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Experimental results are typically presented as a graph -- not as a set of statements. A graph conveys much more information than a set of statements It is quantitative.

A graph, in principle, can be represented by a mathematical equation. Understanding that equation, we can learn more about the experimental data/biological system.

In this lecture, we will learn how simple equations can be plotted as graphs

Function

To plot a graph, we need X values and Y values. The relation between quantities that we plot in X axis and Y axis is called a Function

Function

A function defines how the quantity in the Y axis is related to the quantity in the X axis The simplest relation is Y=X

Y=X

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Y 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Y=X

X Y 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6

9

Common notations

Y=X y(x)=x f(x)= x

All of the above mean the same thing.

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Y=2X

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 Y 0 2 4 6 8 10

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Y=2X

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Y 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

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In general : Y=mX

Y=mX is equation of a straight line passing through Y=0 m is a number

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Y=mX+C

Y=mX+C is equation of a straight line passing through Y=C When X and Y are related using this equation, we say: Y is a linear function of X

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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y=vt+ c

c v=velocity of the motor c=distance of the motor at time=0

Time (t)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

17

Y=X2

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 Y=X2 0 1 4 9 16 25

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Y=X2

X 0 1 2 3 4 5 Y=X2 0 1 4 9 16 25

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Y=X2

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Y= X , and Y= X2

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Common notations

Y=X2 y(x)=x2 f(x)= x2

All of the above mean the same thing.

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Surface Area of an organism, having radius R = Basal metabolic rate of an animal is proportional to its surface area Energy stored in spring-like molecule =

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Y= X, Y=

2 X,

and Y=

3 X

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Volume of an organism, having radius R =

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Now that we understand x,x2,x3 etc, one can imagine many combination of these functions. Most of the experimental curves you get can be obtained by appropriately adding and subtracting these functions Also, many natural processes behave like a combination of these functions

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Exponential function : ex

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Y = ex

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30

31

32

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All of the above mean the same thing.

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Sin(x)

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Free energy, G

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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e-x

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e-x

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1/(1-x)

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x/(1+x)

This curve similar to many known curves in biology (1) Part of a growth curve (2) Enzyme kinetics curve

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

42

Summary

The relation between quantities that we plot in X and Y axis is called a Function Simple functions: x, x2,x3 etc Some known functions, like exp(x), can be represented as a combination of simple functions

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

43

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