, in contrast to a generalpurpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC).

6.6.1

Embedded design

The majority of computer systems in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as telephones, clocks, appliances, vehicles, and infrastructure. An embedded system usually has minimal requirements for memory and program length and may require simple but unusual input/output systems. For example, most embedded systems lack keyboards, screens, disks, printers, or other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer. They may control electric motors, relays or voltages, and read switches, variable resistors or other electronic devices. Often, the only I/O device readable by a human is a single light-emitting diode, and severe cost or power constraints can even eliminate that.

6.6.2

Higher Integration

In contrast to general-purpose CPUs, microcontrollers do not have an address bus or a data bus, because they integrate all the RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. Because they need fewer pins, the chip can be placed in a much smaller, cheaper package. Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip, but often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a whole. (Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is slightly more than the cost of a CPU + external peripherals, having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit board, and reduces the labor required to assemble and test the circuit board). A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit, commonly with the following features:

6.6. MICROCONTROLLER

75

central processing unit - ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to sophisticated 32- or 64-bit processors input/output interfaces such as serial ports (UARTs) other serial communications interfaces like I2 C, Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect peripherals such as timers and watchdog RAM for data storage ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program storage clock generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit many include analog-to-digital converters This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and PCB space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips and have proved to be highly popular in embedded systems since their introduction in the 1970s. Some microcontrollers can aord to use a Harvard architecture: separate memory buses for instructions and data, allowing accesses to take place concurrently. The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often dicult. The Microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design exibility against timeto-market requirements from their customers and overall lower system cost. Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size against additional functionality. Microcontroller architectures are available from many dierent vendors in so many varieties that each instruction set architecture could rightly belong to a category of their own. Chief among these are the 8051, Z80 and ARM derivatives.[citationneeded]

6.6.3

Large Volumes

Microcontrollers take the largest share of sales in the wider microprocessor market. Over 50% are simple controllers, and another 20% are more specialized digital signal processors (DSPs)[citationneeded] . A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only one or two general-purpose microprocessors but somewhere between one and two dozen microcontrollers. A typical mid range automobile has as many as 50 or more microcontrollers. They can also be found in almost any electrical device: washing machines, microwave ovens, telephones etc.

76

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

A PIC 18F8720 microcontroller in an 80-pin TQFP package. Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. These have included EPROM versions that have a window on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultra violet light, ready for reprogramming after a programming (burn) and test cycle. Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory. A simple EPROM programmer, rather than a more complex and expensive microcontroller programmer, may then be used, however there is a potential loss of functionality through pin outs being tied up with external memory addressing rather than for general input/output. These kind of devices usually carry a cost up in part prices but if the target production quantities are small, certainly in the case of a hobbyist, they can be the most economical option compared with the set up charges involved in mask programmed devices. A more rarely encountered development microcontroller is the piggy back version. This device has no internal ROM memory; instead pin outs on the top of the microcontroller form a socket into which a standard EPROM program memory device may be installed. The benet of this approach is the release of microcontroller pins for input and output use rather than program memory. These kinds of devices are normally expensive and are impractical for anything but the development phase of a project.

6.6.4

Programming Environments

Originally, microcontrollers were only programmed in assembly language, or later in C code. Recent microcontrollers integrated with on-chip debug circuitry accessed by In-circuit emulator via JTAG enables a programmer to debug the software of an embedded system with a debugger. Some microcontrollers have begun to include a built-in high-level programming language interpreter for greater ease of use. The Intel 8052 and Zilog Z8 were available with BASIC very early on, and BASIC is more recently used in the popular BASIC Stamp MCUs.

6.6. MICROCONTROLLER

77

Some microcontrollers such as Analog Devices Blackn processors can be programmed using LabVIEW, which is a high level programming language.

6.6.5

Interrupt Latency

In contrast to general-purpose computers, microcontollers used in embedded systems often seek to minimize interrupt latency over instruction throughput. When an electronic device causes an interrupt, the intermediate results, the registers, have to be saved before the software responsible for handling the interrupt can run, and then must be put back after it is nished. If there are more registers, this saving and restoring process takes more time, increasing the latency. Low-latency CPUs generally have relatively few registers in their central processing units, or they have shadow registers that are only used by the interrupt software.

6.6.6

Development platforms for hobbyists

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For almost every manufacturer of bare microcontrollers, there are a dozen little companies repacking its products into more hobbyist-friendly packages. Their product is often an MCU preloaded with a BASIC or similar interpreter, soldered onto a Dual Inline Pin board along with a power regulator and other goodies. PICmicros seem to be very popular here, possibly due to good static protection. More powerful examples (e.g. faster execution, more RAM and code space) seem to be based on Atmel AVR or Hitachi chips and now ARM. Arduino Arduino is an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple input/output board and a development environment that implements the Processing/Wiring language. Arduino can be used to develop stand-alone interactive objects or can be connected to software on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP). The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free. Arduino uses an ATmega8 or ATmega168 microcontroller from Atmels Atmel AVR series. Platforms from Parallax, Inc. BASIC Stamp by Parallax, is the big name in BASIC microcontrollers. They are Microchip PIC micros programmed with an interpreter that processes the program stored in an external EEPROM. Several dierent modules are available of varying processing speeds, RAM, and EEPROM sizes. Most popular is the original BASIC

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Stamp 2 module. The BASIC Stamp is used by Parallax as a platform for introductory programming and robotic kits. SX-Key, Parallaxs development tool for the SX line of microcontrollers, supporting every SX chip commercially available. Using free SX-Key software (Assembly language), or the SX/B Compiler (BASIC-style language) from Parallax, the SX-Key programming tool can program SX chips in-system and perform in-circuit source-level debugging. Propeller, A multi-core microcontroller developed by Parallax, Inc. It features eight 32bit cores and 32 I/O pins in the currently released version. Each core operates independently at 80Mhz, it is programmed in a language named SPIN(tm) which was developed by Parallax to support this unique micro. PICAXE This PICAXE range of controllers from Revolution Education Limited[1] are based upon Microchip PICmicros programmed with a BASIC interpreter. Using internal EEPROM or Flash to store the users program they deliver a single-chip solution and are quite inexpensive. A PICAXE programmer is simply a serial plug plus two resistors. Complete development software, comprehensive documentation and application notes are all available free of charge. The BASIC-like programming language is almost identical to that used by Parallaxs Basic Stamp 1 (BS1) but has been enhanced to support on-chip hardware and additional functionality. In common with the BS1 programming language, the PICAXE has support only for a limited number of variables, but allows access to internal RAM for storage which helps overcome that limitation. The 5.0.X versions of the Visual IDE ( the Programming Editor ) introduced enhanced compilers which support block-structured programming constructs plus conditional compilation and other directives. Initially targeted at the UK educational sector, use of the PICAXE has spread to hobbyists, semi-professionals and it can also be found inside commercial products. With its user base in many countries, the PICAXE has steadily gained a good international reputation. A-WIT Technologies, Inc. A-WIT Technologies, Inc.[2] has a microcontroller module named the C STAMP, along with support boards, kits, and software tools and infrastructure. The C STAMP is designed around a PIC microcontroller, and is programmed in a very user friendly subset of the standard C language called WC that is easy and powerful, because it relies on A-WITs supplied software infrastructure. This microcontroller module is very aordable, and it has 48 pins, 35 KiB of memory, and runs at 40 MHz. The C STAMP also has a vast array of accessories and components, which are supported by A-WITs software interfaces that enables seamless connectivity. This, in turn, enhances the ease of complete system development.

6.6. MICROCONTROLLER Comle Technology Inc.

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Comle Technology Inc.[3] produces a series of microcontrollers branded as CUBLOC and CuTOUCH, using the Atmel ATmega128 processor. They are very price competitive, being aimed at industrial applications, and include some nice features such as Ladder Logic in addition to BASIC, a huge 80 KiB program memory, and hardware pulse width modulation. Their focus is on developing industrial controllers which are fast, easy-to-use, and versatile. Comle Technologys CuTOUCH is a visual Touchscreen controller that can be programmed in BASIC and Ladder Logic. This product is the rst of its kind in the world yet. Coridium ARMexpress ARMexpress[4] is the rst of a new family of DIP-24 (stamp-sized) controllers that combine a 60 MHz ARM CPU with a builtin BASIC compiler to achieve new levels of performance in this form factor. This combination makes this simple to use but very fast controller a good choice for the prototype builder or system integrator. 40K of code and 40K of data are available to the user, and code speed rivals that of programs written in C. The dialect of BASIC conforms more to Visual BASIC, but has hardware extensions like PBASIC. ZX-24, ZX-40, ZX-44 The ZX series[5] MCUs are based on the Atmel ATmega32 and ATmega644 processors. The devices run a eld-upgradable Virtual Machine that features built-in multi-tasking, 32-bit oating point math and 1.5K to 3.5K of RAM for users programs. Multi-tasking facilitates a more structured approach to coding for interface devices that require prompt service, e.g. serial devices, infrared remotes, etc. The programming language for the ZX series is ZBasic, a modern dialect of Basic modeled after Microsofts Visual Basic. The biggest improvement over the typical MCU Basic dialect is the availability of parameterized subroutines/functions that support local variables. Strong type checking is another improvement that aids in writing correct programs more quickly. User-dened types (structures) are also supported along with aliases, based variables, sub-byte data types (Bit and Nibble) and other advanced capabilities.

6.6.7

See also

Embedded systems Embedded computer Microarchitecture In-circuit emulator (ICE) List of common microcontrollers

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CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

Contiki A small-footprint open source, yet fully featured, operating system developed for use on a number of smallish to large industrial systems ranging from 8-bit computers to embedded microcontrollers. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Embedded Systems

6.7

Universal Serial Bus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Universal Serial Bus

The USB trident Icon Year Created: January 1996 Width: 1 bits Number of Devices: 127 per host Speed: Up to 480 Mbit/s (USB 2.0) Style: Serial Hotplugging? Yes External? Yes Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a serial bus standard to interface devices. A major component in the legacy-free PC, USB was designed to allow peripherals to be connected using a single standardised interface socket, to improve plug-and-play capabilities by allowing devices to be connected and disconnected without rebooting the computer (hot swapping). Other convenient features include powering lowconsumption devices without the need for an external power supply and allowing some devices to be used without requiring individual device drivers to be installed. USB is intended to help retire all legacy serial and parallel ports. USB can connect computer peripherals such as mouse devices, keyboards, PDAs, gamepads and joysticks, scanners, digital cameras and printers. For many devices such as scanners and digital cameras, USB has become the standard connection method. USB is also used extensively to connect non-networked printers; USB simplies connecting several printers to one computer. USB was originally designed for personal computers, but it has become commonplace on other devices such as PDAs and video game consoles. In 2004, there were about 1 billion USB devices in the world.[citationneeded]

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The design of USB is standardized by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF), an industry standards body incorporating leading companies from the computer and electronics industries. Notable members have included Apple Computer, HewlettPackard, NEC, Microsoft, Intel, and Agere.

6.7.1

History

Original USB Logo

As of 2006, the USB specication is at version 2.0 (with revisions). HewlettPackard, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, NEC, and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate than the 1.1 specication. The USB 2.0 specication was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB-IF at the end of 2001. Previous notable releases of the specication were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1. Equipment conforming with any version of the standard will also work with devices designed to any previous specication (known as: backward compatibility). Smaller USB plugs and receptacles for use in handheld and mobile devices, called Mini-B, were added to USB specication in the rst engineering change notice. A new variant of smaller USB plugs and receptables, Micro-USB, was announced by the USB Implementers Forum on January 4, 2007 [1] .

6.7.2

Overview

A USB system has an asymmetric design, consisting of a host controller and multiple daisy-chained peripheral devices. Additional USB hubs may be included in the chain, allowing branching into a tree structure, subject to a limit of 5 levels of branching per controller. No more than 127 devices, including the bus devices, may be connected to a single host controller. Modern computers often have several host controllers, allowing a very large number of USB devices to be connected. USB cables do not need to be terminated.

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A USB hub In USB terminology, individual devices are referred to as functions, because each individual physical device may actually host several functions, such as a webcam with a built-in microphone. Functions are linked in series through hubs. The hubs are special-purpose devices that are not considered functions. There always exists one hub known as the root hub, which is attached directly to the host controller. USB endpoints actually reside on the connected device: the channels to the host are referred to as pipes Functions and hubs have associated pipes (logical channels). Pipes are connections from the host controller to a logical entity on the device named an endpoint. The term endpoint is also occasionally used to refer to the entire pipe. A function can have up to 32 active pipes, 16 into the host controller and 16 out of the controller. Each endpoint can transfer data in one direction only, either into or out of the device/function, so each pipe is uni-directional.

A USB endpoints When a device is rst connected, the host enumerates and recognizes it, and loads the device driver it needs. When a function or hub is attached to the host controller through any hub on the bus, it is given a unique 7 bit address on the bus by the host

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controller. The host controller then polls the bus for trac, usually in a round-robin fashion, so no function can transfer any data on the bus without explicit request from the host controller.

6.7.3

Host controllers

The computer hardware that contains the host controller and the root hub has an interface geared toward the programmer which is called Host Controller Device (HCD) and is dened by the hardware implementer. In the version 1.x age, there were two competing HCD implementations, Open Host Controller Interface (OHCI) and Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI). OHCI was developed by Compaq, Microsoft and National Semiconductor; UHCI was by Intel. VIA Technologies licensed the UHCI standard from Intel; all other chipset implementers use OHCI. UHCI is more software-driven, making UHCI slightly more processor-intensive than OHCI but cheaper to implement. The dueling implementations forced operating system vendors and hardware vendors to develop and test on both implementations which increased cost. During the design phase of USB 2.0 the USB-IF insisted on only one implementation. The USB 2.0 HCD implementation is called the Enhanced Host Controller Interface (EHCI). Only EHCI can support hi-speed transfers. Most of PCI-based EHCI controllers contain other HCD implementations called companion host controller to support Full Speed and Low Speed devices. The virtual HCD on Intel and VIA EHCI controllers are UHCI. All other vendors use virtual OHCI controllers. HCD standards are out of the USB specications scope, and the USB specication does not specify any HCD interfaces.

6.7.4

Device classes

Devices that attach to the bus can be full-custom devices requiring a full-custom device driver to be used, or may belong to a device class. These classes dene an expected behavior in terms of device and interface descriptors so that the same device driver may be used for any device that claims to be a member of a certain class. An operating system is supposed to implement all device classes so as to provide generic drivers for any USB device. Device classes are decided upon by the Device Working Group of the USB Implementers Forum. Example device classes include:[2] 0x03: USB human interface device class (HID), keyboards, mice, etc. 0x08: USB mass storage device class used for USB ash drives, memory card readers, digital audio players etc. 0x09: USB hubs. 0x0B: Smart card readers.

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CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL 0x0E: USB video device class, webcam-like devices, motion image capture devices. 0xE0: Wireless controllers, for example Bluetooth dongles.

USB mass-storage

A Flash Drive, a typical USB mass-storage device. USB implements connections to storage devices using a set of standards called the USB mass storage device class (referred to as MSC or UMS). This was initially intended for traditional magnetic and optical drives, but has been extended to support a wide variety of devices. USB is not intended to be a primary bus for a computers internal storage: buses such as ATA (IDE), Serial ATA (SATA), and SCSI fulll that role. However, USB has one important advantage in that it is possible to install and remove devices without opening the computer case, making it useful for external drives. Today a number of manufacturers oer external portable USB hard drives, or empty enclosures for drives, that oer performance comparable to internal drives. These external drives usually contain a translating device that interfaces a drive of conventional technology (IDE, ATA, SATA, ATAPI, or even SCSI) to a USB port. Functionally, the drive appears to the user just like another internal drive. Other competing standards that allow for external connectivity are eSATA and Firewire. Human-interface devices (HIDs) Mice and keyboards are frequently tted with USB connectors, but because most PC motherboards still retain PS/2 connectors for the keyboard and mouse as of 2006, are generally supplied with a small USB-to-PS/2 adaptor so that they can be used with either USB or PS/2 ports. There is no logic inside these adaptors: they make use of the fact that such HID interfaces are equipped with controllers that are capable of serving both the USB and the PS/2 protocol, and automatically detect which type of port they are plugged in to. Joysticks, keypads, tablets and other humaninterface devices are also progressively migrating from MIDI, PC game port, and PS/2 connectors to USB.

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Apple Macintosh computers have used USB exclusively for all wired mice and keyboards since January 1999.

6.7.5

USB signaling

The USB standard uses the NRZI system to encode data. USB signals are transmitted on a twisted pair of data cables, labelled D+ and D. These collectively use half-duplex dierential signaling to combat the eects of electromagnetic noise on longer lines. D+ and D usually operate together; they are not separate simplex connections. Transmitted signal levels are 0.0-0.3 volts for low and 2.8-3.6 volts for high. USB supports three data rates: A Low Speed rate of up to 1.5 Mbit/s (187.5 kB/s) that is mostly used for Human Interface Devices (HID) such as keyboards, mice, and joysticks. A Full Speed rate of up to 12 Mbit/s (1.5 MB/s). Full Speed was the fastest rate before the USB 2.0 specication and many devices fall back to Full Speed. Full Speed devices divide the USB bandwidth between them in a rst-come rst-served basis and it is not uncommon to run out of bandwidth with several isochronous devices. All USB Hubs support Full Speed. A Hi-Speed rate of up to 480 Mbit/s (60 MB/s). Though Hi-Speed devices are commonly referred to as USB 2.0 and advertised as up to 480 Mbit/s, not all USB 2.0 devices are Hi-Speed. The maximum rate currently (2006) attained with real devices is about half of the full theoretical (60 MB/s) data throughput rate.[3] Most hi-speed USB devices typically operate at much slower speeds, often about 3 MB/s overall, sometimes up to 10-20 MB/s. The USB-IF certies devices and provides licenses to use special marketing logos for either Basic-Speed (low and full) or Hi-Speed after passing a compliancy test and paying a licensing fee. All devices are tested according to the latest spec, so recently-compliant Low Speed devices are also 2.0.

6.7.6

USB connectors

Series A plug and receptacle.

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The connectors which the USB committee specied were designed to support a number of USBs underlying goals, and to reect lessons learned from the varied menagerie of connectors then in service. In particular: The connectors are designed to be robust. Many previous connector designs were fragile, with pins or other delicate components prone to bending or breaking, even with the application of only very modest force. The electrical contacts in a USB connector are protected by an adjacent plastic tongue, and the entire connecting assembly is further protected by an enclosing metal sheath. As a result USB connectors can safely be handled, inserted, and removed, even by a small child. The encasing sheath and the tough moulded plug body mean that a connector can be dropped, stepped upon, even crushed or struck, all without damage; a considerable degree of force is needed to signicantly damage a USB connector. It is dicult to incorrectly attach a USB connector. Connectors cannot be plugged-in upside down, and it is clear from the appearance and kinesthetic sensation of making a connection when the plug and socket are correctly mated. However, it is not obvious at a glance to the inexperienced user (or to a user without sight of the installation) which way round a connector goes, so it is often necessary to try both ways. The connectors are particularly cheap to manufacture. The connectors enforce the directed topology of a USB network. USB does not support cyclical networks, so the connectors from incompatible USB devices are themselves incompatible. Unlike other communications systems (e.g. RJ-45 cabling) gender-changers are almost never used, making it dicult to create a cyclic USB network. A moderate insertion/removal force is specied. USB cables and small USB devices are held in place by the gripping force from the receptacle (without the need for the screws, clips, or thumbturns other connectors require). The force needed to make or break a connection is modest, allowing connections to be made in awkward circumstances or by those with motor disabilities. The connector construction always ensures that the external sheath on the plug contacts with its counterpart in the receptacle before the four connectors within are connected. This sheath is typically connected to the system ground, allowing otherwise damaging static charges to be safely discharged by this route (rather than via delicate electronic components). This means of enclosure also means that there is a (moderate) degree of protection from electromagnetic interference aorded to the USB signal while it travels through the mated connector pair (this is the only location when the otherwise twisted data pair must travel a distance in parallel). In addition, the power and common connections are made after the system ground but before the data connections. This type of staged

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make-break timing allows for safe hot-swapping and has long been common practice in the design of connectors in the aerospace industry. The USB standard species relatively low tolerances for compliant USB connectors, intending to minimize incompatibilities in connectors produced by dierent vendors (a goal that has been very successfully achieved). Unlike most other connector standards, the USB spec also denes limits to the size of a connecting device in the area around its plug. This was done to avoid circumstances where a device complies with the connector specication but its large size blocks adjacent ports. Compliant devices must either t within the size restrictions or support a compliant extension cable which does.

The USB (Type A and B) Connectors Cables have only plugs, and hosts and devices have only receptacles. Hosts have type-A receptacles; devices have type-B. Type-A plugs only mate with type-A receptacles, and type-B with type-B. There are several types of USB connectors, and some have been added as the specication has progressed. An extension to USB called USB On-The-Go allows a single port to act as either a host or a device - chosen by which end of the cable plugs into the socket on the unit. Even after the cable is hooked up and the units are talking, the two units may swap ends under program control. This facility targets units such as PDAs where the USB link might connect to a PCs host port as a device in one instance, yet connect as a host itself to a keyboard and mouse device in another instance. The original USB specication detailed Standard-A and Standard-B plugs and receptacles. The rst engineering change noticed to the USB 2.0 specication added Mini-B plugs and receptacles. USB On-The-Go dened two small form factor connectors, the Mini-A and MiniB, and a universal socket (Mini-AB) for dual host by host/device units.

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CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL A USB Series A plug

Micro-USB is a connector announced by the USB Implementers Forum ( USB-IF) on January 4, 2007.[4] It is intended to replace the Mini-USB plugs used in many new smartphones and PDAs. The Micro-USB plug is rated for 10,000 connect-disconnect cycles. It is about half the height of the mini-USB connector but features a similar width. The Universal Serial Bus Micro-USB Cables and Connectors Specication added Micro-A plugs, Micro-AB receptacles, and Micro-B plugs and receptacles, along with a Standard-A receptacle to Micro-A plug adapter. The Mini-B, Micro-A, Micro-B, and Micro-AB connectors are used for smaller devices such as PDAs, mobile phones or digital cameras. The Standard-A plug is approximately 4 by 12 mm, the Standard-B approximately 7 by 8 mm, and the Micro-A and Micro-B plugs approximately 2 by 7 mm. Microsofts original Xbox game console uses standard USB 1.1 signaling in its controllers, but features a proprietary connector rather than the standard USB connector. With the introduction of the newer Xbox 360 model, Microsoft switched to the standard USB connector. Similarly, IBM UltraPort uses standard USB signaling, but via a proprietary connection format. The maximum length of a USB cable is 5 meters; greater lengths require hubs.[5] USB connections can be extended to 50 m over CAT5 or up to 10 km over ber by using special USB extender products developed by various manufacturers.

