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Graphs and Functions part II

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

In this lecture, we will continue discussing some more simple functions and their graphs. We will also see how some natural phenomena behave as if they are mathematical functions
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Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Function
To plot a graph, we need X values and Y values. The relation between quantities that we plot in X axis and Y axis is called a Function

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

We learned :
Linear function : Y= mX + C Quadratic function : Y = kX2 Cubic function : Y= kX3

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Y= X, Y=

2 X,

and Y=

3 X

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Combination of x, x2, x3 etc


Combination of x, x2, x3 etc can give us new functions, like:

Notation: ex = exp(x)
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Example in biology: ex
Microbial growth : when rapidly multiplying Arrhenius equation

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

How do we plot these graphs ?


Use a scientific calculator, create a table, and mark it on a graph sheet Use a computer to plot it -- use a software Gnuplot (http://www.gnuplot.info/) Microsoft Excel We will have a short demonstration on how to use some of these software
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Sin(x)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Cos(x)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Oscillating or periodic functions


Temperature over seasons Biological clock (eg. Insulin secretion) Cell cycle : Cyclin activity

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Free energy, G

p,q,m, and c are some numbers


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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e-x

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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e-x

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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1/(1-x)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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1/(1+x) and exp(-x)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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1/(1+x) and x/(1+x)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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x/(1+x)

This curve similar to many known curves in biology (1) Part of a growth curve (2) Enzyme kinetics curve
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Compare: Y= X and Y= X1/2

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Compare: Y= X2 and Y= X1/2

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Functions that decrease with X


Height of a falling object decreases with time
Concentration of nutrient in bacterial culture Free energy vs Temperature

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Compare: Y=X and Y=-X

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Compare: Y=-X and Y=-2X

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Y=4-2X

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Compare: Y= X2 and Y= -X2

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Y=2x
Bacterial growth

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Bacterial growth (eg. E. Coli)


1=20
~ 20 minutes

2=21
~ 20 minutes

4=22
~ 20 minutes

8=23
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Bacterial (eg. E. Coli) growth


Number of bacteria at time t is given by k = rate of cell division; for E-coli, typically When t=60 minutes, N = 23 = 8

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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DNA in PCR cycle


Number of DNA molecules in a PCR cycle obey a similar equation

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Compare: Y=2x and Y= ex

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Summary
Periodic events can be represented using Sin(x), Cos(x) Functions that we see in biology can be written as combination of simple functions Many natural phenomena Eg. bacterial growth behave like mathematical functions

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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