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Paper presentation

On

4G COMMUNICATIONS
AT, JIGNASA -2005, G.PULLA REDDY ENGINEERING C LLEGE, !URN L -5"#002
Presented by:

RA$I !IRAN. R

!IRAN A

E-%ai& ID' ra(isettir)*a+oo.,o( !ir-.a/i)*a+oo.,o.in P+one N-(0er ' 1#2#330350

Department Of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Gudlavalleru Engineering College, Gudlavalleru.

A4STRACT
Mobile communication is continuously one of the hottest areas that are developing at a booming speed, with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mobile and wireless communications. Current times are ust the beginning for deploying !G mobile communication systems, while research on the ne"t generation of mobile communications, #G wireless and mobile networ$s begin to pave the way for the future. %his paper studies the visions of #G from a technical perspective. &fter a brief review on the development history and status of mobile communications and related #G perspectives, we present an overall #G feature framewor$ based on the $ernel concept of integration, in which two $ey features 'diversity and adaptability( of the three targets 'terminals, networ$s, and applications( are described in detail. %he concepts of both e"ternal and internal diversity of each target are defined to illustrate the causes and solutions of the adaptability feature. %hen, along the entire #G domain, each feature in the framewor$ is deeply discussed from a technical standpoint, in which promising techniques and possible research issues for sufficient support of adaptability are also proposed. )inally, a short summary on #G visions is presented as a continuum of features in the development of the mobile communications world.

INTR DUCTI N
Mobile communications and wireless networ$s are developing at an astounding speed, with evidences of significant growth in the areas of mobile subscribers and terminals, mobile and wireless access networ$s, and mobile services and applications. %he present time is ust right to start the research of #G mobile communications because of* +ossibility, according to the historical indication of a generation revolution once a decade, and now we are near the end of !G standardi,ation phase and the beginning of !G deployment. -ecessity* according to !G goals, !G is necessary but not sufficient to the mobile communication strategy, in which many problems are only partly solved and there are still many problems left to be solved in the ne"t generation, i.e. #G. .istory

"G'%his process began with the designs in the /012s that have become $nown as /G. %he earliest systems were implemented based on analog technology and the basic cellular structure of mobile communication. 2G was based on digital signal processing techniques and regarded as a revolution from analogy to digital technology %hese 3G systems provided circuit4 switched data communication services at a low speed. of 0.5 $bps %he competitive rush to design and implement digital systems led again to a variety of different and incompatible standards such as G6M ,%DM&,CDM&,+DC. 2.5G' &n interim step is being ta$en between 3G and !G, the 3.7G. 8t is basically an enhancement of the two ma or 3G technologies to provide increased capacity on the 3G 9) 'radio frequency( channels and to introduce higher throughput for data service, up to !:# $bps. G6M system enhancements li$e G+96 and EDGE are considered to be 3.7 technologies. G+96 is an attractive solution to mobile operators, because it does not require the same degree of the investment as ;M%6. 5G' !G is deploying a new system with new services instead of only providing higher data up to 2 Mbps and broader bandwidth. <ased on intelligent D6+ techniques, various multimedia data communications services are transmitted by convergent !G networ$s. %he !G system would have higher quality voice channels. %he !G system will have features li$e fast internet surfing advanced value added service and video telephony .%he technologies that are used to boost the speed are ;M%6 and =4CDM& . Pro0&e(s asso,iate6 7it+ 5G: Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high data rate to meet multimedia services requirements, together with the coe"istence of different services needing different >o6 and bandwidth. ?imitation of spectrum and its allocation. Difficult to roam across distinct service environment in different frequency bands. ?ac$ of end4to4end seamless transport mechanism spanning a mobile sub4networ$ and a fi"ed one.

%able / summari,es the entire development of mobile communications

2G 8EATURES'
Different #G feature framewor$s have been defined from the standpoints of service subscriber, service provider, researcher and engineer. 8n the following we give some representatives of #G perspectives.

/( 8t is easy to say, based on the developing trends of mobile communication, that #G will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, smoother and quic$er handoff, wider mobile area, more various service, lower cost, etc. 3( Other than the words @moreA, @anyA andBor @allA are preferred over e"pressions used by previous generations, e.g. anyone can communicate with anyone else, anywhere and anytime,or en oy any service of any networ$ operator, through any networ$ of any networ$ service provider !( DoCoMo introduced the concept of M&G8C for the vision of #G Mobile multimediaC &nytime, anywhere, anyoneC Global mobility supportC 8ntegrated wireless solutionC and Customi,ed personal service, which mostly focused on public systems and treat #G as the e"tension of !G cellular service. #( European Commission 'EC( presented a perspective focusing on ensuring seamless service provisioning across a multitude of wireless systems and networ$s, and providing for optimum delivery via the most efficient networ$ available e.g. private systems and ad4hoc networ$s, optimal resource utili,ation, multiple radio interfaces, =?&- use, standards for interoperability, etc. %hus #G will encompass all systems from public to private,operator driven to &dhoc, broadband to personal area and &d4hoc networ$s.it will focus mainly on personali,ed service