6.7.7

Power

Mac OS X dialog displayed when a USB device requires more current than the port can supply The USB specication provides a 5 V (volts) supply on a single wire from which connected USB devices may draw power. The specication provides for no more than 5.25 V and no less than 4.35 V between the +ve and -ve bus power lines. Initially, a device is only allowed to draw 100 mA. It may request more current from the upstream device in units of 100 mA up to a maximum of 500 mA. If a bus-powered hub is used, the devices downstream may only use a total of four units and 400 mA of current. This limits compliant bus-powered hubs to 4 ports, among other things. The host operating system typically keeps track of the power requirements of the USB network and may warn the computers operator when a given segment requires more power than is available.

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On-The-Go and Battery Charging Specication both add new powering modes to the USB specication. Some USB devices draw more power than is permitted by the specication for a single port. This is a common requirement of external hard and optical disc drives and other devices with motors or lamps. Such devices can be used with an external power supply of adequate rating; some external hubs may, in practice, supply sucient power. For portable devices where external power is not available, but not more than 1 A is required at 5 V, devices may have connectors to allow the use of two USB cables, doubling available power but reducing the number of USB ports available to other devices. A number of devices use the 5 V power supply without participating in a proper USB network. The typical example is a USB-powered reading light; fans, mug heaters, battery chargers (particularly for mobile telephones) and even miniature vacuum cleaners are also available. In most cases, these items contain no digitally based circuitry, and thus are not proper USB devices at all. This can cause problems with some computers - the USB specication requires that devices connect in a low-power mode (100 mA maximum) and state how much current they need, before switching, with the hosts permission, into high-power mode. An additional concern is that in addition to limiting the total average power used by the device, the USB specication limits the inrush current (to charge decoupling and bulk capacitors) when the device is rst connected; otherwise, connecting a device could cause glitches in the hosts internal power. There are also devices at the host end that do not support negotiation, such as battery packs that can power USB powered devices; some provide power, while others pass through the data lines to a host PC. There are also USB AC adapters and DC adapters that can be used to power or charge USB powered devices. Some of these devices can supply up to 1A of power. Without negotiation, the powered USB device is unable to inquire if it is allowed to draw 100 mA, 500 mA, or 1 A.

6.7.8

USB compared to FireWire

USB was originally seen as a complement to FireWire (IEEE 1394), which was designed as a high-speed serial bus which could eciently interconnect peripherals such as hard disks, audio interfaces, and video equipment. USB originally operated at a far lower data rate and used much simpler hardware, and was suitable for small peripherals such as keyboards and mice. About the time that the 1394a standard was reaching completion, Apple threatened to charge $1.00 per port to license Apples patents relating to 1394a (Apple had previously not charged any patent royalties for 1394). This fee was considered by many of the USB Core companies to be excessive so they started work on updating the USB standard to oer data rates that were competitive with 1394a. Even though the 1394 patent license fee was eventually set at $0.25 per system (a price set by a group of companies owning the essential patents contained in 1394), the work on USB 2.0 continued. Intel chose to use USB 2.0 in their chipsets rather than to require additional connectors to support 1394 as well as USB. Lack of 1394 support on Intels

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chipset virtually assured that 1394 would have no signicant market penetration in the commercial PC market. The most signicant technical dierences between FireWire and USB include the following: USB networks use a tiered-star topology, while FireWire networks use a repeaterbased topology. USB uses a speak-when-spoken-to protocol; peripherals cannot communicate with the host unless the host specically requests communication. A FireWire device can communicate with any other node at any time, subject to network conditions. A USB network relies on a single host at the top of the tree to control the network. In a FireWire network, any capable node can control the network. These and other dierences reect the diering design goals of the two buses: USB was designed for simplicity and low cost, while FireWire was designed for high performance, particularly in time-sensitive applications such as audio and video. USB 2.0 Hi-Speed versus FireWire 400

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The signaling rate of USB 2.0 Hi-Speed mode is 480 Mb/s, while the signaling rate of FireWire 400 (IEEE 1394a, the slower, yet more common variant of rewire as of 2007) is 393.216 Mb/s [6] .[7] In practice, other design factors can dwarf a relatively small dierence in signaling rate. USB requires more host processing power than FireWire due to the need for the host to provide the arbitration and scheduling of transactions. The peer-to-peer nature of FireWire requires devices to arbitrate, which means a FireWire bus must wait until a given signal has propagated to all devices on the bus. The more devices on the bus, the lower is its peak performance. Conversely, for USB the maximum timing model is xed and is limited only by the host-device branch (not the entire network). Furthermore, the host-centric nature of USB allows the host to allocate more bandwidth to high priority devices instead of forcing them to compete for bandwidth as in FireWire.[8] USB transfer rates are theoretically higher than FireWire due to the need for FireWire devices to arbitrate for bus access. A single FireWire device may achieve a transfer rate for FireWire 400 as high as 41 Mb/s, while for USB 2.0 the rate can theoretically be 55 Mb/s (for a single device). In practice, FireWire 400 is generally faster than USB 2.0 Hi-Speed mode[9] . USB 2.0 Hi-Speed reached a performance level sucient for consumer equipment while retaining compatibility with older devices. An example of how the popularity of USB displaced FireWire in a commercial device is the Apple iPod. It was originally released with a FireWire connector, which was eventually modied to allow for both

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USB and FireWire connections when the product was released for Windows. 3rd generation iPods used USB and Firewire for data transfer and only allows a FireWire connection to charge the battery from the main adapter. The iPod does charge via both cables when connected to the host computer. With the 4th generation and newer, iPods use USB for data transfer and both USB and Firewire for charging. The Firewire controller chip set has been removed in favour with reduced costs. The iPod Nano and shue only support USB.[10] Today, USB Hi-Speed is used in many consumer products. FireWire, however, retains its popularity in areas such as video and audio production. FireWire 800 (Apples name for the 9-pin S800 bilingual version of the IEEE 1394b standard) was introduced commercially by Apple in 2003. This newer 1394 specication and corresponding products allow a transfer rate of 786.432 Mbit/s. [11]

6.7.9

Version history

Hi-Speed USB Logo USB OTG Logo USB 0.7: Released in November 1994. USB 0.8: Released in December 1994. USB 0.9: Released in April 1995. USB 0.99: Released in August 1995. USB 1.0 Release Candidate: Released in November 1995. USB 1.0: Released in January 1996. Specied data rates of 1.5 Mbit/s (Low-Speed) and 12 Mbit/s (FullSpeed). Did not anticipate or pass-through monitors. Few such devices actually made it to market. USB 1.1: Released in September 1998. Fixed problems identied in 1.0, mostly relating to hubs. Earliest revision to be widely adopted. USB 2.0: Released in April 2000. Added higher maximum speed of 480 Mbit/s (now called Hi-Speed). Mini-B Connector ECN: Released in October 2000. Specications for Mini-B plug and receptable. These should not be confused with Micro-B plug and receptable. Errata as of December 2000: Released in December 2000. Resistor ECN: Released in May 2002. Errata as of May 2002: Released in May 2002.

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CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL Interface Associations ECN: Released in May 2003. New standard desriptor was added that allows multiple interfaces to be associated with a single device function. Rounded Chamfer ECN: Released in October 2003. Unicode ECN: Released in February 2005. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1.0: Released in December 2001. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1.0a: Released in June 2003. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1.2: Released in April 2006. USB On-The-Go Supplement 1.3: Released in December 2006. This is the current revision. MicroUSB 1.01: Released in April 2007. Inter-Chip USB 1.0: Released in March 2006. Battery Charging Specication 1.0: Released in March 2007. Adds support for dedicated chargers (power supplies with USB connectors), host chargers (USB hosts that can act as chargers) and the Dead Battery Provision which allows devices to temporarily draw 100 mA current after they have been attached.

6.7.10

Related technologies

The PictBridge standard allows for interconnecting consumer imaging devices. It typically uses USB as the underlying communication layer. The USB Implementers Forum is working on a wireless networking standard based on the USB protocol. Wireless USB is intended as a cable-replacement technology, and will use Ultra-wideband wireless technology for data rates of up to 480 Mbit/s. Wireless USB is well suited to wireless connection of PC centric devices, just as Bluetooth is now widely used for mobile phone centric personal networks (at much lower data rates). Powered USB uses standard USB signaling with the addition of extra power lines for point-of-sale terminals. It uses 4 additional pins to supply up to 6A at either 5V, 12V, or 24V (depending on keying) to peripheral devices. The wires and contacts on the USB portion have been upgraded to support higher amperage on the 5V line, as well. This is commonly used in Point of Sale applications and provides enough power to operate stationary barcode scanners, printers, pin pads, signature capture devices, etc. This standard was developed by IBM, NCR, and FCI/Berg. It is essentially two connectors stacked such that the bottom connector accepts a standard USB plug and the top connector takes a power connector.

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6.7.11

References

1. USB Developers Approve Micro-USB Connector Specication, InformationWeek, Jan 4, 2007 2. USB Class Codes 3. How Fast Does A USB 2.0 Drive Go On The Newest Macs? How Does It Compare To FireWire? 4. USB Implementers Forum (2007-01-04). Mobile phones to adopt new, smaller USB connector. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 5. USB Frequently Asked Questions at usb.org site 6. see also List of device bandwidths#Computer buses (external) 7. choice.com.au 8. USB 2.0 vs. FireWire (English). digit-life.com. Retrieved on 19 March 2007. 9. Heron, Robert. USB 2.0 Versus FireWire. TechTV. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 10. How Fast Does A USB 2.0 Drive Go On The Newest Macs? How Does It Compare To FireWire? (English). Bare Feats. Retrieved on 19 March 2007. 11. FireWire vs. USB 2.0 (English). USB Ware. Retrieved on 19 March 2007.

6.7.12

External links

Wikibooks has more about this subject: Serial Programming:USB Technical Manual Home of USB Implementers Forum, Inc., including the USB 2.0 specication USB FOR DOS Universal Host Controller Interface (UHCI) What is USB?PDF (121 KB) - Short, simple description of USB with good pictures of cable breakdown and plugs Challenges of Migrating to Wireless USB - Article showing the dierences between USB and Wireless USB from a technical point of view A Mac USB 2.0 vs. FireWire comparison Speed comparison using Apple drivers for USB 2.0 Focus on Universal Serial Bus hardware design USB in a Nutshell Easy to understand USB explanation targeting peripheral designers. Serial to USB converter schematic

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6.8

STL (le format)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia STL (Standard Tessellation Language)[citationneeded] is a le format native to the stereolithography CAD software created by 3D Systems of Valencia, CA, USA. STL les are imported and exported by many other software packages. STL les describe only the surface geometry of a three dimensional object without any representation of color, texture or other common CAD model attributes. The STL format species both ASCII and binary representations, although binary les are more common since they are more compact. An STL le describes a raw unstructured triangulated surface by the unit normal and vertices (ordered by the right-hand rule) of the triangles using a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.

6.8.1

ASCII STL

An ASCII STL le begins with the line: solid name where name is an optional string. The le continues with any number of triangles, each represented as follows: facet normal n1 n2 outer loop vertex v11 v12 vertex v21 v22 vertex v31 v32 endloop endfacet and concludes with: endsolid name The structure of the format suggests that other possibilities exist (eg Facets with more than one loop or loops with other than three vertices) but in practice, all facets are simple triangles. White space (spaces, tabs, newlines) may be used anywhere in the le except within numbers or words. The spaces between facet and normal and between outer and loop are required. n3 v13 v23 v33

6.8.2

Binary STL

Because ASCII STL les can become very large, a binary version of STL exists. A binary STL le has an 80 character header (which is generally ignored - but which should never begin with solid because that will lead most software to assume that this

6.8. STL (FILE FORMAT)

95

is an ASCII STL le). Following the header is a 4 byte unsigned integer indicating the number of triangular facets in the le. Following that is data describing each triangle in turn. The le simply ends after the last triangle. Each triangle is described by twelve oating point numbers: three for the normal and then three for the X/Y/Z coordinate of each vertex - just as with the ASCII version of STL. After the twelve oats there is a two byte unsigned short integer that is the attribute byte count - in the standard format, this should be zero because most software does not understand anything else. Floating point numbers are represented as IEEE oating point numbers and the endianness is assumed to be little endian although this is not stated in documentation.

6.8.3

Colour in Binary STL

There are at least two variations on the binary STL format for adding colour information: VisCAM/SolidView The VisCAM and SolidView software packages use the two attribute byte count bytes at the end of every triangle to store a 15 bit RGB colour: bit 0 to 4 are the intensity level for blue (0 to 31) bits 5 to 9 are the intensity level for green (0 to 31) bits 10 to 14 are the intensity level for red (0 to 31) bit 15 is 1 if the colour is valid bit 15 is 0 if the colour is not valid (as with normal STL les) Magics The Materialise Magics software does things a little dierently. It uses the 80 byte header at the top of the le to represent the overall colour of the entire part. If colour is used, then somewhere in the header should be the ASCII string COLOR= followed by four bytes representing Red, Green, Blue and Alpha channel (transparency) in the range 0-255. This is the colour of the entire object unless overridden at each facet. The per-facet colour is represented in the two attribute byte count bytes as follows: bit 0 to 4 are the intensity level for red (0 to 31) bits 5 to 9 are the intensity level for green (0 to 31) bits 10 to 14 are the intensity level for blue (0 to 31) bit 15 is 1 if this facet has its own unique colour bit 15 is 0 if the per-object colour is to be used (or no colour at all if the COLOR= string is absent from the header.

96 NOTE:

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

The red/green/blue ordering within those two bytes is reversed in these two approaches - so whilst these formats could easily have been compatible the reversal of the order of the colours means that they are not - and worse still, a generic STL le reader cannot automatically distinguish between them. There is also no way to have facets be selectively transparent because there is no per-facet alpha value - although in the context of current rapid prototyping machinery, this is not important.

6.8.4

The Facet Normal

In both ASCII and binary versions of STL, the facet normal should be a unit vector pointing outwards from the solid object. In most software this may be set to (0,0,0) and the software will automatically calculate a normal based on the order of the triangle vertices using the right hand rule. Some STL loaders (eg the STL plugin for Art of Illusion) check that the normal in the le agrees with the normal they calculate using the right hand rule and warn you when it does not. Other software may ignore the facet normal entirely and use only the right hand rule. So in order to be entirely portable one should provide both the facet normal and order the vertices appropriately - even though it is seemingly redundant to do so.

6.8.5

History of use

Stereolithography machines are basically 3D printers that can build any volume shape as a series of slices. Ultimately these machines require a series of closed 2D contours that are lled in with solidied material as the layers are fused together. The natural le format for such a machine would be a series of closed polygons corresponding to dierent Z-values. However, since its possible to vary the layer thicknesses for a faster though less precise build, it seemed easier to dene the model to be built as a closed polyhedron that could be sliced at the necessary horizontal levels. The STL le format appears capable of dening a polyhedron with any polygonal facet, but in practice its only ever used for triangles, which means that much of the syntax of the le is superuous. It is also the case that the value of the normal shouldnt be necessary, since that is a direct calculation from the coordinates of the triangle with the orientation being controlled by the right hand rule. STL les are supposed to be closed and connected like a combinatorial surface, where every triangular edge is part of exactly two triangles, and not self-intersecting. Since the syntax does not enforce this property, it can be ignored for applications where the closedness doesnt matter. The closedness only matters insofar as the software which slices the triangles requires it to ensure that the resulting 2D polygons are closed. Sometimes such software can be written to cleanup small discrepancies by moving endpoints of edges that are close together so that they coincide. The results are not predictable, but it is often sucient to get the job done.

6.8. STL (FILE FORMAT)

97

Obviously, there is much scope for improvement of this le format, which in its present form is nothing more than a listing of groups of 9 (or 12 if you care about the normals) oating point numbers embedded in some unnecessary syntax. Since each vertex is on average going to be used in six dierent triangles, considerable savings in memory could be obtained by listing all the points in a table at the beginning of the le, and concluding with a list of triangle denitions comprised of triplets of integers that referenced this table. However, for the purpose of a generating a single contour slice using a very lightweight piece of software on a computer with little memory, this format is perfect since it can be processed in one pass regardless of le size.

6.8.6

Use in other elds.

Many Computer-aided design systems are able to output the STL le format among their other formats because its quick and easy to implement, if you ignore the connection criteria of the triangles. Many Computer-aided manufacturing systems require triangulated models as the basis of their calculation. Since an STL le output, of a sorts, is almost always available from the CAD system, its often used as a quick method for importing the necessary triangulated geometry into the CAM system. Once it works, there is very little motivation to change, even though it is far from the most memory and computationally ecient method for transferring this data. Many integrated CAD and CAM systems transfer their geometric data using this accidental le format, because its impossible to go wrong. There are many other le formats capable of encoding triangles available, such as VRML, DXF, but they have the disadvantage that its possible to put things other than triangles into it, and thus produce something ambiguous or unusable.

6.8.7

See also

RepRap is an OpenSource project that uses STL le input and generates solid objects as output. PLY (le format) is an alternative le format with more exibility that is in use in some stereolithography applications. MeshLab is an open source Windows and Linux application for visualizing, processing and converting three dimensional meshes to or from the STL le format.

6.8.8

External links

The STL Format - Standard Data Format for Fabbers: The STL Format. (http://www.ennex.com/ fabbers/StL.asp)

98

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL How to Create an STL le Guide to exporting STL les from various CAD packages (courtesy of ProtoCAM) (http://www.protocam.com/html/stl.html) SolidView (http://www.solidview.com) SolidView is a commercial STL manipulation package that has a Lite version available (under provision of a business email address) for STL viewing. Freesteel (http://www.freesteel.co.uk/) with a web-interface where you can upload an STL le and render it into an image in your browser. ADMesh (http://www.varlog.com/products/admesh) is a GPLed text-based program for processing triangulated solid meshes, and reads and writes the STL le format.

6.9

Xylotex: Automation, Motion Control & Robotics Products

XylotexR

The XS-3525/8S-4 Stepper Motor Driver Board (Ver 4.00) $185.00 Four axis bipolar drive 2.5 Amp/Phase PWM controlled drives up to 35 Volt (w/BEMF) FULL, HALF, QUARTER, & EIGHTH step/Full Step Built-in DC-DC Converter for 5 Volt Logic Filtered and Buered STEP & DIR Signals Built-in Break-out:Screw Terminals for Unused Parallel Port I/O

6.9. XYLOTEX: AUTOMATION, MOTION CONTROL & ROBOTICS PRODUCTS99 Synchronous Rectication Internal UVLO and Thermal Shutdown circuitry Easy connect for most popular Step/Direction control software Small Size: 5.65 X 2.85 Use with Mach2 (WinXP or Win2K) or TurboCNC (DOS) This is a Four axis micro-stepping bi-polar PWM current regulated stepper motor driver. It can be congured to deliver up to 2.5 Amps/phase up to a maximum of 35 Volts (including BEMF) Each axis is independently jumper selectable to operate in either FULL, HALF, QUARTER or EIGHTH step modes. For a typical 1.8 (200 spr) stepper motor, this means up to 1,600 steps per revolution (16,000 steps per inch if driving a 10 tpi lead screw). The drive is shipped in 1/8th step mode. Additional jumpers required if lower resolution wanted. Use this board for a 4 axis system, or a 3 axis system where you may want to add a fourth later (it is OK to just have three motors hooked up). Each axis has a potentiometer to allow maximum motor current drive adjustment. The on-board IDC header accepts standard 26 pin IDC connectors for easy connection to IDC DB25 male connectors which can be directly connected to a PCs parallel port to drive the boards STEP and DIRECTION input signals. Other unused parallel port pin signals are routed to screw terminals for possible o-board use. (DB25 pin use (2) Step X (3) Dir X (4) Step Y (5) Dir Y (6) Step Z (7) Dir Z, (8) Step A, (9) Dir A (18-25) GND) Each axis has an ENA# pin to allow enabling/disabling of the motor currentdrivers. PLEASE NOTE: Althought the driver board does provide unmodied/unbuffered access to the unused parallel I/O through screw terminals, the board plays no other role in handling of home/limit switches, E-STOP, or Spindle/Coolant relay control, etc. If you want a break-out board, look here:breakout boards under hardware. To see a possible method of connecting switches to a drive board, look at the top of this PAGE.. Please Read the datasheet for more information!: http://www.xylotex.com/XS3525V400.pdf These drive boards are Fully Assembled and Tested. If you have more questions regarding using the board with your application: Contact Xylotex Before using the device, the potentiometers must be set for proper current output, which requires the use of your voltage/multimeter! When running at High Current (generally 2.0A/phase or above), convective cooling (fan) required. You get: XS-3525/8S-4 & theIDC26-DB25 cable (IDC26-DB25 Cable is NOT a Parallel port Extension cable, it connects the board to one though) Shipping is $8.00 single board only to Continental US via USPS Priority Mail (2-3 Day Service) (each additional board $2.00)

100 Copyright c 2005 by Xylotex All rights reserved Revised 20-DEC-2005 URL: http://www.xylotex.com

CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

6.10

Firmware

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In computing, rmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. It is often provided on ash ROMs or as a binary image le that can be uploaded onto existing hardware by a user.

6.10.1

Denitions

A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, rmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). Firmware is dened as: the computer program in a read-only memory (ROM) integrated circuit (a hardware part number or other conguration identier is usually used to represent the software); the erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) chip, whose program may be modied by special external hardware, but not by [a general purpose] application program.[1] the electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip, whose program may be modied by special electrical external hardware (not the usual optical light), but not by [a general purpose] application program.

6.10. FIRMWARE

101

6.10.2

Origins

The term rmware was originally used for micro-programs written for micro sequencers such as AMD29xx. Later on, it was coined to indicate a functional replacement for hardware on low-cost microprocessors. Firmware in many devices can now be updated without the need for additional hardware, often through the use of vendor-provided software. In practical terms, rmware updates can improve the performance and reliability, indeed even the basic available functionality of a device, and many devices benet from regular rmware updates. One of the most common devices to have regular rmware updates are recording devices such as optical media writers (DVD, CD, HD DVD, Blu-ray), as media technologies extend, so rmware updates ensure hardware is kept up to date and compatible.

6.10.3

Evolved rmware uses

Firmware has evolved to mean the programmable content of a hardware device, which can consist of machine language instructions for a processor, or conguration settings for a xed-function device, gate array or programmable logic device. A typical common feature of rmware is that it can be updated post-manufacturing, either electronically, or by replacing a storage media such as a socketed memory chip. Firmware can but is not required to expose an externally accessible interface. For example, in some modem implementations the rmware is not directly accessible, but is part of a combination of hardware and rmware that responds to commands from the host system. Firmware has traditionally been stored in ROM, however cost and performance requirements have driven component vendors to adopt various replacements, including non-volatile media such as EEPROM and Flash, or SRAM solutions, such as the rmware loaded by an operating system device driver, as described below.

6.10.4

Firmware and device drivers

Most devices attached to modern systems are special-purpose computers in their own right, running their own software. Some of these devices store that software (rmware) in a ROM within the device itself. Over the years, however, manufacturers have found that loading the rmware from the host system is both cheaper and more exible. As a result, much current hardware is unable to function in any useful way until the host computer has fed it the requisite rmware. This rmware load is handled by the device driver.

