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Differentiation and its application in Biology

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Two Formulae

d n n 1 x ) = nx ( dx
df ( x ) dg( x ) d ( f ( x ) + g( x )) = dx + dx dx

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

One more formula


Product rule

df ( x ) dg( x ) d g( x ) + f ( x ) [ f ( x ) g( x )] = dx dx dx

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Product rule
df ( x ) dg( x ) d g( x ) + f ( x ) [ f ( x ) g( x )] = dx dx dx
E.g. Let: f ( x ) = x

g( x ) = x

dx dx d [x x ] = x + x dx dx dx

= 1.x + x .1 = 2 x
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Derivative of Exponential function


x x x x + ... e = 1+ x + + + + 2 6 24 120
x 2 3 4 5

d x x e )= e ( dx
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Derivatives of Sin(x), Cos(x)


x7 x3 x5 + ... sin( x ) = x + 6 120 5040

x6 x2 x4 ... cos( x ) = 1 + 2 24 720

d (sin( x )) = cos( x ) dx

d (cos( x )) = sin( x ) dx

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Derivatives of Sin(x), Cos(x)


Sin(x) Cos(x)

d (sin( x )) = cos( x ) dx

d (cos( x )) = sin( x ) dx
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Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Applications in Biology
Example 1: Polymerization of filaments (Growth of actin filaments)

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Polymerization of actin
k p Rate of
Rate of depolymerization

polymerization

kd

k p = k 0 [C ]
[C] : unpolymerized G-actin monomer concentration
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Polymerization of actin
kp

k p = k 0 [C ]

Growth speed

v = k p kd
v = k0 [C ] k d
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kd

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Polymerization of actin

v = k0 [C ] k d

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

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v = k0 [C ] k d

Slope

dv = k0 dc

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

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For any polymer


1.Draw Velocity vs concentration data 2.Find the derivative (slope). This gives k0 3.Find the Y-intercept. This gives kd

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

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For actin
k0 = 11M s kd = 1.5 s
1 1 1

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

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Applications in Biology
Example 2: Enthalpy and Entropy of a chemical reaction

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

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Enthalpy, Entropy
G0 = RT ln K eq

( )
S + R

RT ln K eq = H 0 TS
0 eq

( ) H ln( K )= RT

G0 = H 0 TS

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

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ln K eq

( )

H 0 S = + R RT dy dx
d ln( keq )

Derivative (slope)=

H 0 = = d (1/ T ) R

S Y intercept = R
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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