2G 8EATURE 8RA%E 9 R!* =e can summari,e proposal of #G features


with one sentence, or even more simply, with one word* integration, i.e. seamless integration of terminals, networ$s, and applications 'together with users(. /( %he discussion domain includes three relevant targets, i.e. terminals, networ$s, and applications. Out of the #G domain, the user is the only target. 3( %he $ernel word of the definition is so4called integration, which means the convergence of first the three different targetsC second the various modes of each target, which lead to the feature of diversity. %he #G vision framewor$ presented by us is illustrated in fig/

%here are two $inds of diversity* e"ternal diversity and internal diversity. E"ternal diversity is outside the target, which brings along the demand of the adaptability feature to all targets. 8nternal diversity is inside each of the targets, and it acts as the solution for adaptability requirements. 8n short, the need for adaptability is caused by e"ternal diversity, and it is solved by internal diversity. .ere both the e"ternal and internal diversity of users are the cause of all adaptability requirements, which implies that the user is out of the technical domain of #G visions. %he two main features, i.e. diversity and adaptability of the three targets D terminal, networ$, and application D are described in detail in the ne"t section.

2G 8EATURE DESCRIPTI N'


": User Di;ersit*' %he e"ternal diversity of users, i.e. people in different situations, includes e.g. culture, educational bac$ground, economic capability, physical property, personal preference, etc. %he internal diversity of users, i.e. people with different interfaces, include e.g. vision, hearing, speech, touch sense, hands and fingers, body, etc, <oth their e"ternal and internal diversity are to be adapted by the other two targets* terminal and application. diversity, with both diversities 2: Ter(ina& Di;ersit* an6 A6apta0i&it*' %he terminalsEe"ternal diversities are the differences of terminals in bothstatic and mobile attributes. 6tatic attributes include e.g. functionality, weight, si,e, battery life, human interface, antenna, processing capability, security, style, and cost. Mobile attributes include dynamic attributes of both temporal and spatial features. %he former category contains e.g. moving speed and acceleration,

while the latter is connected to spatial range, e.g. indoors, on4campus, in urban and rural environments, and also direction.. %here are three targets for terminal adaptability. )or users, it includes the provision of different terminals to satisfy different users and an individual userEs various requirements. &s for applications, we hope that miscellaneous services can be delivered to one single terminal. =hen networ$s are concerned, a single terminal can reach a wide range of networ$s despite of location and mobile rate. 5: Net7or/ Di;ersit* an6 A6apta0i&it*' %he e"ternal diversity of networ$s is obvious. 8nternet is assorted by nature, while wireless networ$s $eep the same property. )or instance air interfaces can integrate all $inds of standards and wor$ on different frequencies. Moreover, multiple operators deploy networ$s with multiple standards and protocols. %he internal diversity of networ$s means that one networ$ can interconnect with other different networ$s and transfer various $inds of loads, e.g. cellular systems with various coverage. %hree targets are related to networ$ adaptability. 8n reference to terminals, networ$ adaptability aims to ma$e multiform mobile devices with a wide range of moving speeds and mobile areas connectable to wireless networ$s. )or applications, there is a requirement that any type andBor quality of service can be delivered through diverse fi"ed and mobile networ$s in the most suitable and efficient way. %he target for networ$s themselves is to ma$e it easy to build a new networ$ or remove an old one, and to ma$e interoperability with oneEs neighbours seamless despite its heterogeneous nature. 2: App&i,ation Di;ersit* an6 A6apta0i&it*' %he e"ternal diversity of applications will be a reasonable property, and this need not mean that #G services and applications must be multifarious, in all the aspects of quantity, quality, and type. =ith internal diversity we mean that one application can be tailored into e.g. multiple levels of quality, various styles, and different $inds of release shape, etc. &pplication adaptability is a main feature of #G services. %o users, this means that services can be delivered automatically according to personal preferences of different users. 8n view of terminals, we hope that various terminals are able to run one application with different formats, such as e4mail in

te"t message, voice, image, or even video. 8n connection with networ$s, applications can be transformed into various forms and levels in order to be transmitted correctly and efficiently.