6.10.5

Firmware support challenges in PCs

In some respects rmware is as much a software component of a working system as the operating system. However, unlike most modern operating systems, rmware

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CHAPTER 6. BACKGROUND MATERIAL

rarely has a well evolved mechanism for updating itself to x bugs and addressing functionality issues that are detected after the unit is shipped. The easiest rmware to update is typically the system boot-related rmware, such as the BIOS in PCs. Some devices, such as video adapters and modems, frequently rely on rmware that is loaded dynamically by the operating system device driver, and thus is updated through the operating system update mechanisms entirely transparent to the user. In contrast, storage device rmware is rarely updated with the same consistency as other parts of the system. Further, the mechanisms for detecting rmware versions and updating them are not standardized. As a result, these devices tend to have a signicantly higher percentage of rmware-driven functionality issues, as compared to other parts of a modern computer system.

6.10.6

Examples

Examples of rmware include: The BIOS found in IBM-compatible Personal Computers; The platform code found on Itanium and Itanium2 systems, Intel-based Mac OS X machines, and many Intel desktop boards is EFI compliant rmware; The operating system on a router, such as the Linksys WRT54G Open Firmware, used in computers from Sun Microsystems and Apple Computer; ARCS, used in computers from Silicon Graphics; RTAS (Run-Time Abstraction Services), used in computers from IBM; EPROM chips used in the Eventide H-3000 series of digital music processors. Adding features on the PSP The iPods control menus The Xbox 360 Dashboard The Common Firmware Environment (CFE) Washing Machines (WM) FPGA or CPLD programming les used to congure hardware for a variety of purposes.

6.10.7

See also

ROM image Microcode

6.11. NXP SEMICONDUCTORS CORP: LPC2148 MICROCONTROLLER

103

6.10.8

References

1. Federal Standard 1037C

6.11
6.11.1

NXP Semiconductors Corp: LPC2148 Microcontroller


Introduction

The LPC214x series is the only ARM7 R microcontroller family with full USB 2.0 compliance and USB.org certication. The full-speed USB 2.0 device supports 32 end points with 2KB of endpoint RAM, 8KB of RAM usable by the USB DMA (LPC2146 and LPC2148 only), and all data transfer modes (Control, Interrupt, Bulk and Isochronous). These MCUs allow designers to add USB functionality to almost any end application starting at only $3.60 for the LPC2141 (MSRP US dollars based on 10Kpcs). In addition to the USB 2.0 full-speed device, these low-power MCUs have from 32KB to 512KB of zero wait-state on-chip ash, 8KB to 40KB SRAM, 10-bit ADCs, 10-bit DAC, and a low-power Real Time Clock. These small 10mm x 10mm LQFP64 packaged controllers are loaded with serial communications interfaces including multiple UARTs, I2 C, and SPI, as well as 45 fast general purpose I/O lines.

LPC214x Chip Family. Key Features 32-Bit ARM7 R Core Architecture Full-Speed USB 2.0 Device Very Fast On-Chip Flash Up to 512KB Up to 40KB SRAM 45 Fast I/O Pins with Up to 15MHz Switching Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) Very Small 10mm x 10mm LQFP Packaging Ideal for Entertainment, Connectivity, and Display Applications

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6.11.2

Block Diagram

Hardware Block Diagram. Comparison Table RAM ADC 8KB 1 (6 Channels) 16KB 1 (6 Channels) 16KB 2 (14 Channels) 32KB 2 (14 Channels) + 8KB1 LPC2148 512KB 32KB 2 (14 Channels) 1 + 8KB 1 Shared with USB DMA; See Datasheet Product LPC2141 LPC2142 LPC2144 LPC2146 Flash 32KB 64KB 128KB 256KB DAC 1 1 1 1 Packages LPFP64 LPFP64 LPFP64 LPFP64 LPFP64

for Details

LPC2141, LPC2142, LPC2144, LPC2146, and LPC2148 ARM7 Core MCUs LPC2141 Microcontroller with USB 2.0 full-speed device, 32KB ISP/IAP ash, 10-bit ADC LPC2142 Microcontroller with USB 2.0 full-speed device, 64KB ISP/IAP ash, 10-bit ADC, DAC LPC2144 Microcontroller with USB 2.0 full-speed device, 128KB ISP/IAP ash, 2x10-bit ADC, DAC

6.11. NXP SEMICONDUCTORS CORP: LPC2148 MICROCONTROLLER

105

LPC2146 Microcontroller with USB 2.0 full-speed device, 256KB ISP/IAP ash, 2x10-bit ADC, DAC LPC2148 Microcontroller with USB 2.0 full-speed device, 512KB ISP/IAP ash, 2x10-bit ADC, DAC

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Chapter 7 Assembly Tools


Here you can nd all of the recommended tools for assembling your Fab@Home.

7.1

Assembly Tools for Model 1

ARM JTAG adapter for programming your microcontroller (see the Model 1 Firmware page for recommendations). Soldering Equipment Soldering Iron with ne point tip Solder wire - Pb-free recommended or 60/40 is ne. Soldering ux - look for water soluble Sponge for cleaning soldering iron tip Small slot screwdriver Set of Allen (hex) wrenches 2mm (for M2.5 metric screw) 2.5mm (for M3 metric screw) 5/64 (for #2 screw) 3/32 (for #4 screw) 7/64 (for #6 screw) 9/64 (for #8 screw) Wire stripper (combo stripper crimper tool is nice) Wire cutter (cutting cables) Small needlenose pliers with very narrow tips (for crimping and general manipulation) 107

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CHAPTER 7. ASSEMBLY TOOLS

Cigarette lighter or candle ame for sealing the ends of cable protection braid Hair dryer or heat-gun for applying heat-shrink tube to soldered cables Small vise for making ribbon cable connectors (for uniform compression of connector parts) Tape measure or yard stick for measuring cable lengths Masking tape, sticky labels, or a label-maker (e.g. Brother label maker) for labeling cables and cable bundles Digital Multimeter (a.k.a. multimeter or electronics tester) (not essential, but recommended)

7.2

Vendors

Radio Shack and Home Depot together can supply all of these items

Chapter 8 Styling
Here you can learn about ways of personalizing your Fab@Home, including: Colors of parts Etched logos and images on your parts Acrylic parts with shapes customized for style and any other ideas you might have.

8.1

Colors of Parts

The acrylic used for the Model 1 Chassis and 1-Syringe Tool is available in a wide variety of colors, both opaque and translucent. The following vendors links describe some of the colors available: RP Plastics Plexiglas Acrylic Delvies Plastics Translucent 0.236 Acrylic Colors Delvies Plastics Transparent 0.236 Acrylic Colors Delvies Plastics Fluorescent 0.236 Acrylic Colors The protective braiding is also available in a wide variety of colors. The following pictures give a sense of the range of colors available, and were taken from: www.cableorganizer.com

Grays and Blacks

Reds 109

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CHAPTER 8. STYLING

Yellows, Greens, Blues, and combos

8.2

Etched Logos and Images

If you have your acrylic parts cut via laser cutter, you can have logos and images etched onto them (at some additional expense, if you are outsourcing the parts). Etching from the back of the part makes the logos appear to oat inside the part. You can have almost any image le format etched onto your parts by Koba Industries or any sign shop or trophy shop that has laser engraving equipment.

Here you see the some of the logos we have played with etched in mirror image onto the back side of the Model 1 Base Front piece.

We are experimenting with some new graphics - the ames are courtesy of Jon Hiller of the Cornell Computational Synthesis Laboratory.

The Fab@Home logo and name writ large on the right side of a Model 1

8.3

Parts with Styled Shapes

If you have a clear idea of how the Fab@Home parts t together, you can easily change the shapes of the acrylic pieces without aecting how they assemble. This

8.4. SHOW YOUR STYLE

111

means you can drastically change the shape of your fabber, perhaps to get away from the bland Bread Box design of the Model 1. Put cutout holes where you nd them convenient. How about sculpted ames on the chassis of your overclocked fabber?

8.4

Show your Style

See the Fabbers of the World gallery page for some examples of stylish variations on the Fab@Home design. Please post your own fabber amongst the Fabbers of the World. If you are particularly proud of the style of your fabber, why not vie for a Fab@Home Award for style?

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CHAPTER 8. STYLING

Chapter 9 Model 1 Bill of Materials


Here you can nd details of what you need to buy to build a standard Fab@Home Model 1 Fabber. The majority of the parts are o the shelf - you can simply order them o the web from the recommended supplier, or nd your own locally or online. The acrylic parts (unit) can by ordered through Koba Industries of Albuquerque, NM, USA, and a set of acrylic parts is listed as a line item in the Bill of Materials spreadsheet below. Alternatively, you can cut the acrylic parts yourself if you have access to a laser cutter, waterjet cutter, CNC router or mill, etc. The current cost of all the materials as ordered from the current list of vendors is about US$2300. If you nd a better and/or cheaper alternative source for any of the parts or services, please update this list or the vendor list. Please Note: You can also order a complete kit of parts from Koba Industries of Albuquerque, NM, USA.

9.1

Bill of Materials Spreadsheet

Here you can nd a spreadsheet listing all of the parts for a Standard Model 1 including the 1-Syringe Tool, and a set of acrylic parts from Koba Industries. Note: Bill of materials rows highlighted in yellow have changed or been added since the last version of the le. Note: Most people will also need to purchase an ARM JTAG adapter for programming the LPC-H2148.

9.1.1

Current Version

Link: FAHModel1Parts-V9f.zip Version: 9f Date: 14:51, 6 April 2007 (EDT) Format: zip archive of Excel Spreadsheet Size: 12KB 113

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Note: Updated price and link to Koba Industries acrylic parts set for Model 1

9.1.2

Legacy Versions

Link: FAHModel1Parts-V9e.xls.gz Version: 9e Date: 16:54, 04 January 2007 (CST) Format: gzip archive of Excel Spreadsheet Size: 12KB Note: Updated some obsolete part numbers to parts that are currently available

9.2

Bill of Materials

This is a summary of the information available in the spreadsheet. 1. Linear Stepper Motors Package. Set of 4 Linear Stepper Motors and accessories. Order 1 SP 058 from HSI Inc., $610.59. Contains: Syringe Tool Linear Motor. Size 11 Non-captive Hybrid Linear Actuator; 5V; bipolar; 5.25inch shaft length overall; 6.68mm long M3X0.5 thread one end; 0.125+/-0.001inchOD X 0.25inchL journal other end. Part No. 28F47-05-023ENG from HSI, Inc., $129.20. X Axis Linear Motor. Size 14 External Hybrid Linear Actuator; 5V; bipolar;13.708inch shaft length overall; 0.25inchOD X 0.000625inch (B-series) thread; 1.25inchL X 0.187+/0.001inchOD journal. Part No. E35H4B-05-013ENG from HSI, Inc., $150.00. Y Axis LInear Motor. Size 14 External Hybrid Linear Actuator; 5V; bipolar;12.878inch shaft length overall; 0.25inchOD X 0.000625inch (B-series) thread; 1.25inchL X 0.187+/0.001inchOD journal. Part No. E35H4B-05-013ENG from HSI, Inc., $145.50. Z Axis Linear Motor. Size 14 External Hybrid Linear Actuator; 5V; bipolar; 10inch shaft length overall; 0.25inchOD X 0.00015625inch (P-series) thread; 0.974inchL X 0.187+/0.001inchOD journal. Part No. E35H4P-05-010ENG from HSI, Inc., $132.00 X Slave Axis Lead Screw. 0.25inch OD X 0.000625inch (B-series) lead screw; 14.506inch length overall; 0.187+/0.001inch OD journal both ends; 1inch and 1.25inch long. Part No. LSS-025-0125A97 from HSI, Inc., $41.89. Additional Lead Nuts for X, Y Axes. To couple belt driven X shaft to X carriage; and to help stabilize the Y carriage (use 2 nuts). Part No. 42-195-2 from HSI, Inc., need 2, $12.00.

9.2. BILL OF MATERIALS

115

2. Nylon Zip Cable Ties; 4 inch long. Order 1 pkg of 100 ties, GL-GT-18S3, from Action Electronics, $2.10 3. 4 Conductor Shielded 22awg cable. Cable extensions for stepper motors. Need 10 feet at $0.44 per foot, JS-6152-1, from Action Electronics, $4.40 4. 2 Conductor No Shield 22awg cable. Cable for limit switches. Need 20 feet at $0.28 per foot, $5.60. 5. Flat Ribbon Cable; 26 Conductor; 28 AWG stranded; Grey. Cable connection between microcontroller and amplier/breakout board/limit switches. Order 1pkg with a 3 foot cable, PP-F28A26G-1 26C, from Action Electronics, $0.55. 6. 24VDC Power Supply for Stepper Ampliers. 24V; 1.67A; 40W Desktop Power Supply; No AC cord; 3-pin IEC 320 inlet. Order 1 EPS363-ND, from Digikey, $51.08. 7. AC Power Cord; IEC 3 prong to USA 3 prong plug. 2m long; AC power cable for power supply. Oredr 1 AE9888-ND, from Digikey, $3.52. 8. 26 Pin Ribbon Cable Male Plug. 26 pin; 2 row 0.1inchx0.1inch pitch ribbon cable male plug connector; w/o anges for connecting to LPC-H2148 headers. Order 2 of MPK26K-ND, from Digikey, $12.32. 9. Strain relief for 26 Pin Ribbon Cable. Matching strain relief for 26 pin ribbon cable IDC connector. Order 2 of MPSR26-ND, from Digikey, $1.38. 10. Limit switch. Normally open; SPST connectorized; 51 gmf actuation; false roller snap action switch for limit switch. Order 6 of SW884-ND, from Digikey, $12.54. 11. Cable connector for Limit Switch. JST type XA 2 position connector for Omron limit switches. Order 1 of 455-1903-ND, from Digikey, $0.54. 12. Crimp contacts for limit switch connector. JST crimp contacts for XA connector; 28-22 AWG - Need 2 per switch connector. Order 2 of 455-1904-1-ND, from Digikey, $0.68. 13. 10kOhm, bussed 9 resistor network, SIP. Soldered onto Xylotex board to pulldown limit switches; 10kOhm; 10 pin SIP; 9 resistors; 1 end bussed to 10th pin. Order 1 of 4310R-1-103LF-ND, from Digikey, $0.65. 14. USB Cable; A male to B male; 2m long. Connect PC to Fab@Home Microcontroller. Order 1 of AE1493-ND, from Digikey, $3.89. 15. Electronics Stando Spacers; #4-40 threaded; male/female; 0.5 inch long; aluminum. Mount Xylotex amplier board and Winford DB25 Breakout board to the Fab@Home base rear; M-F 4-40 threaded aluminum hex 0.5 inch long. Order 2 8401K-ND, from Digikey, $9.38.

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16. PET Braided sleeving; 1/4inch ID nominal; 10 feet. Abrasion protection and bundling of cable. Order 1 of 9284K2, from McMaster-Carr, $3.26. 17. Heat-Shrink Tubing, Black Polyolen, Assortment Kit. Heat shrink tubing assortment kit used to insulate and reinforce soldered cable connections. Order 1 of STA-KIT-ND, from Digikey, $10.95. 18. LPC-H2148 Microcontroller Board. Philips ARM7TDMI microcontroller board with header connections and USB port; board MFG by Olimex. Order 1 of LPCH2148, from Sparkfun Inc., $39.95. 19. DB25 Female to Screw Terminal break out board. Simplify wiring from Xylotex amplier board to the LPC2148. Order 1 of BRK25F-R-FT, from Winford Engineering, $19.99. 20. 4-Axis Stepper Motor Amplier Board. Order 1 of XS3525-8S-4, from Xylotex Inc., $185.00. 21. SS Round Knurled Thumb Nut for Syringe Piston; M3-0.5 thread; 12mm OD; 7.5mm H. Used as insert in neoprene pistons to couple to syringe tool motor shaft. Order 5 of 90368A150, from McMaster-Carr, $8.10. 22. Linear Shaft; X; Z axes. Hardened Precision Steel Shaft; 1/2inch OD; 12inch long. Order 4 6061K33, from McMaster-Carr, $33.84. 23. Linear ball bearings for X; Y axes. Self-aligning bearings seem to have too much play when only 1/shaft. Order 4 of 60595K73, from McMaster-Carr, $73.92. 24. Aluminum Pillow Blocks for X;Y linear bearings; 7/8inch Bore. Pillow blocks to hold xed-aligment linear ball bearings. Order 4 of 9804K3, from McMaster-Carr, $109.80. 25. Linear Shaft; Y axis. Hardened Precision Steel Shaft; 1/2inchOD; 12inch long; 1/420 tapped ends; 1/2inch deep. Order 2 of 6649K2, from McMaster-Carr, $95.40. 26. Flange ball bearing for Z axis. Flange-Mount Fixed-Align Linear Ball Bearing Std Length; Round Flange; 1/2inch ID; Steel Sleeve. Order 2 of 6483K53, from McMaster-Carr, $50.52. 27. Shaft Collar. One-Piece Aluminum Clamp-On Collar 1/2inch Bore; 1-1/8inch Outside Diameter; 13/32inch Width. Order 6 of 6157K14, from McMaster-Carr, $14.16. 28. Flange shaft supports for X Axis. Four-Bold Flange Mount Shaft Supports; for 1/2inch Shaft OD; Aluminum. Order 4 of 57745K21, from McMaster-Carr, $177.64. 29. #8-32 brass threaded inserts. Brass Threaded Insert for Thermoplastics Tapered; 8-32 Internal Thread; .185inch Length; Packs of 100. Order 1 of 93365A140, from McMaster-Carr, $9.86.

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30. 1/4-20 brass threaded inserts; 0.3inch length. Brass Threaded Insert for Thermoplastics Tapered; 1/4-20 internal thread; 0.3inch length; pack of 50. Order 1 of 93365A160, from McMaster-Carr, $10.79. 31. #6-32 SS socket cap screw; 1/2inch length. Mounting linear bearings to acrylic sheet; etc. Order 1 of 92196A148, from McMaster-Carr, $4.89. 32. #6-32 nylon locknut; 11/64inchH; 5/16inchW. For mounting X-axis HSI external nuts to nut anges on XY coupling bracket. Order 1 of 91831A007, from McMasterCarr, $5.19. 33. 1/4-20 to #6-32 Threaded Insert for Metal. For reducing tap size of Y-rail ends from 1/4-20 to #6-32 for mounting to X linear bearing pillow blocks. 9/32inch long - rail is tapped 1/2inch deep. Order 1 of 90248A017, from McMaster-Carr, $6.75. 34. #6-32 SS socket cap screw; 1inch length; partial thread. Fastening Z-axis HSI External Nut to Z-Carriage. Order 1 of 92196A153, from McMaster-Carr, $5.94. 35. #8-32 SS socket cap screw; 3/4inch length. Mounting X rail ange mounts to base walls; for belt tensioner, and mounting Z-table to Z-Carriage. Order 1 of 92196A197, from McMaster-Carr, $5.67. 36. 18-8 Stainless Steel Flat Washer 8 Screw Size, 11/64inch Id, 3/8inch Od, .024inch.038inch Thk. Mounting the Z table to the Z carriage; prevent stress cracks in Z-Table Support Cross from spring forces associated with leveling the table. Order 1 of 92141A009, from McMaster-Carr, $1.72. 37. M3-0.5 SS socket cap screw; 10mm length. Mounting X; and Y linear motors to 0.25inch acrylic. Order 1 of 91292A113, from McMaster-Carr, $6.32. 38. M3-0.5 SS socket cap screw; 40mm length. Mounting Z linear motor under 0.25inch acrylic. Order 1 of 91292A024, from McMaster-Carr, $8.42. 39. #8-32 SS socket cap screw; 1inch length. Mounting Z ange bearings to 3-layer stack for Z-table. Order 1 of 92196A199, from McMaster-Carr, $6.65. 40. M3 SS washers; 9mmOD; 0.7mm thick. HSI Motor mounting to acrylic sheet. Order 1 of 91116A120, from McMaster-Carr, $1.80. 41. #6-32 SS Hex Nut; 7/64 thick; 5/16 OD. Tab/Notch assembly for acrylic sheet parts in tight location - esp. on Z table around ange bearings. Order 1 of 91841A007, from McMaster-Carr, $2.90. 42. #4-40 SS socket cap screw; 1/2inch length. Tab/Notch assembly for acrylic sheet parts of syringe tool and Y-carriage; mounting electronics to base rear. Order 1 of 92196A110, from McMaster-Carr, $3.97.

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43. #4-40 hex nut; 3/16inch W; 1/16inch H. Tab/Notch assembly for acrylic sheet parts of syringe tool and Y-carriage. Order 1 of 90730A005, from McMaster-Carr, $3.48. 44. #6-32 SS socket cap screw; 3/4inch length. Mounting syringe tool to Y carriage; and attaching Y rails to X linear bearing pillow blocks. Order 1 of 92196A151, from McMaster-Carr, $5.06. 45. #6-32 Brass Threaded Inserts; 0.150inch Length. On the Z carriage; Y carriage and XY coupling plates to allow attachment of acrylic pieces to linear bearing pillow blocks or to lead nuts. Order 1 of 93365A130, from McMaster-Carr, $8.72. 46. #6-32 SS socket cap screw; 5/8inch length. For various assembly; especially acrylic sheet-edge to square nut assembly. Order 1 of 92196A150, from McMaster-Carr, $4.95. 47. #6-32 Flat Square Nut; Steel; 5/16inch OD; 7/64inch thk. Tab/Notch assembly for acrylic sheet parts. Order 1 of 94855A115, from McMaster-Carr, $1.06. 48. Wave spring washers; 0.194inch ID; 0.242inch OD; 0.0057inch thk. Bearing spacing for pulleys and shaft collars on X; Y; Z lead screws. Orde 1 of 9714K22, from McMaster-Carr, $8.06. 49. Compression Spring; 302 SS; 3/8H x 0.24OD x 0.196ID; 10.lb/inch. For build surface leveling; used as counter force to screws holding table to Z carriage. Order 5 of 9435K35, from McMaster-Carr, $4.58. 50. M2.5X0.45 SS Socket Cap Screw; 8mm length. For mounting Syringe Tool Motors to Syringe Tool. Order 1 of 91292A012, from McMaster-Carr, $11.85. 51. Rubber Foot; 1/4-20 X1/2inch thread; 1inch diameter 25lb rated. Rubber feet for system. Order 1 of 9377K53, from McMaster-Carr, $5.82. 52. 1/4-20 SS Hex Nut; 7/16inch W; 3/16inch H. To space rubber feet. Order 1 of 91841A029, from McMaster-Carr, $6.23. 53. #2-56 X 5/8inch SS socket cap screw. Screws for mounting the limit switches to acrylic sheet parts. Order 1 of 92196A083, from McMaster-Carr, $7.10. 54. #2-56 SS hex nut. For mounting the limit switches to acrylic sheet parts. Order 1 of 91841A003, from McMaster-Carr, $2.85. 55. Clear Acrylic Sheet Parts; 0.234inch thick; 1 set. 1 Set of Laser Cut Clear Acrylic Sheet Parts for a Fab@Home kit base unit; 1-syringe tool; and build surface. Order 1 set from Koba Industries, $410.00. 56. Aluminum Shaft Collar for Syringe Tool Motor. Used to prevent rotation of noncaptive syringe tool motor shaft. Order 1 of 9946K41, from McMaster-Carr, $0.81.

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57. #6-32 SS socket cap shoulder screw. Used to prevent rotation of non-captive syringe tool motor shaft;18-8 Ss Precision Hex Socket Shoulder Screw 5/32 Shoulder Dia; 1/2 L Shoulder; 6-32 Thread. Order 1 of 94035A529, from McMasterCarr, $2.64. 58. Ball bearings for HSI motors free ends and belt tensioner. Ball-bearing ABEC5; double shield; anged; for 0.1875inch OD shaft. Order 7 of 57155K321, from McMaster-Carr, $42.63. 59. SS303 Shaft; 0.1872inch OD; 1.75inch long for Belt Tensioner. Stainless steel shaft for belt tensioner; 0.1872+/-0.001inch OD X 1.75inch. Order 1 of A 7X 1-06017, from SDP-SI, $1.87. 60. Timing belt to couple x-drives. Timing Belt; Pitch Length 29inch; Urethane/Kevlar; 3/8inch. Order 1 of A 6B 3-145037, from SDP-SI, $9.10. 61. Timing pulleys to couple x-drives. Timing Pulley; 0.2 XL Pitch; 0.375inch belt; Fairloc hub; PD 0.828inch. Order 3 of A 6H 3-13DF03706, from SDP-SI, $33.36. 62. Shaft collar for HSI motors free ends. Stainless Steel Set-screw Shaft Collar. Order 3 of A 7X 2-11406, from SDP-SI, $17.37. 63. Syringe Barrel, 10cc clear polyethylene syringe barrel; luer tip. Order 1 of 5111LLB, from EFD Inc., $20.22. 64. Syringe Piston; Neoprene; 10cc. Black neoprene rubber pistons for use with 10cc syringe barrels. Order 1 of 5111S-B, from EFD Inc., $15.54. 65. Syringe Tip Sampler Kit. A kit with a wide variety of dierent tips; tip caps; end caps; some other piston types. Order 1 of 5100, from EFD Inc., $42.34. 66. Binder Spring Clip Steel, 3/4 Width, 5/16 Jaw Opening. Paper clamps to secure wax paper/foil to build surface. Order 1 of 12755T72, from McMaster-Carr, $0.64. 67. Wax Paper: Attach to build surface to allow easy removal of nished parts. Buy a roll for $2 at the Grocery store. 68. GE #103 Silicone RTV black- starter material. A 2.8oz tube of GE 1-part silicone, black, as a rst material to try out - begins curing in 20 minutes. A 2.8oz tube of GE 1-part silicone, black, as a rst material to try out - begins curing in 20 minutes. Order 1 tube of 7545A661, from McMaster-Carr, $3.27

9.3

Acrylic Parts

Below you can nd les in several CAD formats which describe the acrylic parts. Each archive should contain part les and an Excel spreadsheet which describes quantities of each part, recommended material, and recommended orientation for parts during

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the cutting process - the orientation aects the ease of assembly because many cutting processes leave slightly tapered cuts. Archives described as Nominal Dimensions show the parts with the exact dimensions they should have once you have them in hand. Archives described as Oset by . . . for . . . have had the dimensions altered to compensate for eect of material removed by a cutting process so that the parts will end up with nominal dimensions when cut with the specied process. Notes to Solidworks users: 1. SolidWorks Parts les REQUIRE INCH UNITS; parts contain equations which are unit dependent 2. The primary part conguration (with long descriptive name) represents the part with nominal dimensions. 3. Conguration named Cut Compensated is automatically oset to compensate for tool kerf according to the global variable Cut Compensation Oset (see Equations) 4. Cut Compensation Oset is the one-sided oset of the part boundaries; e.g. should be set equal to 1/2 of the total width of cut associated with your process. 5. To generate drawings oset for your machining process, activate the Cut Compensated conguration, and adjust the Cut Compensation Oset variable. 6. Please cut parts with recommended part view facing (up) toward laser; kerf are used to assist assembly For Solidworks Link: Model1Acrylic-SLDPRT-Nominal.zip Version: 9 Date: 18:03, 17 October 2006 (EDT) Format: zip archive of SolidWorks 2005 SLDPRT les Size: 23MB Note: Solidworks part les for the acrylic parts of the Model 1. Parts are in nominal dimension conguration, but also have a derived Cut Compensated conguration tied to an equation variable Cut Compensation Oset which can be used to automatically oset the parts for manufacturing processes.

9.3. ACRYLIC PARTS Additional File Formats STEP DWG DXF Parasolid IGES

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9.3.1

Oset by 0.0055 for 35W Epilog Helix Laser Engraver

For Solidworks Link: Model1Acrylic-SLDDRW-0055in-Helix35W.zip Version: 9 Date: 14:17, 6 April 2007 (EDT) Format: zip archive of SolidWorks 2006 SLDDRW detached(unlinked) drawing les Size: 2MB Note: drawing les are layouts of acrylic parts for Model 1 on ve 24 18 sheets (Sheet1-5) and two 12 12 sheets (1 Syringe Tool, Z Table). Parts have been oset 0.0055 for cutting on an Epilog Helix 35W laser engraver; also included are a front and a side layout including etchable logos. Layout DXF Files Link: Model1Acrylic-DXF-0055in-Helix35W.zip Version: 9 Date: 14:17, 6 April 2007 (EDT) Format: zip archive of DXF drawing les Size: 433kB Note: les are layouts of acrylic parts for Model 1 on ve 24 18 sheets (Sheet1-5) and two 12 12 sheets (1 Syringe Tool, Z Table). Parts have been oset 0.0055 for cutting on an Epilog Helix 35W laser engraver; also included are a front and a side layout including etchable logos.

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9.3.2

Oset by 0.0000 (nominal size) for Waterjet cutting

Layout DXF le

Link: Chassis48by24DXF.zip Version: 9 Date: November, 2006 Format: zip archive of DXF les Size: 101kB Note: This Zip le contains two DXF layouts in inches for the complete set of acrylic parts for a Model 1, on two 4824 acrylic sheets including an extra Z table. Also, there is a scrap left from Sheet2 which is sucient in size for the syringe acrylic parts (larger than 612)

9.3.3

Oset by 0.0035 for 85W Laser Cutter (Koba Industries)

For Solidworks Link: Model1Acrylic-SLDPRT-0035in-Koba.zip Version: 9 Date: 14:17, 6 April 2007 (EDT) Format: zip archive of SolidWorks 2005 SLDPRT les Size: 23MB Note: Solidworks part les for the acrylic parts of the Model 1. Parts have a nominal dimension conguration, but are saved in a derived Cut Compensated conguration tied to an equation variable Cut Compensation Oset, which has been set to 0.0035 for cutting by a 85W laser cutter - e.g. at Koba Industries.

9.4. VENDORS

123

9.4

Vendors

9.4.1

Preferred Vendors (tested)

Name Koba Industries

URL/Contact Category http://www.kobask8.com, Mechanical Kenji Kondo Kenji Kondo

McMasterCarr Industrial Supply

http://www.mcmaster.comMechanical

Stock Drive Products

http://www.sdp-si.com

Mechanical

Haydon http://www.hsi-inc.com, ElectromeSwitch and Joe Rossi, Annmarie chanical Instrument Pelcher,+1(203)7567441 Xylotex Inc. http://www.xylotex.com Electronics

Detail Acrylic parts for Fab@Home, Full Fab@Home kits! Mechanical components, raw materials, fasteners, industrial supply Positioning and transmission components Linear stepper motors

Winford En- http://www.winford.com Electronics gineering Inc.

Stepper motor amplier boards Cables, breakout boards, adapters

124 Name Spark Inc.

CHAPTER 9. MODEL 1 BILL OF MATERIALS Detail LPC-H2148 Microcontrollers (and other), JTAG programmers, cool stu! http://www.digikey.com Electronics The one and only! - ultimate source for electronics stu http://www.actionElectronics Cable and electronics.com wire (including ribbon cable) by the foot, other cables http://www.rowley.co.uk Software, Em- Rowley bedded Devel- CrossWorks opment for ARM Embedded Development Suite, USB JTAG interface http://www.efdFluid Dis- Syringe barinc.com/components.html, pensing rels, pistons, 1(800)556-3484, Equipment nozzles and 1(404)434-1680 and Supplies needles; complete dispensing systems URL/Contact Category http://www.sparkfun.com Electronics

Fun

DigiKey

Action tronics

Elec-

Rowley Associates

EFD Incorporated

9.4. VENDORS

125

9.4.2

Alternative Vendors (untested)


URL/Contact www.bostonlasers.com, Vadim Daskal, +1(781)569-6216 Category Contract Manufacturing

Name Boston Lasers

Detail Laser cutting of acrylic parts for Fab@Home Ridout Plas- www.rplastics.com/ Acrylic Sheet Acrylic sheet tics index.html, +1(858)560- Materials, vendor, and 1551 Contract laser cutting Manufacturof acrylic ing parts LaserAZ, www.laseraz.com Contract Laser cutting LLC Manufacturof acrylic ing parts or cardstock templates MSC Indus- www1.mscdirect.com Mechanical Mechanical trial Supply components, raw materials, fasteners, industrial supply MicroController microcontrollershop.com Electronics LPC-H2148 Pros CorpoMicroconration troller board (and other Cs), etc. Mouser Elec- www.mouser.com Electronics Another great tronics electronics supply company I&J Fisnar In- www.ijsnar.com, Fluid Dis- Syringe barcorporated 1(201)796-1477 pensing rels, pistons, Equipment nozzles and and Supplies needles; complete dispensing systems

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Chapter 10 Model 1 Cables


This chapter teaches you how to make all of the cables for the Fab@Home Model 1.

10.1

Power Supply Cable

The Elpac power supply provides 24 volts DC for the stepper motor amplier. The Xylotex amplier board power connection is via screw terminals, while the power supply cable terminates with with a power jack. The connector needs to be removed, and the power cable sheath stripped, and the conductors stripped and tinned.

The Elpac power supply has a connecCut the connector o of the Elpac tor, but the Xylotex amplier has screw power supply cable terminal connections for power 127

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Strip the cable sheath back about 1

Strip and tin the conductors

10.2

Cable Extensions for HSI Motors

The HSI Size 11 The HSI Size 14 External Motors for Non-captive Motor the X, Y, Z axes (left to right) of for the Model 1 the Model 1 Chassis, with pieces of 4- 1-Syringe Tool conductor cable for extensions with a length of 4-conductor cable for extension The HSI Motors come prewired with 12 long leads, colored red, red-white stripe, green, green-white stripe. You will need to extend the prewired leads by soldering on extensions using 4 Conductor Shielded 22awg cable. Each motor requires a slightly dierent length of extension to allow it to reach to the amplier board while allowing enough slack for motion. In the table below, you can nd the recommended extension lengths for the X, Y, and Z motors, and for the 1-Syringe Tool motor. Total length is measured from the body of the motor, extension length is the addtional amount of cable required, and is the total length less the 12 long prewired leads on the

10.3. CABLES FOR LIMIT SWITCHES

129

motors. For details on how to prepare the motor cable extensions, see: Assembly Tips:Soldering Motor Cable Extensions Model 1 Motor Cable Extension Lengths Motor X Motor Y Motor Z Motor 1-Syringe Tool Motor

Total Length 32 inch 35 inch 25 inch 52 inch

Extension Length 20 inch 23 inch 13 inch 40 inch

10.3

Cables for Limit Switches

Examples of two of the six limit switches with prepared cables The Model 1 design includes 6 limit switches for the chassis motion axes, 2 per axis. The limit switches on the Model 1 provide a signal to the microcontroller when the axes have moved as far as they can. The microcontroller can then stop trying to move that axis, preventing damage to the hardware. You need to make some cables to connect the limit switches to the microcontroller (via the amplier board). Here you can nd the recommended length of cable to make for each switch. You should use the 2 Conductor No Shield 22awg cable for this purpose. The limit switch simply breaks a circuit, so it does not matter which color of conductor from the cable connects to which pin of the switch. For details on how to prepare the cables, see: Assembly Tips:Making Limit Switch Connectors Limit Switch Cable Lengths Switch Axis Location X Front X Rear Y Left Y Right Z Top Z Bottom

Cable Length 31 inch 23 inch 52 inch 52 inch 30 inch 11 inch

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10.4

Ribbon Cables

There are three ribbon cables required for the Model 1. These are:

A DB25 to IDC26 ribbon cable, provided by Xylotex with the XS-3525/8S4 Amplier board, and used to connect the XS-3525/8S-4 26pin header to the DB25 connector on the Winford Engineering DB25 breakout board

Two identical IDC26 ribbon cables that you will need to make to connect the LPC-H2148 microcontroller board to the Winford DB25 board

To prepare these two ribbon cables, proceed as follows:

Step 1:Cut two 9 long pieces of 26 conductor ribbon cable, and orient them as shown, red stripe to right (or rst brown conductor to right, if you are using rainbow colored cable)

Step 2:Make an IDC connector on the end of each piece of ribbon cable, as described in Assembly Tips for IDC Connectors, and label the cables as IDC26 #1 and #2 - to keep them distinct

10.5. AMPLIFIER ENABLE CABLE

131

Step 3:On the free ends (opposite the IDC connectors), peel apart the individual conductors of the ribbons for about 3. You will need to access individual conductors to make connections to the screw terminals on the Winford DB25 breakout board.

Step 4:Referring to the Electronics Schematic, strip and tin the appropriate conductors of the ribbon cables to make the connections between the LPC-H2148 and the Winford DB25 breakout board. Note the orientation of the cables - start counting from the right (which should be the red conductor on grey ribbon) with the connector down and connector pins facing you.

10.5

Amplier Enable Cable

Updated: 14:59, 4 May 2007 (EDT) Note that amplier enables require rmware version 3. Because stepper motors have a constant current running through them during operation, they can become quite hot. The Xylotex amplier board has an electronic interface which allows an external device to enable/disable the ampliers on demand, and here we will make a cable which will allow the LPC-H2148 to shut o the amplier when it is sitting idle.

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Step 2:From the extra ribbon cable leftover from above, peel o 2 strands, and cut them to 4 (100mm) in length. Step 1:In its factory conguration, the You will also need two of the jumpers Xylotex board has all of the amplier that you removed from the Xylotex axes enabled via jumpers (small black board in Step 1. connectors which short two pins together). Using needle nose pliers, remove (but keep) the amplier enable jumpers from all 4 axes of the board.

Step 3:On one end of your cable, split the two strands for about 20mm, and strip the ends back about 2mm, and tin them.

Step 4:On the other end of the cable, strip both strands back about 4mm, then twist them together, and tin them together.

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133

Step 5:Now solder each of the split strands to one of the jumpers. The Step 6:Your completed cable should jumpers have an exposed metal tab look like this. that is convenient for soldering.

10.6

Bundling and Routing the Cables

Here you will see some recommendations for protecting, organizing, and routing the various cables of your Fab@Home Model 1. The Model 1 Bill of Materials includes polyester braiding, which is a loosely woven tube of polyester. When squeezed longitudinally, this braiding will expand to many times its relaxed diameters, allowing you t several cables inside. The braid then relaxes down around the cables, grouping them and protecting them from abrasion. For help with cutting, sealing, and threading cables through braiding, see: Assembly Tips:Using Protective Braiding Braid Lengths, and Cable Bundling Cables in Bundle X-axis motor cable, X-front limit switch Z-axis motor cable, Z-top limit switch Y-axis motor cable, Y-left and Y-right limit switches Syringe tool motor

Bundle Name X Bundle Z Bundle Y Carriage Bundle 1-Syringe Tool

Braid Length (relaxed) 31 inches 30 inch 52 inch 52 inch

Note:The above lengths provide the simplest bundling process. If you would like to conserve braid and/or more tightly bundle your cables, you can bundle the X, Y, and Z bundles together in the same braid by passing cables through the wall of the braid at branching points, and cutting shorter pieces to cover the ends past branching points. The Model 1 Chassis has a number of holes provided for routing the various cables, and also for zip-tying the cables to various points on the carriages and chassis to secure them.

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In this image you can see all of the cable bundles routed and secured with zipties on the machine. Note the substantial loops of the cable bundles to allow for motion of the axes without excessive bending of the cables. This reduces wear on the cables, prolonging their life.

Here you can see the origin of the Y Bundle and 1-Syringe Tool bundle at the Y carriage. The braid for Y Limit Switch cables is secured with zipties right at the cable connectors. A short piece of braid is used to protect one of the limit switch cables until it can form a junction with the full length of braid used for the Y Bundle. Secure the Y Bundle with a ziptie to one of the holes provided in the side plates of the Ycarriage, as shown. The braid for the 1Syringe Tool bundle should be secured to the back of the 1-Syringe Tool body with a ziptie as shown.

10.6. BUNDLING AND ROUTING THE CABLES

135

Observe that the 1-Syringe Tool bundle is kept essentially separate from the other bundles. This simplies changing tools in the case that you are considering working with more than one depoHere you see the origin of the X Bundle sition tool. Note also how the X-Rear at the X axis motor. Note how the bun- Limit Switch Cable enters the XYZdle is routed through the holes in the Combined Bundle near the routing hole front face and top of the machine base. in the rear of the machine base. This The X-Front Limit Switch cable enters is a more aggressive bundling scheme the bundle just behind the X-motor. in which the X,Y, and Z bundles are packed into the piece of braid used for the X Bundle. This reduces the overall amount of braid required, but adds the complication of more junctions in the braid.

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All of the cable bundles pass through a hole in the upper part of the back plate of the machine base. Use zipties to group them together to keep them neat.

Chapter 11 Assembly Tips


This chapter gives hints, tips, and tricks to make assembly of your fabber easier, and to improve the quality of your completed fabber.

11.1

Threaded Inserts for Thermoplastics

The Model 1 uses threaded brass thermoplastic inserts to put strong threads into the acrylic parts for bolting parts together. These inserts need to be "melted" into the acrylic, using a soldering iron. Generally, the laser cut acrylic pieces will have a face with sharper edges - the DOWN FACE - which was laying down, facing away from the laser during cutting, and a face with more rounded edges - the UP FACE - which faced toward the laser during cutting. Unless otherwise specied, you should insert all threaded inserts into the face with more rounded edges. This will make insertion cleaner (less melted plastic will accumulate around the insert) and easier (the insert will t partially into the hole from the UP FACE, but not so from the DOWN FACE). Below you can nd a detailed explanation of the recommended method for inserting these brass threaded inserts: NOTE: Try to screw in a bolt after melting the inserts into the acrylic. First o, it will allow you to see whether your insert is squared up with the face of the acrylic. Secondly, you will be able to see whether any acrylic melted in such a way as to interfere with the screw. Usually, any melted acrylic in the way can be easily removed before the brass insert cools. (Ill try to get some pictures of this up ASAP Pkiddy 22:25, 13 November 2006 (EST)) 137

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Step 1: Orientation - The threaded brass inserts have a slightly tapered shape (right) to guide it into the hole. Step 2: Place in hole - The inserts The direction of insertion for the insert should t slightly into the appropriate on the right of the photo would be to- holes. ward the bottom of the image (the receiving hole would be below the insert).

Step 3: Position the part and soldering iron - Hold or clamp the part such that the hole for the insert is overhanging the edge of your workbench, and insert the tip of a hot soldering iron into the insert.

Step 4: Insertion - Use gentle pressure from the soldering iron to push the insert straight downward into the acrylic part.

11.1. THREADED INSERTS FOR THERMOPLASTICS

139

Step 6: Depth (front) - Continue pushing the insert until it is just ush Step 5: Steering - Use the solderwith the upward facing surface of the ing iron to steer the insert to keep it acrylic. There will be a small ridge straight in the hole as you insert it. of melted acrylic which rises slightly above the insert.

Step 8: Check Angle - Use a screw of the proper size to see how well Step 7: Depth (rear) - Ensure that your threaded insert is positioned. If the insert does not protrude beyond the crooked (like the one shown), take the back side of the acrylic - the back sur- screw out and use the soldering iron to face must remain at to align correctly adjust the insert (alternatively, the insert may still be hot enough that you against other parts. can use the screw to push it into the proper position).

Another Idea to insert the brass would be to use a drill press with a straight rod in the chuck that has a tip ground on it. With the metal rod in the drill press you could add heat to the rod while gently adding pressure straight down to prevent side to side twist. This is with the drill o and not spinning

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11.2

Stripping Cable and Wire

Step 1: Cutting the sheath - Using your wire stripper, or a knife, gently cut partially into the outer sheath (gray in photo) of the cable about 1 inch (25mm) from the end. Be careful to not cut too deeply - we want to avoid damaging the (red/black in photo) insulation on the individual conductors inside!

Step 2: Removing sheath - Bend the cable sharply at the location of your cut to break the sheath, and pull it o. This can take a bit of eort and some slight additional cutting of the sheath.

Step 3: Stripping wire - Using your wire stripper, wire cutters, or a knife, gently cut into the conductor insulation about 1/4 inch (6.4mm) from the end. Be careful not to cut too deeply because slight cuts into the copper conductors will cause them to break o. As you cut into the insulation, you should feel a slight change in rmness when you reach the copper.

Step 4: Removing insulation - Pull the insulation o of the wire and look closely for nicks (cuts) into the copper. If you cut the copper, you should cut o the wire before the nick, and strip the insulation back further. If you are working with multi-strand wire, twist the exposed copper strands tightly together.

11.3. TINNING STRIPPED CONDUCTORS

141

11.3

Tinning Stripped Conductors

Tinning of stripped copper wire protects it from corrosion and improves electrical conductivity and ruggedness of connections between stranded conductor cables and other devices. It also makes the soldering of extensions to cables (wire to wire soldering) much easier.

Step 2: Apply solder - With your Step 1: Apply ux - Apply a small soldering iron, heat the stripped copper amount of soldering ux to the bare for a 3-5 seconds. Touch the solder wire copper. We recommend using a noto the hot copper, and let the solder clean ux. ow to cover the copper.

11.4

Soldering Motor Cable Extensions

The HSI motors come with 12" (30cm) wire leads - 4 wires, in the colors red, red-white, green, green-white. These need to be extended to reach the amplier board. Here we will extend them by soldering on a length of 4-conductor cable. It is important to use cable with "stranded conductors" in which each of the 4 copper conductors is actually made of many ne copper strands twisted together. Stranded conductors can bend more easily and can tolerate being bent many times before breaking - important for use in moving machines. Solid copper conductors, such as those used for household wiring, would break after only a few times being bent. The recommended lengths of cable extension are quite long so that the cable is not bent sharply by the motion axes - this also prolongs the life of the cable. Because many of the cables will be moving with their respective axes, it is recommended that you protect them from abrasion with Protective Braiding. The braiding will also allow you to bundle related cables together (e.g. Y limit switch cables with Y motor cable), keeping your system neat and organized.

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Step 1: Prepare motor extension cable- Using the lengths recommended for your fabber model, cut a length of 4-conductor cable to extend the motor leads for each motor. Strip the cable and conductors on both ends of each extension, and tin the stripped conductors on both ends (see Stripping Cable and Wire and Tinning Stripped Conductors).