2G TEC<NICAL PERSPECTI$E'
8t is obvious that #G, ust li$e all the previous generations, is driven not only by technology, but also by mar$et requirements. %his section mainly discusses, from a more technical perspective, possible topics for research and promising techniques of #G, and focuses mainly on those techniques that give support to the main feature of adaptability by internal diversity of targets in the #G domain. A. Ter(ina&s 8n order to adapt to the diverse applications and networ$s, together with the various requirements of users, the terminal domain must possess both internal and e"ternal diversity. 6upport techniques of the field may include the following* /( ;ser interfaces of terminals vary from traditional $eyboard, display, and tablet, to new interfaces based on speech, touch, vision, soft buttons, etc. %his will be common at a time when one terminal has multiple user interfaces. 3( &daptive techniques such as smart antennas, software radio, and smart transceivers, enhance interoperability through simultaneous support of several radio interfaces in a single terminal. %his ma$es a terminal roamable across any air interface standard and connectable to any wireless access point by e"changing configuration software. %hese approaches can also be used on wireless access points as an advanced smart base station. !( %erminals will be aware of location and conte"t, often based on some wireless low power sensors that are humansensitive andBor environment4sensitive in order to monitor and interact with the physical world to report the human andBor environmental factors. %he advances in this area have been used in e.g. wearable computers as a novel terminal type. #( &n intelligent terminal is able to dynamically improve its processing capability in order to contain various services. 6ome function modules can even be downloaded to a terminal when needed.

4. Net7or/s More advances in networ$s are needed to $eep pace with the rapidly changing terminals and applications, as follows* /( 6mart antenna, software radio, together with advanced base station are the $ey techniques to achieve adaptability of wireless access points to diverse terminals, i.e. to ma$e radio systems and air networ$s re4configurable. 3( .ierarchical and ubiquitous as well as overlay cellular systems, including picocell, microcell, macrocell, and magecell ones, implement seamless networ$ interconnection of both symmetric and asymmetric nature, and seamless terminal handoff of both hori,ontal and vertical levels respectively. !( -etwor$ layer hierarchical mobility management based on Mobile 8+v5 and Cellular 8+ brings quic$ and seamless handoff to terminals. %he Mobile 8+v5 also presents a great contribution to the adaptability of heterogeneous networ$s. #( &d hoc wireless networ$s are a $ind of self4deployed wireless networ$s to ma$e networ$s portable and adaptable, and thus dynamically share unlicensed radio spectrum. 7( &pplications that transmits data while the user os moving 4using .otspots area also being developed. .otspots are certain areas in which data is received at a higher rate. 6o when the user passes through this hotspot, the data pac$ets ontended to him are transmitted at a very fast rate.this can also be considered on a system of .6D+& designed on .3.

5( -etwor$ reconfiguration can be obtained by the reconfiguration of protocol stac$s and programmability of networ$ nodes. %hus, it can adapt dynamically to the changing channel conditions and low or high data rate users. 1( -etwor$ resource can be dynamically allocated to cope with varying traffic load, channel condition, and service environment. %raffic conditions will be dynamically monitored and controlled via techniques such as distributed and decentrali,ed control of networ$ functionalities. :(%he type of multiple"ing is %DD4CDM& which allows fle"ibility of capacity allocation in uplin$ and downlin$ C. App&i,ations &daptability will be one of the basic requirements to the development and delivery of new mobile services. +romising techniques and possible topics may include* /( Mobile application should refer to a userEs profile so that it can be delivered in a way most preferred by the subscriber, such as conte"t4based personali,ed services. %his also brings the applications with adaptability to terminals that are moving in varying locations and speeds. Micro4sensors and G+6 receivers are the main driven techniques.

3( %echniques such as adaptive multimedia and unified messaging ta$e the terminal characteristics into account and ensure that the service can be received and run on a terminal with the most suitable form to the host type. !( 8ntelligent mobile software agent is a common technique to all of the three targets, which act as a platform for service development, delivery, and auto4configuration. #( &pplications can negotiate with networ$s so that they can be transferred with the most efficient channel, e.g. indoor networ$s or =?&- or cellular systems in a wide area. 6ervices will be tailorable in order to fit the different networ$ environments and the varying traffic conditions.

T+e 2G ;ision ,an 0e s-((ari=e6 0* >o&&o7in? >i?-re

2G PRESPECTI$E IN INDIA '


%he 8ndian Government has established the centre of E"cellence in =ireless %echnologies 'CE=%( in collaboration wi th 88%s to wor$ on #G wireless communications.<ut however 8ndi a is now confined to !G.

C NCLUSI N'
&s the history of mobile communications shows, attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. +ro ected #G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its $ey concept of integration. )uture wireless networ$s will need to support diverse 8+ multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users.#G will bring true human li$e interaction with wearable electronics and disposable devices. %erminals will encompass speech, hearing,sight, as well as environmental data pertinent to the

application, ma$ing the user permanently connected to both the cyber4wor$d as well as the real world .%he services will provide affordless access to the other people &nd other devices around us with highest possibility of security and 8ntegration. %he fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of +CC 'personal computing and communication( Fa vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over awireless networ$.

RE8ERENCES
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