Step 2: Prepare and secure motor leads - The HSI motor leads are pre-stripped to about 1 inch (25.4mm). Twist the conductors of each lead wire tightly together, and cut them o to about 1/4" (6.35mm). Apply ux and tin them. Find heat shrink tubing (yellow in photo) with a slightly larger diameter than the motor leads (we recommend 0.076" to 0.093" ID tubing). Cut four pieces about 1" long, and thread them on the motor leads. Secure the motor leads to block of wood as shown in the order red, red-white, green, green-white. Laying them out in this order will simplify connecting the motor to an amplier, and taping them down to a wood block frees your hands for soldering.

11.4. SOLDERING MOTOR CABLE EXTENSIONS

143

Step 3: Position and secure the extensions - Secure the tinned conductors of the extension right next to the tinned motor leads. Pay attention to the color sequence you choose to use (write it down!) so that you know which color in the extension corresponds to which motor lead color - this will simplify connecting the motor to the amplier. We recommend red=red, red-white=black, green=green, greenwhite=white.

Step 4: Solder the conductors - Using the side of the tip of your soldering iron, press the tinned ends of the conductors against each other until the solder on them from tinning begins to melt. Add a small amount of solder to make a nice smooth connection. To prevent the wires springing apart when you remove the soldering iron, you may need to hold them down with a nger (caution - they will be hot!) or a tool. Blowing on them will freeze the solder quickly.

Step 5: Slide the shrink tube Once the solder joints are all made and have cooled, slide the heat shrink tube pieces up over the solder joints.

Step 6: Shrink the shrink tube Using a heat gun or a hair-dryer, heat up the shrink tube until it contracts uniformly onto the solder joint. This protects the joints from corrosion and shorting with each other.

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Step 7: Examine your work - Take a moment to examine the joints for quality. There should be no sharp solder points poking through the shrink tube, and the tube should be tight, and not free to slide around on the wire. Being careful at steps like these will make for a much more reliable machine later, saving a lot of time and trouble in repairs.

11.5

Making IDC Ribbon Cable Connectors

IDC or Insulation Displacement Connectors are very simple to make. The connectors are designed with sharp forked contacts which cut through the insulation of the ribbon cable to make contact with each of the conductors inside. You simply need to make sure that you align the cable properly and apply uniform force to squeeze the connector parts together. A vice is recommended for this, but in the absence of a vice, vice grips or large pliers can be used, but protect the connectors with thin pieces of wood or metal to distribute the plier force.

11.5. MAKING IDC RIBBON CABLE CONNECTORS

145

Step 1: Gather parts - Using sharp scissors, cut the ribbon cable straight across to the length recommended by the assembly instructions for your fabber model. Look at the cut end to ensure that the conductor strands are cleanly cut, and have not been pulled out or made to touch each other. The IDC connector will usually consist of 3 parts - the connector front, the connector back, and a strain relief clip (see photo).

Step 2: Orient correctly - For the Model 1 you need to orient the connectors carefully so that the connections between the microcontroller and other electronics can be made correctly - you will need to select certain individual conductors in the ribbon by counting from one edge, and that edge must be oriented correctly to ensure that the conductors you select connect to the correct microcontroller pins. The photo shows the correct orientation for both connectors for the Model 1. Note the position of the notch in the connector front, and the red stripe on the ribbon cable.

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Step 3: Expose connector back adhesive - Peel the paper o of the connector back, exposing the adhesive. Be careful to not peel the adhesive o. Note the scalloped surface beneath the adhesive, which is used to align the ribbon cable against the connector back.

Step 4: Attach the connector back to the ribbon cable - Place the end of the ribbon cable on the adhesive of the connector back. The ribbon should t perfectly into the scalloped dents in the connector back - one dent per conductor. Orient the parts exactly as shown, noting the location of the stripe on the cable, and that the cable end should be ush with the side of the connector back.

Step 5: Mate the connector parts - Being careful to orient the parts as shown here and in prior photos, push the connector back evenly into the connector front. It should stay in place. The conductor barbs need to line up with each conductor in the ribbon.

Step 6: Press the connector parts together - Using a vice (ideally), squeeze the connector parts together until you hear two tabs in the connector snap into place. If your vice jaws are rough (knurled) or you are using pliers or vice-grips, protect the connector from the vice jaws with a sti at material like plastic, wood, cardboard, brass shim-stock, etc.

11.6. MAKING LIMIT SWITCH CONNECTORS

147

Step 7: Fold the ribbon back - If you are going to use a strain relief, fold the ribbon cable back over the nished connector.

Step 8: Add the strain relief - If you are using a strain relief, snap it into the connector back with the cable folded over underneath it as shown. It should snap into place on both sides of the connector.

11.6

Making Limit Switch Connectors

To simplify the installation and maintainability of the limit switches, the Model 1 design calls for connectorized cables for the limit switches. Here you will see how to make this type of connector. If you happen to have a crimp pin/socket crimping tool, then lucky you - you will not need these instructions. Otherwise, you will be soldering and crimping to obtain very robust connectors.

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Step 1: Gather the parts Gather the 2 conductor cable, the limit switches, the crimp pins/sockets , and the connector bodies. Referring to the assembly instructions for your model, cut the 2-conductor cable into pieces of the appropriate length. Strip the sheath and conductor insulation, and tin the stripped copper on both ends of the cable (see Stripping Cable and Wire and Tinning Stripped Conductors).

Step 2: Secure the crimp pins/sockets - To simplify the soldering process, secure the crimp pins/sockets with tape to a block of wood.

11.6. MAKING LIMIT SWITCH CONNECTORS

149

Step 4: Position in pin/socket - Position the uxed conductor ends into the back end of the pins/sockets as shown. The conductor should not go more than 1/2 of the way into Step 3: Flux the conductors - the pin/socket. Ideally, (unlike in the Apply a small amount of ux to the photo) the insulation should extend stripped/tinned conductors on one end past the tall anges of the pin, and the stripped conductor should extend of the cable. past the short anges to roughly 1/2 the length of the pin/socket. The tall anges are designed to be crimped onto the insulation, the short onto the conductor.

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Step 5: Solder conductor - With the tip of your soldering iron, press the conductor down against the pin/socket for about 3 seconds, and apply a small amount of solder wire. You should see the solder ow smoothly over the conductor and the pin/socket. Do not apply too much solder, as it will clog the front half of the pin/socket, which must remain clear to connect to the limit switch (see inset).

Step 6: Detach pins/sockets from strip - Once your soldering is done, break or cut the pins/sockets you have soldered to o of the strip of crimps.

11.6. MAKING LIMIT SWITCH CONNECTORS

151

Step 7: Crimp pin/socket anges - Using your needlenose pliers, fold the two sets of anges of the pin/socket down onto the soldered area. Fold rst one side down, then fold the other side down on top of the rst. Do not bend the front end of the pin/socket, as its shape is important for connection to the limit switch.

Step 8: Insert pins/sockets into connector body - Noting closely the shape of the connector and pin/socket, push the pins/sockets into the back of the connector body. They should snap into place. You may need to use your needlenose pliers or a very small hex key to push the pin/socket fully into the connector body. Test your connector by pulling gently on the leads. The pins/sockets should stay inside of the connector body, and the conductors should stay inside of the pins/sockets. If you are not satised, x the problem now to save yourself greater trouble later.

Step 10: Label your cable - Using a labelmaker or masking tape, laStep 9: Connect to limit switch bel your cables by axis and direction The connector should now simply snap according to the cable length specicainto the limit switch tions from the assembly instructions for the Fab@Home model you are building.

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11.7

Using Protective Braiding for Cables

Polyester braiding provides abrasion protection for cables that will be moving, and a convenient way to bundle cables together.

Step 1:Braid cutting and fraying According to the assembly instructions for your Fab@Home model, cut lengths of braid for you cables and bundles. Note that the end of the braid will fray quite quickly after being cut.

Step 2: Melt cut end of braid Using a small ame, heat the cut end of the braid to partially melt it to prevent it from fraying. Do not let it catch re (unlike the photo).

Step 3: Wrap cable ends - To make threading cables through the braid easier, wrap some tape over the stripped ends. Tape bundles of cable together to keep them together during threading.

Step 4: Threading cable - The braid expands in diameter when you push on it, allowing you to push a bundle of cables through it. Simply push the cables in one end and inchworm the braid over the cable bundle until the bundle end comes out of the other end of the braid.

11.8. GENERAL SOLDERING/DESOLDERING METHODS

153

Step 5: Secure with Ziptie - Use a Step 6: Finished Cable - Here you ziptie/cable tie to secure the braid to can see a motor with a cable extension and protective braid. the cable.

11.8

General Soldering/Desoldering Methods

Molten solder is hot, and solder may contain lead. Please use eye protection and good ventilation (a fan or fume extractor) when soldering. Below you can nd some more general advice on soldering. General Soldering Technique (http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/echeeve1/Ref/Solder/Soldering.html) at Swarthmore College. Makezine Video Tutorial (http://www.makezine.com/blog/archive/2007/01/soldering.tutor.1.html? CMP=OTC-0D6B48984890) A great video tutorial on soldering and desoldering

11.9

Soldering Technique

Source: http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/echeeve1/Ref/Solder/Soldering.html

11.9.1

Introduction

This section is a brief introduction to proper soldering technique. Solder is pronounced sodder, the l is silent. Is is assumed that you will be soldering the components to a PC (printed circuit) board. The directions below will get you acquainted with some construction techniques. Soldering irons, wire, PC board holders and other supplies are in 310. The soldering irons are on timers so that they cant accidentally be left on, but you should try to remember to turn them o when you are done.

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11.9.2

Installing a component.

To install a component on the PC board, rst hold the board with the component side facing you. This is the side of the board with writing on it. Start with the smallest components, usually the resistors. Bend the leads of the device (if necessary) so that they will t through the hold in the board with the device laying at against the board. Now bend the leads on the solder side of the board so the device doesnt fall out (see below). You can place several components at the same time.

After several components have been stued (the technical term for putting components on a board), you can solder them. Before soldering anything make sure the sponge on the soldering stand is moist. You should frequently wipe the tip of the iron on the sponge to keep it clean. To solder a component turn the board over so the solder side is up. There are some clamps for holding boards in the lab. To solder a connection hold the tip of the soldering iron on one side of the lead and hold it for a second or two. When the lead and the trace are hot, apply solder to the side of the lead that is away from the iron. The solder shouldnt touch the iron directly. This ensures that the connection is hot enough to form a bond with the lead and with the copper trace.

The solder should ow around the connection, and leave a smooth transition from the trace to the lead, as shown. If you have a ball, or the solder has a clumpy appearance you may need to redo the connection. If you need to remove solder we have solder-suckers and solder-wick. Good Solder Joint Bad Solder Joint

11.9. SOLDERING TECHNIQUE

155

Repeat this procedure with all components until you are nished. Other references about soldering that you may nd useful: Soldering faq (http://www.epemag.com/solderfaq/default.htm) from Everyday Practical Electronics (http://www.epemag.com). Includes some good photographs (http://www.epemag.com/solderfaq/pictures.htm) and techniques for desoldering (http://www.epemag.com/solderfaq/desold.htm). Soldering primer (http://et.nmsu.edu/ etti/fall97/electronics/solder.html) from New Mexico State University.

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Chapter 12

Model 1 Base Assembly

Here you will nd the detailed instructions for assembly of the machine base (the box holding all of the other parts) for the Fab@Home Model 1 157

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159

Step 1 Materials

Step 1 Materials (contd)

Step 1 Assembly - Close-up

Step 1 Assembly Results

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161

Step 2 Materials

Please see Step 4 below for a trick for inserting the bearings

Step 2 Materials (contd)

Step 2 Assembly - Close-up

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163

Step 3 Materials

Step 3 Materials (contd)

Step 3 Assembly Results

Step 3 Assembly - Close-up

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165

Step 4 Materials

Step 4 Mid-Assembly

The bearings can be dicult to press in. Using a rubber mallet may help (or in a poor college students case, an Step 4 Assembly Results eraser and a hammer). A few light taps should do the trick.

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167

Step 5 Materials

Step 5 Mid-Assembly

Step 5 Assembly Results - Again, the method outlined in step 4 may be useful for inserting the bearing.

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169

It is easier to make sure the threaded Step 6 Materials - Minus the Base inserts are properly inserted if you try Rear Panel from step 2 to screw into the holes before hanging on the large panel.

Step 6 Assembly Results

Step 6 Assembly - Dont forget to tighten on the pulley.

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171 NOTE: BE VERY CAREFUL WHEN WORKING WITH THE BASE TOP PANEL!! IT IS FRAGILE, AND CAN BREAK EASILY, ESPECIALLY AS YOU TRY TO INSERT IT INTO THE BACK PANEL!! (personal experience - Pkiddy)

After two casualties, success!

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Chapter 13 Model 1 XY-Carriage Assembly

Here you will nd complete instructions for assembling the XY-Carriage for the Fab@Home Model 1.

13.1

Parts Needed for Building XY Carriage

In order to help speed up the build process, here is a list of the parts you will need to construct the XY carriage assembly. I was able to build this portion of the Fab@home in roughly 2 hours Pkiddy. Please update this number if it proves incorrect. Im going to work on getting pictures of the hardware up as I get time. 179

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY Part Photo Part Description <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no <no photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> photo> 2-56 x 5/8 Screw 2-56 Hex Nut 4-40 x 1/2 Screw 4-40 Hex Nut M3 x 10mm Screw 6-32 Brass Threaded Insert 6-32 Square Nut 6-32 Hex Locknut 6-32 x 1/2 Screw 6-32 x 5/8 Screw 6-32 x 3/4 Screw Wave Spring Shaft Collar 3/16 Bore Omron Limit Switch Tapped Steel Linear Rail Untapped Steel Linear Rail Self-locking Threaded Insert Pillow Block Linear Ball Bearing Ball Bearing HSI External Nut for X,Y motors HSI Linear Stepper Y - 12.878 Long Shaft Quantity Needed 4 4 4 4 4 24 14 6 18 20 4 7 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 1 4 1

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE Part Photo Part Description Quantity Needed

181

Left XY Coupling Plate

Right XY Coupling Plate

XY Coupling Plate Nut Flange Brace

XY Coupling Plate Nut Flange

Tool Mount Spacer

Y Carriage - Top

Y Carriage - Side

13.2

Assembly Instructions for XY Carriage

Assembly Tips:Threaded Inserts for Thermoplastics

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

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Step 2 Materials - Please ignore the acrylic piece on the bottom. I did Step 2 Materials - A better look at the things a little out of order, because ring that needs to be removed. It comes I didnt have a heat gun or hair as part of the pill block. dryer readily available. Ultimately, the acrylic was a non-issue.

I used a special tool to get the ring out of the block, although a pair of sharp A better look at the ring. needle-nosed pliers will do the trick.

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

185

Use the heat gun/hair dryer to warm up the block. After roughly a minute of heating, the block will have expanded A look at the bearing inside the block. enough that the bearing should drop The heat gun had no aect on the right in (a little push may be needed, acrylic. but it should not be dicult). If at rst it doesnt seem to t, just continue heating.

The four blocks, complete with bearings inserted. Again, you do not need to have the acrylic pieces attached to complete this step.

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

187

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

189

Step 4 Mid-Assembly - No screws yet

Step 4 Materials

Step 4 Assembly - Dont tighten the screws down all the way yet. Youll need some play in the two acrylic pieces for step 5.

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

191

Step 5 Materials

Step 5 Mid-Assembly - No screws in yet. Apparently, I forgot to take a picture of the completed assembly, but you can see it in the step 6 pictures.

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

193

Step 6 Materials - Another look, to Step 6 Materials - Also, a good look at make up for the picture lacking from a completed part from Step 5. Step 5.

Step 6 Assembly

Assembly Close-up

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

195

Step 7 Materials

Step 7 Assembly

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

197

Step 8 Materials

Step 8 Assembly

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

199

Step 9 Materials

Step 9 Materials - contd

Step 9 Assembly - Both completed parts, mirrors of each other.

The one on the left is from the rst time through steps 4-7, while the one on the right is the second time through, using the base part from step 8.

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

201

Step 10 Materials

Step 10 Materials - contd

Step 10 Assembly

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

203

Step 11 Assembly

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

205

Step 12 Materials

Step 12

Step 12 Assembly

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13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

207

Step 13 Materials

Step 13 Mid-Assembly - Half of the inserts have been pushed into the acrylic

Assembly (contd)

Step 13 Assembly

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

209

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 15 Assembly front

Step 15 Assembly back

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

211

212

CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 16 Assembly top

Step 16 Assembly front

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

213

214

CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 17 Assembly

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 18 partial assembly

Tip: Put the side screw with its hex nut in rst, and then slide the acrylic piece into place (you will need to move the screw and nut around a little so that the acrylic can slide on.

Step 18 full assembly

Step 18 assembly

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

217

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Tip: rst put the screws into the nut and slide the wave washers onto the screws

Step 19 materials

Line up the screws with the appropriate Y-Carriage view holes on the Y-carriage

Do the same for the other side

Step 19 assembly

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

219

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 20 materials

Screw motor into place

Thread motor Carriage

shaft

through

Y-

Attach shaft collar at the end

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

221

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 21 materials

Step 21

13.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR XY CARRIAGE

223

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CHAPTER 13. MODEL 1 XY-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Step 22 materials

Step 22 assembly

Chapter 14 Model 1 Z-Carriage Assembly


Here you will nd assembly instructions for the Z-axis carriage and build surface (table) for the Fab@Home Model 1.

14.1

Parts Needed for Building Z Carriage

In order to help speed up the build process, here is a list of the parts you will need to construct the Z carriage assembly. I was able to build this portion of the Fab@home in roughly 2 hours Pkiddy. Please update this number if it proves incorrect.

Part Photo <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo> <no photo>

Part Description 8-32 Brass Threaded Insert 8-32 x 1 Screw 8-32 x 3/4 6-32 Brass Threaded Insert 6-32 Square Nut 6-32 Hex Nut 6-32 x 5/8 Screw 6-32 x 1 Screw Compression Spring HSI External Nut for Z motor 225

Quantity Needed 13 8 5 3 16 4 20 3 5 1

226 Part Photo

CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY Part Description Quantity Needed

Z Carriage Chassis Bottom Acrylic

Z Carriage Chassis Front Acrylic

Z Carriage Chassis Middle Acrylic

Z Carriage Chassis Top Acrylic

Z Carriage Support Cross

Z Carriage Inner Table Support Truss

Z Carriage Outer Table Support Truss

Z Table

14.2

Assembly Instructions for Z Carriage

Assembly Tips for Installing Threaded Inserts into Plastic

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

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14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

229

230

CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

231

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CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

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CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

235

236

CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

237

238

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14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

239

240

CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

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14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

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CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

A look at the springs installed under the printing surface. I apologize, I forgot to take a picture of the materials for this step beforehand.

The springs can be dicult to wrestle into place. I found it easiest to put one on (screw through spring into threaded insert), but only enough that the screw catches. The spring provides enough leeway that the other springs can be held in place while a screw is threaded through. If I get a chance, Ill post details/pictures of my technique Pkiddy 15:12, 15 November 2006 (EST)

14.2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR Z CARRIAGE

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CHAPTER 14. MODEL 1 Z-CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY

Chapter 15 Model 1 1-Syringe Tool


Here you can nd information about how to build a 1-Syringe Tool, and attach it to your Model 1.

The standard Model 1 1-Syringe Tool The Model 1 1-Syringe Tool is the standard deposition tool for the Fab@Home Model 1. It uses disposable syringe barrels, tips, and pistons to hold the materials, and it uses the linear stepper motor method of controlling syringe piston position, hence material ow. This is the recommended tool for beginner fabbers, in that it allows the use of a very wide variety of materials, the materials do not need careful preparation, it operates in an intuitive fashion, and allows simple swapping of material syringes to build objects with multiple materials. Because the syringe barrels, tips, and pistons are in direct contact with materials, we recommend using disposable components. The 1-Syringe Tool has been designed 247

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specically for 10cc barrels from EFD Inc. The same type of components can be found from a variety of vendors, but we have not tested the compatibility of parts from other sources. If you nd other compatible dispensing components, please add them to the Syringe Tool Dispensing Components page.

15.1

Bill of Materials

Currently, the o-the-shelf structural parts for the syringe tool are included in the Model 1 bill of materials. Disposable syringe barrels, pistons, and tips recommended for use with the 1Syringe Tool are listed later in this chapter.

15.2

Acrylic Parts

Below you can nd les in several CAD formats which describe the acrylic parts. Each archive should contain part les and an Excel spreadsheet which describes quantities of each part, recommended material, and recommended orientation for parts during the cutting process - the orientation aects the ease of assembly because many cutting processes leave slightly tapered cuts. Archives described as Nominal Dimensions show the parts with the exact dimensions they should have once you have them in hand. Archives described as Oset by . . . for . . . have had the dimensions altered to compensate for eect of material removed by a cutting process so that the parts will end up with nominal dimensions when cut with the specied process. Notes to Solidworks users: 1. SolidWorks Parts les REQUIRE INCH UNITS; parts contain equations which are unit dependent 2. The primary part conguration (with long descriptive name) represents the part with nominal dimensions. 3. Conguration named Cut Compensated is automatically oset to compensate for tool kerf according to the global variable Cut Compensation Oset (see Equations) 4. Cut Compensation Oset is the one-sided oset of the part boundaries; e.g. should be set equal to 1/2 of the total width of cut associated with your process. 5. To generate drawings oset for your machining process, activate the Cut Compensated conguration, and adjust the Cut Compensation Oset variable. 6. Please cut parts with recommended part view facing (up) toward laser; kerf are used to assist assembly

15.2. ACRYLIC PARTS For Solidworks

249

Fab@Home 1-Syringe Tool Acrylic Parts, .zip (5MB) of directory containing SolidWorks parts les at nominal dimensions and Excel instructions le, Evan 18:21, 17 October 2006 (EDT). Solidworks Drawing Files Other File Formats STEP DWG DXF Parasolid IGES

15.2.1

Oset by 0.0035 for 85W Laser Cutter (Koba Industries)

For Solidworks Fab@Home 1-Syringe Tool Acrylic Parts, .zip (23MB) of directory containing SolidWorks parts les oset by 0.0035 and Excel instructions le, Evan 18:21, 17 October 2006 (EDT).

15.2.2

Layout DXF le

Oset by 0.0000 (nominal size) for Waterjet cutting

This Zip le contains a DXF layout in inches for one syringe holder using a 612 piece of acrylic . Layout DXF

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15.3

Solidworks Assembly Files

Here is the Solidworks Assembly for the 1 Syringe Tool. I can try to save it as other formats, but Im not sure how well theyd translate. This one is roughly 6.8 MB. Pkiddy 13:41, 19 February 2007 (EST)

15.4

Part Images

Koba Industries of Albuquerque, NM has delivered a pilot run of parts for the syringe tool. We are nearly ready to outsource the laser-cutting of parts!

15.5. MODEL 1 1-SYRINGE TOOL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

251

15.5

Model 1 1-Syringe Tool Assembly Diagrams

Assembly Step 1

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15.5. MODEL 1 1-SYRINGE TOOL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

253

Assembly Step 2

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15.5. MODEL 1 1-SYRINGE TOOL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

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Assembly Step 3

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15.5. MODEL 1 1-SYRINGE TOOL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

257

Assembly Step 4

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15.6. MOUNTING THE 1-SYRINGE TOOL TO THE MODEL 1 CHASSIS

259

15.6

Mounting the 1-Syringe Tool to the Model 1 Chassis

Assembly Step 5 - Mounting 1-Syringe Tool on Model 1 Chassis

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15.7. SYRINGE TOOL DISPENSING COMPONENTS

261

15.7

Syringe Tool Dispensing Components

In order to use your Fab@Home Model 1 with a Model 1 1-Syringe Tool, you will need to obtain some disposable syringes, pistons, and needles/nozzles. The following parts are the recommended starter set for use with the Model 1 1-Syringe Tool:

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15.7.1

Parts list with pricing, vendor, part number


Part Qty Reqd Syringe 30 Barrel Qty/ Pkg 30 Total VendorPart Details Price Num. $20.22 EFD 5111LL-B 10cc clear Inc. polyethylene syringe barrel; luer tip $15.54 EFD 5111S-B Black neoInc. prene rubber pistons for use with 10cc syringe barrels $42.34 EFD 5100 A kit with a Inc. wide variety of dierent tips; tip caps; end caps; some other piston types

Syringe 30 Piston; Neoprene; 10cc Syringe 1 Tip Sampler Kit

30

15.7.2

Preferred vendors
URL/Contact Category http://www.efdFluid Disinc.com/components.html, pensing 1(800)556-3484, 1(404)434- Equip1680 ment and Supplies Detail Syringe barrels, pistons, nozzles and needles; complete dispensing systems

Name EFD Incorporated

15.8

Materials

This section lists a number of materials that can be used with a Model 1 1-Syringe Tool, and similar deposition tools. If you discover or develop new materials, please add them to this page under the appropriate category. Please remember to describe: A material le to go with your material A recipe for making the material or a place from which to buy it (on the web) Some pictures of objects printed with that material Suggestions as to which syringe tips and other dispensing components to use with the material

15.8. MATERIALS Post-processing for this material (e.g. curing, sanding) Material properties (elasticity, conductivity), if you know any

263

Warning: While some materials like silicone and playdough may be benign, other materials may be hazardous, toxic, carcinogenic, or ammable. Please carefully consider the following before using any inedible materials: Some materials, such as epoxy, release heat as they cure and can spontaneously combust if mixed in too large of a batch. Always follow safety and handling instructions that are provided with any material. Always download and read the Materials Safety Data Sheet for any new material, or any material you might be using in an unusual way. Check the manufacturers or vendors websites or reference sites, such as MSDS Online (http://www.msdsonline.com) for MSDSs for materials you plan to use. Be sure to use appropriate personal protective equipment when working with hazardous materials, including eye, face, hand, body and respiratory protection as needed. See a reference site, such as: http://www.pp.okstate.edu/ehs/links/ppe.htm for advice on protective equipment. Be sure to dispose of material carefully and in accordance with EPA regulations (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/resident.htm)(in the USA), or the waste disposal regulations in your country.

15.8.1

Structural Materials

Gypsum Plaster Playdough HotGlue Putty Polymer Clay? Metal Particle Clay? Uv Coating? you can use it with the syringe tool, and then apply the uv light, or you can spread it as a layer apply the uv light and then cut the layer to the shape is needed.

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Casting materials such as fast-setting epoxies or rubber? Machinable wax? (e.g. freemansupply.com or shapelock.com) ABS plastic in solution? I saw on a crafts page somewhere that you can dissolve ABS in acetone and use it to patch up defects. With the right amount of dilution, you might be able to deposit it with a syringe and wait for the acetone to evaporate. Probably need a fume hood/recapture system, though. Wax? I would like to build a system with a heated wax reservoir to make parts that could then be used to cast plastic or metal parts.

15.8.2

Elastomers

Silicone Rubber Cement

15.8.3

Conductive inks

Conductive paste CircuitWriter Conductive Ink Solder It-Silver Bearing Solder Paste

15.8.4

Metals

TODO: Low melting point alloys (require heated tool) Should mildly toxic materials be considered? E.g., those alloys containing Pb. Gallium alloys - maybe an alloy of Ga, In, Sn? Fields Metal Solder

15.8.5
Icing

Edible

Easy Squeeze Frosting

Peanut Butter Cookie Dough Chocolate Caramel

15.8. MATERIALS Materials: Gypsum Description: Soft ceramic Recipe/Source: http://plaster.com/DryStone.html http://plaster.com/SuperX.html Materials: Playdough Description: Playdough, Clay, ModelMagic (Various Colors) Recipe/Source: http://www.crayolastore.com/category.asp?NAV=CLAY Properties:

265

ModelMagic: Very elastic material, which means the material must be compressed a lot in order to be pushed out of the syringe tip; very light, supports itself well Crayolas Air-Dry Clay: Consider adding water to soften clay Materials: HotGlue Description: Hot glue Recipe/Source: Adhesive Tech Standard Glue Sticks (Walmart $2) Properties: quite tough and cheap material Recommended tools: A deposition tool has to be built from a glue gun: the heater can be adapted, with a thin nozzle, and a piston will push the glue stick. As the glue is extruding into thin wires, even when pressure is released, a mechanical device may be needed to stop the ow. The nozzle may be designed to squeeze the deposited glue, like in Stratasys old FDM machines Safety and Toxicity: No problem, as far as I know. Materials: Silicone Description: 1-part elastic Silicone (White/Black/Clear) Recipe/Source: http://www.newark.com/product-details/text/catalog/7481.html Material File: NAME PDMS Standard Home Silicone DESCRIPTION Silicone polymer (PDMS), white RECIPE Standard, get from GE Model GE5000 12C COLOR 1 1 1 1 // R G B Alpha in range 0-1 (alpha=transparency) VISCOSITY 65000 cP COMPRESSIBILITY 0.8 ELASTICITY 12 KPa LAYERWAIT 0 sec CURING 10 min COMPATIBILITY Silicone, fluoropolymer, polyolefin INCOMPATIBILITY acetone NOZZLEMIN 0.5 mm NOZZLEMAX 10 mm PREFERREDTOOL 10ccPinkTaper.tool

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PREFERREDTOOL 10ccRedTaper.tool FENCING 0 mm MAXOVERHANG 45 deg EARLYSTART 0.5 sec EARLYSTOP 0.5 sec Newark: one-part silicone systems

2.8 oz. Tube

10.1 oz. Tube One and two component rubber adhesives for an unlimited number of industrial applications. Packaged in collapsible plastic tubes and standard caulking cartridges. Cures to tough resilient rubber at room temperature. Will withstand temperatures from -70 F to 500 F. Resists moisture aging, ozone weathering. Will bond to most substrates without primer. Ideal for instant insulation. Available in 2.8 oz tube or 10.1 oz caulker as indicated below. GENERAL-PURPOSE PASTE, UL, FDA AND NSF LISTED Mfg. Part No. Description Newark Part No. IS 802-2.8 Oz. White General-Purpose Paste 00Z1574 IS 802-10.1 Oz. White General-Purpose Paste 00Z1577 IS 803-10.1 Oz. Black General-Purpose Paste 00Z1578 IS 808-2.8 Oz. Clear General-Purpose Paste 00Z1576 IS 808-10.1 Oz. Clear General-Purpose Paste 00Z1579

15.8. MATERIALS

267

PREMIUM PERFORMANCE PASTE Product available in either 2.8 oz tube, 10.3 oz tube or 10.1 oz caulker as indicated below. Mfg. Part No. Description Newark Part No. RTV 102-2.8 Oz.** White Premium Paste 00Z643 RTV 102-10.1 Oz.** White Premium Paste 00Z659 RTV 102-10.3 Oz.** White Premium Paste 00Z652 RTV 103-2.8 Oz.** Black Premium Paste 00Z644 RTV 103-10.1 Oz.** Black Premium Paste 34C2573 RTV 106-2.8 Oz.** Red High Temperature Paste 00Z646 RTV 106-10.1 Oz.** Red High Temperature Paste 00Z1134 RTV 106-10.3 Oz.** Red High Temperature Paste 00Z655 RTV 108-2.8 Oz.** Clear Premium Paste 00Z645 RTV 108-10.3 Oz.** Clear Premium Paste 00Z654 RTV 108-10.1 Oz.** Clear Premium Paste 00Z660 RTV 133-2.8 Oz.** Black Flame Retardant Paste, 00Z1316 Noncorrosive(UL-94V-0 Rating) RTV 157-2.8 Oz. Grey Ultra High Strength Paste 00Z649 RTV 159-2.8 Oz. Red Ultra High Strength and 00Z650 High Temperature Paste RTV 167-2.8 Oz. Gray Electronic Grade 03C3308 FLOWABLE SILICONES, UL, FDA, NSF LISTED Product is available in 2.8 oz tube and 10.3 oz tube as indicated below. Mfg. Part No. Description Newark Part No. RTV 112-2.8 Oz. White Premium Grade, Flowable 00Z648 RTV 112-10.3 Oz. White Premium Grade, Flowable 00Z656 RTV 116-10.3 Oz. Red High Temperature Grade, 00Z657 Flowable RTV 118-2.8 Oz. Clear Premium Grade, Flowable 00Z647 RTV 118-10.3 Oz. Clear Premium Grade, Flowable 00Z658 LOW-ODOR NEUTRAL CURE ADHESIVES, UL LISTED Product is available in 2.8 oz tube and 10.1 oz caulker as indicated below. Mfg. Part No. Description Newark Part No. RTV 122-10.1 Oz. White General-Purpose Paste 00Z1571 RTV 128-10.1 Oz. Clear General-Purpose Paste 0Z1573 RTV 160-10.1 Oz. White Electronic Grade, Noncorrosive, 00Z1313 Flowable RTV 162-2.8 Oz. White Electronic Grade, Noncorrosive Paste 00Z651 RTV 162-10.1 Oz. White Electronic Grade, Noncorrosive Paste 00Z662 RTV 123-10.1 Oz. Black General-Purpose Paste 00Z1572 RTV 6708-10.1 Oz. Clear Paste 00Z1264

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TWO-PART RTV KITS 1 pint kit silicone rubber compound for protecting connectors switches, components and coils from dust, moisture and shock, and casting rubber release rolls. Mfg. Part No. Description Newark Part No. RTV-11 White Silicone Rubber Compound 00Z735 RTV-60 Red Silicone Rubber Compound 00Z1050 1 pint kit rubber compound for electronic potting for optical clarity. Protects electronic components against shock, moisture and other environmental hazards. Mfg. Part No. Description Newark Part No. RTV-615 Clear Silicone Rubber Compound 00Z716 c 2007 Newark Web Site Support: 1.800.NEWARK.T (1.800.639.2758) Contact Newark: 1.800.4.NEWARK (1.800.463.9275) Materials: Conductive paste Description: Silver lled epoxy. Low resistance, brittle. Recipe/Source: E1660 conductive ink by Ercon Inc. http://www.erconinc.com/home.htm Materials: CircuitWriter Conductive Ink Description: Recipe/Source: CircuitWriter CAIG Laboratories, Inc: CircuitWriterT M CircuitWriterT M Conductive Ink, silver-based TECHNICAL INFORMATION: Color: Silver Binder: Acrylic Solids content by weight: 51.5% Density: 14.1 lbs/gal Electrical Resistance: < 0.017 ohm/sq/mil Shielding Performance: 76 dB Viscosity: 20-25 sec., #2 Zahn Cup @ 25 o C Ideal Film Thickness: Between 0.4 and 1.0 mils Theoretical Coverage: 340 Sq ft/gal @ 1 mil VOC Content: 0.50 lbs/gal TYPICAL PROPERTIES WHEN DRIED: Sheet resistance: 0.017ohms/sq/mil (25 m) Attenuation: 76 dB CircuitWriterT M Precision Conductive Ink

15.8. MATERIALS

269

Apply instant traces on most surfaces (epoxy, glass, plastic, metal). Draw traces on circuit boards, repair defective traces, make jumpers and shield electronics, design prototype circuits and repair rear-window heater traces.

CircuitWriterT M Pen, #CW100P CircuitWriter Pen, 100%, silver-based, 5 grams Part No. CW100P Price: $16.95
TM

CircuitWriterT M , #CW100L-4 CircuitWriterT M Liquid, 100%, silverbased, 125 grams, coated bottle Part No. CW100L-4 Price: $116.95

CircuitWriterT M , #CW100L-12 silver-based, 375 grams, container Part No. CW100L-12 Price: $325.00

CircuitWriterT M Liquid, 100%,

CircuitWriterT M , #CW100L-32 silver-based, 1000 grams, container Part No. CW100L-32 Price: $875.00

CircuitWriterT M Liquid, 100%,

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Materials: Solder It-Silver Bearing Solder Paste Description: Solder It: Silver Bearing Solder Paste SolderIt Package Recipe/Source: Lowes - $3.97 Recommended tools: Used to solder electrical wires together. It is a metalliccolored paste until heated with ame of match. Unfortunately, the paste - prior to heating - is not conductive while it is still wet. More details to follow as testing continues. Fields metal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fields metal, or Fields alloy, is a fusible alloy that becomes liquid at approximately 62 C (144 F). It is a eutectic alloy of bismuth, indium, and tin, with the following percentages by weight: 32.5% Bi, 51% In, 16.5% Sn. As it contains no lead nor cadmium, it is a non-toxic alternative to Woods metal. It is used for die casting and easy prototyping. Materials: Icing Description: Recipe/Source:

http://www.crayolastore.com/product list.asp?SKW=CRACAKE

Supermarket

Properties:

Crayolas Writing Icing: Not as thick as other icings; ows well; takes about 1 hour to begin hardening, several hours to completely harden; washes away well with hot water (possible support materials?)

Materials: Chocolate Preliminary Experiments with Chocolate The following is the work of Noy Schaal, a freshman in Manual High School, Louisville, KY. Noy is building a low-temperature heated syringe which is suitable for depositing chocolate. This modication to the basic Model 1 1-Syringe Tool oers the ability to deposit other low-melting point materials as well, including wax, bismuth metal alloys. Photos from 01/20/2007

15.8. MATERIALS

271

High Resolution - smaller size: can t to your palm or your nger tip

Photos and Movies from 12/03/2006

Getting rid of the air

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5.2MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar

15.8. MATERIALS

273

2.1MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar

7.2MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar

40.6 MB Movie of Printing a Chocolate Bar

Photos from 10/30/2006

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Melting the Chocolate

Black Chocolate

15.8. MATERIALS

275

White chocolate

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Photos from 10/23/2006

15.8. MATERIALS

277

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Chapter 16 Model 1 2-Syringe Tool


The Model 1 2-Syringe Tool is a simple modication to the 1-Syringe tool, just wider, with 2 motors, and two syringes. At present only the SolidWorks design les are available. The assembly is essentially identical to that of the 1-Syringe tool. PLEASE NOTE: The 2-Syringe Tool has an additional motor which will require an additional motor amplier, and the addition of a couple of cable connections between the microcontroller and the additional amplier.

Image of the electronics for a 2-Syringe Video of 2-Syringe Tool system in ac- Tool system - note the addition of a single axis Xylotex amp to the usual tion 53MB WMV. 4-axis amp of the standard Model 1.

16.1

Software

Here you can nd the current version of the application (same exe as for a standard Model 1) packaged with a printer denition and tool les for 2-syringe system. Beta Version Link: Fab@Home V0.20 Application with 2-Syringe printer and tool les, FAHv0 18.zip Version: 0.20 Date: 03:08, 15 May 2007 (EDT) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Zip archive 279

280 Size: 407KB Requires: Firmware Version 3

CHAPTER 16. MODEL 1 2-SYRINGE TOOL

16.2

Designs

Link: 2-Syringe Tool SolidWorks Design Files, 2SyringeTool.zip Version: 1.0 Date: 17:03, 17 January 2007 (EST) Platform: SolidWorks 2005 SP3.1 Format: Zip archive of SolidWorks les Size: 3.6MB Other File Formats: DXF, layout le only

Chapter 17 Model 1 Chassis Assembly


Here you will nd the assembly instructions for the Model 1 Chassis. If you are looking for CAD les of the chassis for cutting your own, or places that will cut the chassis parts for you, please visit the Fab@Home:Model 1 Bill of Materials Page.

Image of Fully Assembled Model 1 Chassis

The Model 1 Chassis consists of: 281

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Image of Model 1 base - Base Assembly Instructions

Image of Model 1 Z-Carriage - ZCarriage Assembly Instructions

Image of Model 1 XY-Carriage - XY-Carriage Assembly Instructions

17.1. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

283

17.1

Model 1 Chassis Assembly Diagrams

284

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17.1. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

285

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CHAPTER 17. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY

17.1. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

287

288

CHAPTER 17. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY

17.1. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY DIAGRAMS

289

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CHAPTER 17. MODEL 1 CHASSIS ASSEMBLY

Chapter 18 Model 1 Electronics Assembly


The Model 1 Electronics consist of: Elpac MW4024-760-NC-WH 24VDC, 1.67A (40W) Power Supply Elpac Datasheet AC Power Cord (IEC 3 prong to USA 3 prong plug) for Power Supply Olimex LPC-H2148 Microcontroller Board Olimex LPC-H2148 Header Pinouts Olimex LPC-H2148 Schematic Philips LPC-214x ARM7 Family User Manual Xylotex XS-3525/8S-4 4-Axis Stepper Motor Amplier Board Xylotex Datasheet Winford Engineering DB-25 Breakout Board Winford Datasheet Omron D3M-01K3 SPST-NC (Single-pole Single-throw Normally Closed) Limit Switches Omron Datasheet Limit Switch Cables Ribbon Cables to connect the LPC-H2148 to the other devices USB Cable to connect LPC-H2148 to the users personal computer 291

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CHAPTER 18. MODEL 1 ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY

18.1

Constructing the Model 1 Electronics

The following steps are required to assemble the electronics for the Model 1: 1. Prepare the motor cables 2. Prepare the limit switch cables 3. Prepare the ribbon cables 4. Prepare the amplier enable cable 5. Prepare the power supply cable 6. Route the cables 7. Modify the Xylotex Board for the Limit Switches 8. Attach the Enable Cable to the Winford Board 9. Mount the boards onto the chassis 10. Connect the cables to the boards according to the schematic and the electronics pinouts

18.2

Modify Xylotex Board for Limit Switches

Schematic of the resistor network circuit for the 10pin SIP resistor network The Xylotex XS-3525/8S-4 4-Axis Stepper Motor Amplier Board is nicely designed with a set of screw terminals to allow simple connection of devices to any auxiliary input/output signals coming onto the board via the IDC26 connector. We will use these terminals to connect our limit switches, and the limit switch signals will then travel to the LPC-H2148 via the IDC26 to DB25 cable, through the Winford board, and then over the IDC26 cables to the microcontroller. In order for the limit

18.2. MODIFY XYLOTEX BOARD FOR LIMIT SWITCHES

293

switches to provide a signal, they need to change the voltage on the Xylotex aux IO pins when the switch is activated - this is generally achieved by placing the switch in a series circuit with a resistor, and monitoring the voltage between the resistor and the switch. There are two congurations for this circuit - Vcc->switch->resistor>ground (pulldown), and Vcc->resistor->switch->ground (pullup). Pullup is generally preferred for safety, as the resistor between Vcc and the other components limits current in the case of a short. In ether case, when the switch state changes (opened or closed), the voltage between the switch and resistor changes from Vcc to GND or vice-versa. The Xylotex board does not have these pullup or pulldown resistors onboard, however it does have a nice spot for a 10pin SIP (single inline package) resistor network - 10 tinned holes just behind the black aux IO screw terminal block. Because of the on-board connections to these holes, we have opted to use the pullup circuit conguration, and you will need to run a wire from a Vcc (5VDC) screw terminal to the screw terminal at which pin 1 of the SIP is connected (see the schematic below). Here you will see how to solder the 10pin SIP network onto the board.

Step 1: Here you see the Xylotex board and the 10 pin SIP resistor network, and the destination for the SIP highlighted

Step 2: The SIP has been inserted into the tinned holes prior to soldering. Note the orientation of the Pin 1 marking.

Step 3: Bend the rst and last lead of Step 4: Apply a small amount of ux the SIP slightly to keep it from falling to each of the leads of the SIP out during soldering.

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Step 5: Heating the lead and the tinned hole simultaneously, add a small amount of solder until the hole lls, and a small amount of solder climbs up the lead (see Soldering Methods for general soldering advice)

Step 6: Clean o any excess ux, and examine your work - the solder should be neat and smooth around all of the leads of the SIP. If you spot any balls of solder or holes which do not appear lled, resolder that lead now, to save yourself debugging hassles later.

18.3

Attach the Enable Cable to the Winford Board

Note that amplier enables require rmware version 3. In this step, you will solder the amplier enable cable that you made earlier to the Winford breakout board.

Step 1:Flux the stripped and twisted end of the enable cable, and solder it in one of the plated through-holes (PTH) labeled X1 on the Winford board. Step 2:Your attached enable cable The four PTHs for each terminal are should look like this. all connected to the screw terminal of the same name. X1 and X2 are the only terminals which do not connect to the DB-25 ribbon cable connector.

18.4. MOUNTING THE BOARDS

295

18.4

Mounting the Boards

The diagrams below illustrate how to mount the boards onto the back of the Model 1 base.

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18.4. MOUNTING THE BOARDS

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18.5. ELECTRONICS PICTO-SCHEMATIC

299

18.5

Electronics Picto-Schematic

This schematic illustrates the connections between the various electronics boards and other components of the Fab@Home Model 1.

Schematic of the electronics layout, revised 5-4-07 - added amplier enable connections

18.5.1

Visio Schematic

Current Version Link: Model 1 Electronics-05042007.vsd Version: 5-4-2007 Date: 14:16, 4 May 2007 (EDT)

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Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Microsoft Visio XP/2003 Size: 300kB Previous Version Link: Model 1 Electronics.vsd Version: 3-28-2007 Date: 13:36, 28 March 2007 (EDT) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Microsoft Visio XP/2003 Size: 300kB

18.5.2

Cable Attachment Images

Following the schematic and/or the pinouts, attach the ribbon cable connectors to the LPC-2148, and then attach the tinned ends of the ribbon cables to the Winford board screw terminals.

Heres how the ribbon cables look when attached to the LPC-H2148 and the Winford board.

18.5. ELECTRONICS PICTO-SCHEMATIC

301

Plug the enable cable jumper ends into the ENABLE (J?) header (white, between TB-AUX and J7). Leave the pin closest to TB-AUX unconnected.

Here is a closeup of the limit switch connections. Note that for each limit switch, one of the wires will be connected to the ground terminal at the bottom of the Xylotex board. Depending on the gauge of your limit switch cables, this bundle may not t into the screw terminal. For this reason, it is recommended that you pigtail these limit switch conductors together - solder them all together, and then solder that bundle to a short piece of wire. Shrink tube the solder joint. This arrangement will make a more reliable connection to the screw terminal for the limit switches.

Heres a view of all of the cables connected, and the electronics mounted on the back of the machine.

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18.6

Electronics Pinouts

Full electronics pinout and pin assignment information: The below Excel workbook includes several sheets that describe the pin assigments and cable connections for the various electronic components. Please use this as a complement to the Schematics and the User Manuals and Board Schematics

18.6.1

Current Version

Link: Model 1 Pinouts-05042007.xls Version: 05042007 Date: 14:16, 4 May 2007 (EDT) Platform: Microsoft Excel Format: Microsoft Excel XP/2003 Size: 296kB

Chapter 19 Model 1 Firmware Installation


The rmware is the software that runs on the LPC2148 microcontroller. When you receive your microcontroller, it will have a simple demonstration rmware loaded onto it from the manufacturer. You will need to replace this with the Fab@Home rmware. There are several ways to put the rmware onto your microcontroller, all of which will require that you buy a programming adapter. The simplest method is to buy a JTAG cable for ARM processors (20 pin, 2 rows X 10 pins). Most ARM JTAG cables will work with CrossWorks so this is the recommended approach. See below for a list of recommended JTAG adapters. An alternative method involves using the serial bootloader on the LPC-H2148 with a precompiled hex le, Philips serial programming software, and a serial/TTL UART adapter connecting your PC to the rst UART on the LPC-H2148. Ill try to get more into this soon, as it is probably the cheapest approach.

19.1
19.1.1

Firmware Object Code Downloads


Current Version

Link: Fab@Home Firmware V3 ELF le, FAHv3ELF.zip Version: 3 Date: 00:39, 10 May 2007 (EDT) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Zip archive Size: 16KB

19.1.2

Legacy Versions

Link: Fab@Home Firmware V2 ELF le, FAHv2ELF.zip Version: 2 303

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Date: 00:39, 10 May 2007 (EDT) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Zip archive Size: 14KB

19.2

Programming your LPC-H2148 with Rowley Crossworks v1.6

1. Download the Rowley CrossWorks Chip Support Package for the NXP (formerly Philips) LPC2000 family 2. Run CrossWorks version 1.6 3. In the Tools menu, select Install Package. . . , and navigate to the NXP LPC2000.hzq le you downloaded above. This provides Crossworks with some chip-specic details which are necessary to communicate via JTAG with the LPC-H2148. 4. Download and unzip a rmware object le 5. Connect your JTAG and USB cables as in the instructions below. 6. Hit CTRL-ALT-T to bring up the Targets window (or Target->Targets) 7. In the Target window, right click the Macraigor Wiggler 20 Pin (or the type of JTAG you are using), and select Connect. 8. Right click Macraigor Wiggler 20 Pin again, and select Erase All which will erase the ash memory of your micro. You should be asked TWICE to conrm via dialog boxes. If you do not see a second dialog saying All erasable memory will be erased. Are you sure you want to continue?, then the JTAG may not be communicating properly - but try the remaining steps anyway. Please contact Evan for assistance. 9. If erasing succeeds, then right click Macraigor Wiggler 20 Pin again, and select Download File->Elf File 10. Navigate to the rmware .elf le you downloaded above. 11. CrossWorks should download the binary to the microcontroller ash memory. 12. Youll know if it worked, because after a few seconds, the green LED on the micro should start ashing with a 2s period, and Windows should try to install the drivers for Fab@Home or USB->Serial adapter.

19.3. FIRMWARE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT

305

13. You can test operation of the rmware by running the Fab@Home application, initializing the hardware, and checking the Firmware version number at the top of the View->Printer Status window.

19.3

Firmware Development Environment

The rmware has been written in C using Rowley CrossWorks for ARM (http://www.rowley.co.uk/arm/index.htm) which is available for a 30 day free trial more than enough time to program your micro, and possibly to play with the rmware as well. NOTE: If you want to use Rowley CrossWorks for free, you need to request an evaluation license - this generally takes about 24 hours when you make your request via email. CrossWorks simplies the installation of the Fab@Home rmware onto the microcontroller, hence it is recommended that you download the trial and use it for programming.

19.3.1

Download Rowley CrossWorks for ARM

Rowley CrossWorks for ARM Free 30 day Trial, MS Windows: http://www.rowley.co.uk/arm/arm crossworks 1 6 win.zip.

19.3.2

Download Chip Support Package for the LPC2000 Family

Rowley CrossWorks Chip Support Package for the NXP (formerly Philips) LPC2000 family: http://www.rowleydownload.co.uk/arm/packages/NXP LPC2000.hzq.

19.3.3

Install CrossWorks and Request Evaluation License

Step 1: Once you have downloaded the CrossWorks installer package, unzip it, and open the arm crossworks. . . \ arm folder, and double click Setup.exe. You can accept all of the defaults regarding installation destinations.

Step 2: Start CrossWorks for ARM. With CrossWorks running, you need to request an evaluation license. Goto Tools-> Licence Manager. . .

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Step 3: On the License Manager dialog box, click one of the two buttons in the upper right hand corner under the text If you wish to evaluate CrossWorks.... If you use an email application, like Eudora or Outlook, click By Mail, which will open your email program and address an email to Rowley Co. with a license key request. If you use a web-based email client, click Manually, and see Step 4.

Step 4: If you chose Manually, a dialog will appear notifying you that a license key has been copied to the Windows Clipboard. You can then compose an email to license@rowley.co.uk with the subject Evaluation License Request, paste in the license key, and send it. You should receive a 30 day evaluation license within 24 hours (on weekdays).

Step 5: Once Rowley has responded Step 6: In the Tools menu, sewith an Activation Key, you can lect Install Package..., and navigate enter it into the CrossWorks Li- to and open the Philips LPC2000.hzq cense Manager. Select Tools->License chip support package you downloaded Manager..., click Activate Product, above. This provides Crossworks with paste in your activation key, and ok it. some chip-specic details which are You should see your license type de- necessary to communicate via JTAG scribed in the License Manager dialog with the LPC-H2148. now. As an alternative, there is a variety of GNU C compiler-based toolsets which can work with the ARM7 core. For more info on these see: Olimexs ARM-USB-OCD Page: http://www.olimex.com/dev/index.html SparkFuns ARM-USB-OCD Page: http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product info.php?products id=7834.

19.4. PROGRAMMING YOUR LPC-H2148 MICROCONTROLLER

307

19.4

Programming your LPC-H2148 Microcontroller

Programming the microcontroller with CrossWorks involves connecting it to your PC via a JTAG adapter and the USB cable (simultaneously), running CrossWorks, opening up the Fab@Home Firmware project, telling CrossWorks to connect to the microcontroller via the JTAG cable, and building and running the ARM Flash Release version of the rmware. This last command will download the rmware object code onto the ash memory of the microcontroller, and then reset the microcontroller. After that, you should be ready to run the application.

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Step 1: Download and unzip the Fab@Home rmware project, which includes C and assembly language source code, a memory map for the LPC-2148, some runtime glue object code, and a Rowley CrossWorks project le (.hzp).

Step 2: Start up CrossWorks.

Step 3: Using File->Open Solution... or CTRL-SHIFT-o, bring up the Open Solution dialog, and navigate to and open the Fab@HomeFirmware.hzp project le located in the FAHFirmware folder you unzipped in step 1.

Step 4: Using the second dropdown control from the top left of the CrossWorks window, select the current project conguration to be ARM Flash Release. This is telling CrossWorks that you would like to compile the release version of the project without extra code which makes debugging easier, but decreases performance, and that you want it to be stored on the ash memory of the LPC-2148 so that it does not disappear when the microcontroller is not powered.

19.4. PROGRAMMING YOUR LPC-H2148 MICROCONTROLLER

309

Step 5: Get out your JTAG adapter cable. Pictured here is the ARM JTAG 20 pin to Parallel Port adapter from Step 6: If using the Parallel to JTAG Spark Fun, and a parallel extension adapter, connect it to the parallel port (male to female) cable, which is op- of your PC. tional, but extends the reach of the JTAG cable somewhat.

Step 7: Connect the 20pin female 2row socket of your JTAG adapter to the black 20pin male header on the top face of the LPC-H2148 microcontroller board. Note that the connector and socket are keyed with a tab and slot so that they can attach in only one orientation.

Step 8: Now connect your PC to the LPC-H2148 USB port with a USB cable. This will provide power to the microcontroller. You should see the red power LED on the micro illuminate, and within a few seconds, you may observe that the mouse pointer on your PC screen is moving on its own in a square pattern. This is a result of the demonstration rmware that comes preloaded on the microcontroller from Olimex, the boards manufacturer.

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Step 9: Return the PC, and using the Target menu, select the connection appropriate for your JTAG adapter - in the case of the parallel to JTAG, select Connect Macraigor Wiggler (20 Pin). This tells CrossWorks to try to talk to the microcontroller over the JTAG cable connection.

Step 10: If connection was successful, you should see a yellow target connection indicator near the bottom of the Crossworks window. Yellow indicates a successful but inactive connection. If you have any errors at this stage, double check your cable connections and possibly disconnect and reconnect, ensure that the red power LED is lit on your micro, and ensure that you have a valid license for CrossWorks. As parallel ports are not reliably plug and play, you may need to reboot your PC after attaching the parallel port cable before things will work.

Step 11: Push and hold down the reset button on the microcontroller. This will stop the rmware on the micro from running so that you can regain control of your mouse for the last couple of steps.

Step 12: While holding down the microcontroller reset button, contort yourself toward your PC, and in the CrossStudio application, select Build>Build and Run, and simultaneously release the microntroller reset button.

19.5. JTAG ADAPTERS

311

Step 13: The project should begin compiling and you should now see a large number of warnings and other text scroll in one of the lower panes of the CrossWorks window. The warnings are a result of duplicate register name denitions resulting from using combining code from multiple (open) sources.

Step 14: You should eventually see a successful build, and then notices that the memory of the micro is being erased, and new rmware downloaded and veried.

Step 15: If all of this succeeds, then you should see three lit LEDs on your microcontroller. The red Power LED and Yellow USB Link LED should be constantly lit, and the Green Status LED should be blinking, 1 second on, 1 second o, indicating that the rmware is running and detects no errors. Your microcontroller is now fully programmed, and ready to communicate with the Fab@Home application.

Step 16: You can now disconnect the JTAG cable from the microcontroller, and start working with your Fab@Home!

19.5

JTAG Adapters

In order to program your LPC-H2148 you will need a JTAG adapter which works with your rmware development environment.

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19.5.1

JTAG for Rowley Crossworks

At present, the following two JTAG adapters are known to be compatible with Rowley CrossWorks:

Parallel Port to ARM JTAG adapter from SparkFun, $19.95, if you have a parallel port

USB to ARM JTAG adapter from Rowley, $200, if you only have a USB port

19.5.2

JTAG for ARM GCC Toolchain

Olimex the manufacturer of the LPC-H2148 board, has a simplied set of programming tools for the ARM processors, called their Olimexs ARM GCC for Windows Dummies, based on the GNU C ARM toolset. Olimex makes a very nice all in one JTAG adapter, called ARM-USB-OCD for use with these free programming tools, but currently it is unknown whether this will work with Rowley CrossWorks as well - if you know, please update this!

JTAG USB OCD Programmer/Debugger for ARM processors from SparkFun, $69.95, works with RS232 serial and USB

19.6. ROWLEY CROSSWORKS FOR ARM

313

19.6

Rowley Crossworks for ARM

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CHAPTER 19. MODEL 1 FIRMWARE INSTALLATION

19.7

Olimex JTAG Programmer (from Sparkfun Electronics)

JTAG USB OCD Programmer/Debugger for ARM processors Sparkfun Electronics SKU#: PGM-07834 Price: $71.95

Description: This is the mother of all JTAG Programmers for ARMs - and its about 1/10th the price of other programmer/debuggers with the same functionality!

First on market three-in-one USB JTAG debugger - oers JTAG + RS232 (full modem signals supported) port + power supply all in one compact device Fast speed USB 2.0 JTAG dongle interface, can be used with all ARM devices for programming and debugging. Uses ARMs standard 2x10 pin JTAG connector Supports ARM targets working in voltage range 2.0 - 5.0 V DC Software supported by OpenOCD (open source) debugger adds virtual RS232 port to your computer with all modem signals like: DTR, DSR, DCD, RTS, CTS, Rx, Tx Can be used as power supply to your target board with three jumper selectable power supplies: 5V 9V and 12VDC, USB source current is limited with resetable fuse at 300mA, at the dierent output voltage the maximum current is dierent: 5V/200mA, 9V/100mA, 12V/70mA, note that this also depend on your USB host current capabilities, if other USB devices are attached to your computer or if the laptop is running on batteries these gures may be dierent and depend on your computer USB host. Comes with CD with Windows installer for full featured and open source tools as alternative to the commercial ARM development packages: GCC C compiler, openOCD debugger and Eclipse IDE.

19.8. SPARKFUN ELECTRONICS: JTAG PROGRAMMER

315

Dimensions: 50x40 mm (2x1.6) + 20 cm (8) JTAG cable + 30 cm (12) power supply cable Documents: ARM-USB-OCD yer ARM Cross Development with Eclipse (10MB) REV-3 very detailed tutorial by Jim Lynch how to setup and works with the free GNUARM tools LPC2106 board. The sample codes for this tutorial is here. ARM Cross Development with Eclipse in Spanish language (3MB) REV-1 Paul Aguayo did a great job translating to Spanish language Jim Lynchs tutorial. He also shrink the size of the document without missing the quality of the pictures and tutorial text. GNU toolchain setup with openOCD by Michael Fischer ARM JTAG connector (top view) Software: Olimexs ARM GCC for Windows Dummies install CD - installs on your computer WinARM + OpenOCD debugger + Eclipse for out of the box development with the open source GNU C compiler and OpenOCD debugger, supports ash loading on LPC and external ash for LPC-H2214, LPC-H2294, with make examples for dierent ARM controllers. openOCD open source debugger from Dominic Rath for debugging with Insight/GDB. WinARM - easy to install open source GCC toolchain by Martin Thomas. We are working on CD install package for WinArm+OpenOCD+ARM-USB-OCD support For the moment the only supported package is GCC C compiler + openOCD debugger + Eclipse IDE. Olimex can provide the necessary information and cooperate with interested parties if they want to add low cost USB debugger support to their C compilers and IDEs.

19.8

Sparkfun Electronics: JTAG Programmer

JTAG Programmer/Debugger for ARM processors SKU#: PGM-00275 Price: $20.95

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Description: JTAG Programmer and Debugger for LPC and ARM microcontrollers. Program LPC21xx, Atmel AT91, STMicroelectronics STR7 Parts, and other (not tested) ARM ash microcontrollers Uses ARMs standard 2x10 pin JTAG connector No external power supply required - all power is taken from the target board Compatible with Rowleys CrossConnect, IAR EWARM and GCC (OCD) software for programming, real time emulation, debugging, step by step program execution, breakpoints, memory dump etc. Everything a high priced emulator can do and more! IAR EWARM - unlimited assembler code size or in C with 16K limit for all LPC21xx ARM microcontrollers Works with free GCC C compiler and Insight tool chain and debugger. Documents: ARM-JTAG.pdf, ARM JTAG Connector Dimensions: 2x1.6 (50x40 mm) + 8 (20 cm) cable Software: Please take a look at our support forum for further discussions on software compatibility and support for the ARM-JTAG. In general, LPC21xx are very new parts. And for some unknown reason, Philips doesnt disclose how to program LPC21xx Flash via JTAG. This has delayed the development of third party IDEs. Perhaps Philips is having problems with the Flash programming and is going to change the protocol in future. This is currently why they force end users to use their bootloader IAP protocol. The only vendor so far to work around this is Rowley. They rst load in RAM small own bootloader which then receives data from the JTAG interface and feeds the packets into IAP to write to Flash segments. This is current the easiest to use product for the LPC21xx parts. Jim Lynchs tutorial for setting up the free GCC/GNU tool chain. The example software is available here. GCC C compiler from Macraigor Systems. Works smoothly with ARM-JTAG but cant program Flash and user can compile debug programs in RAM then re-build for Flash and use Philips RS232 bootloader.

19.8. SPARKFUN ELECTRONICS: JTAG PROGRAMMER GNUARM another GCC toolchain from Arius.

317

CrossWork for ARM (so far most recommended by us) C compiler and debuger from Rowley Associates, this is the easiest to use package we have tested, works smoothly with ARM-JTAG and programs both Flash and RAM on LPC21xx EWARM C compiler and debugger (free for assembly language, 16K limit for C) from IAR Systems. Cant program LPC21xx Flash, user can debug and program only in RAM, then re-build project and use Philips ISP utility to load the program through RS232 bootloader. C-SPY driver for ARM-JTAG have some glitches on newer and faster computers and does several crashes before connect to target. It works ne on older and slower computers though. According to IAR, they are going to x this to the end of February 2004. SwiftX software development system for the ARM family works with the ARMJTAG for live interactive debugging of the Atmel AT91 ARM core family (using Atmels EB40, EB40A, etc. development boards). Port for the ST ARM parts coming soon.

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Chapter 20 Model 1 User Software Installation


Here you can nd the most up-to-date Fab@Home software executables (application and USB drivers) for the Model 1 with installation instructions. Currently, this software runs only under Microsoft Windows. If you are interested in participating in the development of the open-source Fab@Home application, rmware, or drivers, please visit the Fab@Home project at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/fabathome. There is a narrated overview movie of the Fab@Home application at: http://fabathome/org/wiki/uploads/7/79/SoftwareOverview.wmv.

20.1
20.1.1

Application Download
Current Version

More work necessary before we can declare an ocial release Evan 11:33, 5 December 2006 (EST)

20.1.2

Beta Version

Link: Fab@Home V0.20 Application, FAHv0 20.zip Version: 0.20 Date: 03:05, 15 May 2007 (EDT) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Zip archive Size: 396KB Requires: Firmware Version 3 319

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20.1.3

Legacy Version

Link: Fab@Home V0.17a Application, FAHv0 17a.zip Version: 0.17a Date: 14:45, 3 December 2006 (EST) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Zip archive Size: 407KB Requires: Firmware Version 2

20.2
20.2.1

Drivers Download
Current Version

Unavailable

20.2.2

Beta Version

Link: Fab@Home USB driver V1.0, FAHDRVv1 0.zip Version: 1.0 Date: 11:09, 6 September 2006 (EDT) Platform: Windows 2000/XP/2003 Format: Zip archive Size: 34KB

20.2.3

Legacy Version

Unavailable

20.3

Installation instructions

1. Download the Fab@Home Application and Drivers .zip archives: 2. Unzip the archives to your desktop or another convenient location using WinZip or another .zip decompression utility. The resulting folders should look roughly like the images below:

20.3. INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

321

Application archive, unzipped

Drivers archive, unzipped

1. When you plug in the USB cable from your Fab@Home to your PC, Windows will request the drivers for the Fab@Home unit. Just navigate to the FAHDRV folder, and select the driver le requested. You will need to do this up to FOUR times when you rst connect to the Fab@Home. After this, the drivers will automatically load whenever the Fab@Home is connected.

2. You can verify that the drivers are installed by opening the Windows Device Manager, and examining the Ports (COM & LPT) and Universal Serial Bus controllers lists. You should see TWO USB to Serial Port Adapters with COM port numbers (e.g. COM17 and COM18 in the image), and at least one USB Composite Device controller.

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Device Manager showing loaded drivers

Chapter 21 Model 1 Commissioning


Here you will see how to adjust and prepare your Model 1 fabber for use after nishing assembly.

21.1

Mount the belt

Here you will see how to mount the timing belt which joins the motorized and unmotorized sides of the X axis gantry. The belt ensures that the two sides of the X axis are driven at the same speed so that the X and Y axes remain perpendicular to each other at all times. You will mount the belt over the pulleys, adjust and secure the relative position of the left and right sides of the X axis so that the X and Y axes are perpendicular, and then adjust the tension of the timing belt with the belt tensioner.

Step 2: Ensure that the right-hand (X motor side) timing pulley is positioned as shown, with the wave-spring washer Step 1: Position the machine with the compressed between the pulley and the rear facing you, and have the timing bearing, and that the pulley hub is sebelt and your Allen wrenches handy. curely tightened. Turn the pulley back and forth by a single turn - it should turn smoothly, and you should see the XY Carriage move slightly as well. 323

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CHAPTER 21. MODEL 1 COMMISSIONING

Step 3: Slightly loosen the two #8 screws which secure the belt tensioner Step 4: Lay the timing belt around until you can slide the belt tensioner the right-hand pully and belt tensioner up and down. Also loosen the left-hand pulley. timing pulley so that it will slide easily o of the shaft.

Step 5: Slide the left-hand timing pulley o of its shaft, being careful to leave the spring washers on the shaft. Loop the timing belt around the pulley, and slide it back onto the shaft.

Step 6: By turning the motor shafts by hand, maneuver the XY Carriage so that the Y Carriage is at the left/right center, and very near to the rear of the machine (closest to you).

21.2. TRUING THE XY CARRIAGE

325

Step 7: Without rotating the belt or any of the pulleys, and without, turn just the left-hand X shaft until the back of the Y Carriage (for instance, the rear surface of the bearing pillow blocks) are parallel to the nearest edge of the top of the Machine Base.

Step 8: Carefully tighten the left hand timing pulley without rotating the shaft or the belt, remembering to squeeze the pulley against the bearing to preload the wave spring washer.

Step 9: Now reposition the shaft collar at the front of the left-hand X shaft to ensure that the left-hand X shaft does not have any axial play. Loosen the shaft collar, pull the shaft toward the front of the machine, squeeze the shaft collar against the bearing (recompressing the wave spring washer between the pulley and the bearing at the rear of the machine), and retighten the shaft collar.

Step 10: Slide the belt tensioner downward until the belt can easily be deected only about 1/2 up or down - the belt should deect upward to roughly the bottom edge of the joint between the rear and top surfaces of the machine base. Secure the belt tensioner screws to keep it at the correct tension. Too little tension will let the belt slip over the pulleys, too much tension will bend the X axis shafts and cause premature wear of parts.

21.2

Truing the XY Carriage

The X and Y axes components need to be adjusted so that the X-rails are parallel to each other, the Y-rails are parallel to each other, and the X-rails are perpendicular to

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the Y-rails. If this is not done, the carriages will not move freely, causing premature wear, and stalling of the motors. Fortunately, the Model 1 is not very sensitive to alignment. Truing of the X rails can be achieved merely by loosening the the screws that secure the rail ange mounts to the machine base, moving the carriage back and forth to ensure free motion, and gradually tightening the screws while ensuring that motion remains free from end to end. The Y rails are similarly trued by moving the Y carriage back and forth, but need a dierent set of screws tightened.

Step 2: By pulling on the timing belt, drive the XY carriage all of the way Step 1: With the rear of the machine to the front of the machine then all of facing you, ensure that all of the #8 the way to the back, being careful to screws which secure the X rail ange not force the carriage against the limit mounts to the machine base are loose. switches - just stop when you hear the limit switches click.

Step 4: Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each of the other 3 X rail ange mounts, beginning with the right rear. When you Step 3: Now gently tighten the #8 are done, you should be able to drive screws on the right front X rail ange the XY carriage smoothly from one end to the other of its range of motion with mount. little force on the belt. If you notice a change in force at one end of the range of motion, repeat the above steps.

21.3. ADJUSTING MOTOR CURRENT

327

21.3

Adjusting motor current

The Xylotex stepper motor amplier regulates the current through the stepper motors. The current needs to be set for the HSI motors. If the current is set too high, the motors will overheat, while if too low, the motors will not generate sucient torque, resulting in loss of position while following paths. The recommended method for performing the adjustment is to adjust the 4 potentiometers (variable resistors) to achieve a desired voltage at the 4 testpoints on the board. Use a multimeter (voltmeter) to measure the voltage at the 4 test points relative to a ground point on the board. The Xylotex User Manual provides the relationship between the voltage at the testpoints and the motor current:

Motor Current = V/1.44

Model 1 Motor Current Settings Recommended Current X Motor (HSI Size 14, 5V) 0.57 A Y Motor (HSI Size 14, 5V) 0.57 A Z Motor (HSI Size 14, 5V) 0.57 A 1-Syringe Tool Motor (HSI Size 11, 5V) 0.42 A Motor

Test Point TPX TPY TPZ TPA

Test Point Voltage 0.8208 V 0.8208 V 0.8208 V 0.6048 V

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CHAPTER 21. MODEL 1 COMMISSIONING

To measure the current, set your multimeter to read DC Volts, and ground your meter to the negative (white) The Xylotex 4-Axis amplier has testpower supply terminal and probe points and potentiometers (adjustable the labeled test points on the board. resistors) that you can use to measure Here you see the testpoint for the Xand adjust (respectively) the current axis being probed. delivered to each motor. When you receive the board from the manufacturer, the currents will typically be set much too low for the motors used in the Model 1.

21.4. LEVELING THE Z-TABLE

329

For each axis, adjust the potentiometer until the voltage you read roughly matches the value listed for that axis in the table above. Remember that the voltage you read from your multimeter is not equal to the current delivered to the motor - you need to diUse a Philips screwdriver to turn the vide the voltage value by 1.44 to calcupotentiometer (blue) to adjust the cur- late the current. rent. If you do not have a multimeter, you can probably adjust the current gradually upward, perhaps 1/8 turn on the potentiometer at a time, while feeling the temperature of the motor cases with a bare nger. Give 5 minutes between adjustments for the temperature to stabilize. When you nd the motor is getting too hot to touch with a bare nger, turn the current down by 1/8 turn.

21.4

Leveling the Z-Table

The Z-table is mounted to the Z-carriage atop springs. These springs allow the table to be leveled relative to the plane of the XY-carriage. It is important to have the Z-table parallel to the XY plane so that the deposition tool maintains a constant distance from the table during fabbing. The table leveling procedure is simple, if tedious, and consists of driving the tip of the syringe in the syringe tool over the surface of the table, adjusting the table mount screws until the table is level relative to the XY plane of the XY Carriage. With a syringe (with a tip attached) inserted in the 1-Syringe Tool, manually turn the motor shafts and belt to position the tip of the syringe at the left rear corner of the table, just touching the table.

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CHAPTER 21. MODEL 1 COMMISSIONING

Step 1: Insert a syringe with a needle/nozzle attached into the 1-Syringe Tool. To do this, manually turn the syringe tool motor shaft until the tip of the shaft is almost ush to the motor body. The top of the syringe should be tipped toward the tool body, lifted as high as possible, then the tip can be tilted toward the body, snapped into place, and slid downward until the bottom of the syringe barrel is resting on the bottom plate of the tool body.

Step 2: By manually turning the Zaxis motor shaft with your hand, adjust the height of the table until it touches the tip of the syringe.

21.4. LEVELING THE Z-TABLE

331

Step 3: By pulling on the X-axis belt and manually turning the Y-axis motor shaft, drive the tip of the syringe to the four corners of the table, while observing the clearance between the tip and the table.

Step 4:Adjust the (ve) table leveling screws to change the height of the table where necessary so that the tip clearance from the table remains constant as you move the tip around the four corners and center of the table.

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CHAPTER 21. MODEL 1 COMMISSIONING

Chapter 22 Using Model 1


22.1 Video Guides

A Narrated Overview of the Fab@Home Application is available at: http://fabathome.org/wiki/uloads/7/79/SoftwareOverview.wmv.

22.2
22.2.1

Quick Start User Guide


Step 1: Make Connection

Step 1.1

Step 1.2

1.1 Simply plug the USB cable from an available USB port on your PC to the USB connector on the LPC-H2148 microcontroller board on the back of your Model 1. 1.2 You should see 3 LEDs light up on the LPC-H2148 board: the red LED indicates that the board has power from the USB port the yellow LED indicates that the USB bus is connected the ashing green LED indicates the status of the rmware running on the microcontroller via the pattern of ashing; 1 second on, 1 second o indicates healthy status 333

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CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1

22.2.2

Step 2: Install Drivers

Step 2 2.1 If this is the rst time you have connected your PC to the Fab@Home, you will need to install the drivers.

22.2.3

Step 3: Run Application

Step 3.1 Step 3.2

Step 3.3 3.1 Start the Fab@Home application by double clicking the Fab@Home.exe icon in the application folder you downloaded. 3.2 If this is the rst time you have run the Fab@Home application, you may see an Unidentied Publisher Warning

22.2. QUICK START USER GUIDE

335

3.3 If this is the rst time you have run the application, or you have changed your printer denition le, you will need to load a printer conguration le, using the Printer->Load Conguration. . . menu item. 3.4 You should see a graphical display which resembles your Fab@Home Model 1.

22.2.4

Step 4: Initialize Hardware

Step 4.1

Step 4.2

4.1 Select the Printer->Initialize Hardware menu item to begin communicating with the Model 1 4.2 Verify communications by examining the Status display (accessed via CTRL+U, or Printer->Show Status); if connected, Elapsed Time (ms) should be incrementing, and COM Port Handle should be a positive number. 4.3 If not communicating, see the Application Troubleshooting page.

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CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1

22.2.5

Step 5: Power On

Step 5.2 5.1 Plug in the power cord of your Model 1 into any standard outlet. The power supply is international (50-60Hz, 100-240VAC), and should work in any country provided an appropriate power cord or plug adapter. 5.2 A red LED should light up on the Xylotex board to indicate that it is receiving power.

22.2.6

Step 6: Verify Motion

Step 6 6.1 Bring up the Jog Tool (CTRL+T or Printer->Jog Tool) and Jog Carriage (CTRL+J or Printer->Jog Carriage) dialogs.

22.2. QUICK START USER GUIDE

337

6.2 Using the up/down arrows at the right edges of the dialogs, test that all of the axes are moving. You should see both the graphical display in the application and the actual Model 1 axes moving in the same directions by the same amounts.

22.2.7

Step 7: Adjust Motor Current

Step 7 7.1 If this is the rst time you have run your Model 1, you will need to adjust the motor current to ensure that the motors do not overheat, but are getting enough current for good acceleration.

22.2.8

Step 8: Dene Tool/Material

8.1 If you are using a material and/or syringe needle/tip combination that you have not used before, you will need to dene a new .tool settings le and add the tool to the .printer printer conguration le. The following info should get you started: When you are setting up your new materials, its good to start from a tool le for a material that is similar to the one you are working with. Save a copy with an appropriate descriptive name, then edit the le: Change the comment at the top Change the name and description elds to match your material and syringe tip You should then tune certain parameters so that you get desirable results when building some small test part (e.g. a small thin rectangle).

338 The main parameters to tune are: PATHWIDTH PATHHEIGHT PUSHOUT SUCKBACK DEPOSITIONRATE

CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1

The PATHWIDTH and PATHHEIGHT (both in mm) tell the path planning algorithms the distance between the horizontal slices/layers of your model (PATHHEIGHT) and the separation between the paths within a layer (PATHWIDTH). Start out by making these both roughly the internal diameter of your needle/tip. For runny materials, the PATHHEIGHT should be made smaller and the PATHWIDTH larger based on your intuition. DEPOSITIONRATE (a dimensionless ratio) determines the linear distance moved by the syringe tool plunger per linear distance (along a deposition path) moved by the X and Y axes basically how much material to deposit per unit length of a tool path. A high DEPOSITIONRATE will try to push a large amount of material out along the path, tending to make the deposited strand of material wider, taller, and typically messier. A small DEPOSITIONRATE will tend to push insucient material from the syringe, and the strand of material will typically be broken, tend to adhere to the syringe tip rather than the part or build surface. Try to adjust the DEPOSITIONRATE until the ow of material leaves the tip of the syringe at the same rate that the XY motors traverse along the path. Ideally, DEPOSITIONRATE should simply be (Cross-section area of Syringe Needle)/(Cross-section area of Syringe Piston) = ((Needle ID)/(Piston OD))2. It is recommended that you start by calculating this value, then adjust it slightly as necessary. PUSHOUT and SUCKBACK are both delays for the starting and stopping of the syringe motor relative to the motion along a path. They are dened in seconds. When both values are positive, the syringe motor will start driving the syringe plunger to extrude material PUSHOUT seconds before the XY motors begin to traverse the current path, and the syringe motor will transition to full reverse SUCKBACK seconds before the XY motors reach the end of their current path to stop the ow of material from the syringe. The goal is to adjust both of these parameters so that your material deposition starts and stops precisely at the beginning and end of the desired path without pooling, dripping or stopping too soon. Starting with version 17a of the Fab@Home application, you can update several of the tool parameters online - meaning while a build is underway. This enables you to start building an object with your best guess for parameters, then tune some of them while the build is underway, so you can see the eect right away. To change parameters online, simply edit the .tool le and save it, then in the Fab@Home Application, use Tool->Refresh Parameters. You should see a change on the very next path (after completion of the current path). The parameters that can be changed online

22.2. QUICK START USER GUIDE

339

in this fashion are PUSHOUT, SUCKBACK, and DEPOSITIONRATE. Changes to the PATHWIDTH and PATHHEIGHT parameters will not aect a build that is already underway they only aect the processing (path planning) steps, prior to the commencement of fabrication.

22.2.9

Step 9:Load and Manipulate STL File(s)

Step 9.1

Step 9.2

Step 9.3 9.1 Using the Model->Import Geometry... menu item, navigate to the .STL le which describes the geometry of the part you would like to build, and open the le. 9.2 The geometry should be displayed on the virtual build surface in the graphical display of the application. 9.3 The geometry can be translated, rotated, and resized as desired using the Model->Translate, Model->Rotate, and Model->Scale menu items, respectively. If these menu items are not available, try clicking once on the part geometry to select it.

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22.2.10

Step 10: Assign Properties to Part Geometry

Step 10 10.1 Bring up the Chunk Properties dialog box by double clicking on the part geometry, or by using the Model->Properties... menu item. 10.2 This dialog allows you to tell the Fab@Home system what material and tool settings you would like to use to build the part geometry you have imported, and also to modify the color and transparency of the part geometry in the graphical display.

22.2.11

Step 11: Inserting/Removing Syringes and Changing Materials

Step 11.2/11.6

Step 11.3/11.5

22.2. QUICK START USER GUIDE

341

Step 11.4

11.0 Prepare your syringe barrels, pistons, and tips 11.1 At this point, you should load a syringe barrel with the material you are going to use to build the particular part. See Material Handling Tips for some suggestions on how to do this. 11.2 Whether or not a syringe is currently in the tool, you need to retract the tool shaft to provide clearance to insert/remove a syringe. If a syringe is inserted, use the handle on top of the tool motor shaft to unthread the shaft from the syringe piston. 11.3 Now either by manually turning the motor shaft, or by using the Printer>Jog Tool dialog box in the Fab@Home Application, retract the motor shaft until the lower shaft end is clear of the syringe barrel and near the bottom of the motor body. 11.4 To remove a syringe, slide it straight upward until the top of the syringe hits the underside of the plate on which the motor body is mounted. Tilt the tip of the syringe out toward you, and unsnap the syringe barrel from the upper restraint. 11.5 Insert the new syringe by snapping the upper part of the barrel into the upper restraint of the tool body, then sliding the syringe as high as possible, then tilt the tip away from you into the tool body, and slide the syringe downward until seated all of the way down into the tip restraint. 11.6 Insert the motor shaft by manually turning it or by using the Jog Tool dialog box until the lower tip of the shaft is in contact with the syringe piston. 11.7 Manually turn the motor shaft until the tip of the shaft threads into the nut inside of the syringe piston.

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CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1

22.2.12

Step 12: Cover Build Surface

12.1 Many materials will adhere to the build surface, so it is recommended that you cover the build surface with a thin disposable or washable material, such as aluminum foil, plastic wrap, etc. We recommend Glad Press-N-Seal plastic wrap, as it is slightly stretchy, but adheres to the Z-table, so that you can stretch all of the wrinkles out and secure it without using adhesive tape.

22.2.13

Step 13: Set Positions

Step 13.1

Step 13.2

Step 13.3 For safe operation, and to ensure that graphics and the physical system are coordinated, the system needs to have 3 positions identied by you: 13.1 The Home Position The Home Position denes the orgin of the coordinate system used by the Fab@Home. When facing the front of the Model 1, the home position is with the build surface at its lowest point, against its bottom limit switch, and with the tool head at the left rearmost position, against the left and rear limit switches. 13.2 The Build Origin

22.2. QUICK START USER GUIDE

343

The Build Origin denes the starting point for deposition of material - your part will be built starting at this location. The build origin is up to you, but it is recommended that you try the center of the build surface (roughly (x,y,z)=(100,100,120)), then carefully adjust the z-height until the syringe tip just touches the build surface. 13.3 The Safe Position The Safe Position provides a safe and convenient place for the carriage to move to when paused, e.g. to change material syringes, to wipe the syringe tip clean, and to prevent accidental dripping of material onto the part being built. The safe position is also up to you, but it is recommended that the build surface height at the safe position be lower than at the build origin, and that the tool be brought to the front of the Model 1 for convenient access (roughly (x,y,z)=(200,200,50)). 13.4 Bring up the Jog Carriage dialog box, and use it to drive your Model 1 carriage to each of the locations in turn. At the appropriate location, click the Set Home, Set Origin, or Set Safe button to save the coordinates of the location.

22.2.14

Step 14: Plan Process

Step 14.1 Step 14.2 14.1 Use the Fabrication->Plan Process menu item to generate toolpaths for the part you are building. 14.2 You can use the View menu to examine the paths without the shaded model rendering. Use the mouse wheel and the mouse to zoom in and rotate the view, respectively.

22.2.15

Step 15: Verify Material Flow / Flush and Wipe the Nozzle

15.1 Bring up the Jog Carriage and Jog Tool dialog boxes. Using the Jog Carriage dialog, go to the safe position by hitting the Go to Safe button.

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15.2 Once at the Safe position, use the Jog Tool dialog to feed some material out of the syringe by advancing the motor position VERY GRADUALLY, until you see a small amount of material emerge from the tip. 15.3 Using the Jog Tool dialog box, reverse the motor position slightly to stop the material ow. 15.4 Wipe the tip of the syringe clean.

22.2.16

Step 16: Execute Process

16.1 Use the Fabrication->Start Printing menu item to commence the fabrication process. 16.2 Follow any requests made by the software during the process, including changing materials. 16.3 If at any time you need to interrupt the process momentarily, e.g. to replace a nearly empty syringe, or to wipe the tip, use the Fabrication->Pause Printing menu item. Pausing will cause the Model 1 to move to the Safe Position. 16.4 To resume after a pause, use the Fabrication->Resume Printing menu item, and the system should resume building where it left o prior to the pause.

22.2.17

Step 17: Power O

17.1 Once the part is completed, be sure to send the Model 1 back to the Home Position using the Jog Carriage dialog, and unplug the power supply.

22.3
22.3.1

Troubleshooting
Application runs, but hardware is not responsive at all

Open the Printer->Show Status or View->Show Printer Status dialog. If the Firmware Elapsed Time (ms) value is not changing, then the application is no longer communicating with the microcontroller. Use Printer->Shutdown Hardware, then disconnect the USB cable from the Model 1, then reconnect, wait for 10 seconds (for the drivers to reload) and hit Printer->Initialize Hardware and check the Show Status dialog again. If the problem persists, disconnect the USB cable, and reboot your PC, then reconnect and restart the Fab@Home application Application runs, hardware is initialized, but axes will not move Power o your machine, and move the motors by hand so that none of the limit switches are being hit. Now power it back on. With your hardware initialized, open up the Printer->Show Status dialog. The LIMIT SWITCHES should all read 1, indicating that they are not being hit. Try hitting each one and make sure it changes to a zero. If any of them are not switching on and o correctly, then you might have a wiring fault/short in the switches. If the microcontroller thinks a limit switch is being hit, it prevents the axes from moving.

22.4. MATERIALS TIPS

345

22.3.2

Software stops working

Reset the Driver When the application is repeatedly restarted, sometimes the software will stop working and the driver on the printer must be reset. 1. Click Printer > Show Status. Elapsed time is no longer incrementing 2. Shutdown Hardware: Printer > Shutdown Hardware, or close Fab@Home Application. 3. On the printer, near the printer cable connection, there is a restart button. Press the button once and wait 5 seconds before restarting software. 4. Initialize Hardware: Printer > Initialize Hardware, or open Fab@Home Application.

22.3.3

Other questions

For other questions, please view our Support Center.

22.4
22.4.1

Materials Tips
Loading a Syringe

One key to successfully using the fabber is making sure that there are no air bubbles in the syringe. With air mixed in with the building material, the ow from the nozzle tip is not uniform, and results in poor dispensing. Some methods for avoiding air bubbles are outlined below. Materials from Tubes In the case of materials that come in tubes, like silicone, the easiest way to avoid air bubbles is to load the material through the tip. With the plunger inserted fully, the material can be pushed in from the tube, and will force the plunger backward as the syringe lls. As you can see in the rightmost picture below, sometimes a little extra force is needed to load the syringe this way.

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CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1

Getting Out Air Bubbles If the above method will not work, you can slide a wire down alongside the plunger. As the plunger is depressed, the air can escape through the gap provided by the wire.

22.5

Design Tools

CAD and geometric modeling programs allow you to dene geometry using a variety of tools. Once you have designed your 3-dimensional model, export it as an STL le. This format is used to describe object geometries. If the part contains multiple materials, save the geometry of each part as a separate STL le, then reassemble them in the Fab@Home application.

22.5. DESIGN TOOLS

347

22.5.1

Free CAD Programs

Blender (http://www.blender.org/) a full-featured open source 3D modeller that supports importing and exporting in many formats (including STL) Autodesk Inventor/LT (http://labs.autodesk.com/technologies/inventor.lt) Preview available for download only in the United States and Canada. BRL-CAD (http://www.brlcad.org/) A powerful Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) solid modeling system with over 20 years development and production use by the U.S. military. Windows, Linux, MAC, BSD, and IRIX distributions as well as full source code available. (follow link to Project Site / Download) Alibre Design Xpress. Commercial CAD, 30-day trial: (http://www.alibre.com/xpress/software/alibre-design-xpress.asp) DesignCAD (http://www.upperspace.com/) Commercial CAD, not free (30 day trial). FreeCAD (http://www.askoh.com/) FreeWare closed source CAD. Free version does not import dxf/dwg. Art of Illusion (http://www.artollusion.org/) free, open source 3D modelling and rendering studio, written entirely in Java. CAELinux (http://www.caelinux.com/), a Linux LiveDVD (PCLinuxOS) loaded with engineering open-source software, including CAD and analysis. Default 3D CAD packages include BRL-CAD, Blender, qCAD, Paraview, and GraphiteOne. Can be run from DVD (without touching Windows PC) or installed to the computer. DAVID Laserscanner (http://www.cs.tu-bs.de/rob/david.html), a 3d scanner that works using a webcam and a laser pointer 3d object converter (http://web.axelero.hu/karpo/) Shareware (30 day trial) convert many 3d le formats. Unregistered version does not export into stl. Google SketchUp (http://sketchup.google.com/) Sketchup to STL plugin (http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/d/d3/Su2stl.rb) - Save this plugin in the Google Sketchup/Plugins folder. Seems to have trouble with curves, though I am still experimenting. Pkiddy 20:25, 13 October 2006 (EDT) MoI3d (http://moi3d.com/) MeshLab (http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/) an open source tool for editing/checking/cleaning/simplifying/hole-lling large unstructed meshes.

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CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1

CB Model Pro (http://cbmodelpro.com/) A pro version of Cosmic Blobs (http://www.cosmicblobs.com/) (see below). The beta version is being oered for free (for a limited time).

22.5.2

Commercial CAD Programs

SolidWorks (http://www.solidworks.com/) Autodesk Inventor (http://www.autodesk.com/inventor) 3ds Max (http://www.autodesk.com/) AutoCAD (http://www.autodesk.com/autocad) AliasStudio (http://www.autodesk.com/) Rhinoceros (http://www.rhino3d.com/) Pro/E (http://www.parametrics.com/) formZ (http://www.formz.com/) Cosmic Blobs (http://www.cosmicblobs.com/) 3D art for kids but its a serious package from SolidWorks. It can generate STL les. See CB Model Pro. Mudbox (http://www.mudbox3d.com/index.html) Brush-based high end 3D sculpting software. A comprehensive list of CAD Companies is at: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List.of.CAD.companies).

22.5.3

Misc Programs

The following programs can be used to view the STL les outside of the Fab@Home program. SolidView Lite (http://www.solidview.com/svlite.html) SolidWorks has several free programs that allow you to view its les without the full version of SolidWorks. eDrawings (http://www.solidworks.com/pages/products/edrawings/eDrawings.html) eDrawings can view both SolidWorks les and AutoCAD les. SolidWorks Viewer (http://www.solidworks.com/pages/products/solutions/viewer.html) SolidWorks Viewer can read SolidWorks les.

22.6. DESIGN LIBRARY

349

22.6

Design Library

This section lists a number of objects for printing. For each object, please provide both the STL le and the CAD le that generated it, and picture of that object. Get a CAD or Geometric modeling program and design your own objects to print.

22.6.1

Test les

These are objects of various complexities used primarily for testing or calibrating the system. Please identify what aspect of the machine, tool or material this objects tests.

Picture

STL File

Description

1in cube.zip

1-inch cube

1in cylinder.zip

1-inch cylinder

1in radius dome.zip

1-inch dome

1in tall cone.zip

1-inch cone

22.6.2

Simple parts

These are relatively simple objects used by beginners to get started and explore the system.

350 Picture STL le Cat Block.zip Car Block.zip

CHAPTER 22. USING MODEL 1 Description Cat STL Block Car STL Block

NOY Block.zip

50mm X 20mm X 5mm block with 5mm raised letters NOY

20mmBlockWith10mmHole.zip

20mm L X 20mm W X 10mm H block with 10mm diameter hole

30mmTriangularPyramid.zip

30mm H X 30mm edge Isosceles triangular base pyramid

KYBlock.zip

50mm X 20mm X 5mm block with cutout letters KY

HollowCone.zip

30mm H X 30mm D X 2mm wall hollow cone

22.6. DESIGN LIBRARY Picture STL le Description

351

OverlappingHearts.zip

A set of overlapping hearts, two separate parts

Frisbee.rar

?mm H X ?mm D X ?mm Frisbee 6.2in X 1.4in X 1.6in solid dog bone

Dog bone.zip