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Running head: IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

Is ozone depletion resulting in increasing eye disorders? A Review of the Literature Author University name

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

Abstract Ozone depletion has been a matter of great concern over the past two decades. Its negative impacts on human health have increased its importance manifolds. This stratospheric ozone depletion allows the ultraviolet radiations to reach earth and becoming the main cause behind diseases related to skin and eye. This study is aimed to examine the role of ozone depletion in increasing eye disorders amongst human population. It has analyzed the harmful impacts of ozone depletion, has reviewed the damages that solar radiations can have on a human eye and has evaluated the influences of ultraviolet radiations prevailing in different countries, based upon past researches. A detailed analysis of all these aspects showed that ozone depletion is a cause of increasing potential risks related to eye disorders amongst humans, therefore, it is important to avoid long term sun exposure in order to decrease the chances of being affected by Ultraviolet radiations.

Is ozone depletion resulting in increasing eye disorders?

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

Ozone is a protective la er s!rro!n"in# t$e Eart$ %$ic$ protects Eart$ &ro' t$e !ltraviolet ra s t$at are sent "o%n ( s!n) T$e ozone la er is present in t$e stratosp$ere an" t$e s!nra s a(sor(e" ( ozone *"on not reac$ Eart$+s s!r&ace) T$e &act t$at ozone is "epletin#* %as "iscovere" in t$e 'i" ,-+s an" $as (eco'e a 'a.or environ'ental iss!e since t$e last t%o "eca"es) T$e "epletin# ozone la er (rin#s a"verse e&&ects on t$e $ealt$ o& $!'an pop!lation "!e to t$e increase" e/pos!re o& Ultraviolet ra"iations reac$in# eart$) Accor"in# to 0ent$a' 123345* t$e ozone "epletion increases t$e e/pos!re o& !ltraviolet ra"iations t$at is a 6no%n reason in 'an "iseases) T$e potential $ealt$ ris6s attac$e" %it$ ozone "epletion are 'ostl t$e ones t$at arise "!e to t$e a(sorption o& !ltraviolet ra"iations in t$e environ'ent* t$!s ca!sin# #reater "a'a#es to $!'an $ealt$) T$e 'ost a"verse e&&ects o!t o& t$e potential $ealt$ ris6s are* t$e e e "isor"ers) Ozone "epletion is a nat!ral p$eno'enon t$at is occ!rrin# since so 'an cent!ries) 7o%ever* its e/pecte" ne#ative i'pacts over $!'an li&e $ave en$ance" t$e interest o& 'an researc$ers in eval!atin# its vario!s e&&ects) A $!'an e e $as (een e/pose" to s!nli#$t since "eca"es* an" t$ese solar ra"iations %it$ "i&&erent %ave len#t$s can ca!se a si#ni&icant "a'a#e to a $!'an e e 1ori 8 Sto.9i: *;-245)T$e potential "a'a#es t$at can (e ca!se" to a $!'an e e are reporte" t$ro!#$ vario!s st!"ies)T$is st!" is ai'e" to e/a'ine t$e role o& ozone "epletion in ca!sin# e e "isor"ers an" %ill anala se t$e clai' t$at * The ozone depletion performs a significant role in increasing eye disorders amongst the human population )

Method

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

4 To "eter'ine t$e vali"it o& t$e 'ain clai'* t$e researc$ is &or'!alte" to revie% &e% s!(

clai's in or"er to reac$ concrete &in"in#s relate" to t$e 'ain topic o& t$e researc$ )T$e s!( clai's t$at %ill (e eval!ate" in t$is researc$ are< 1. Solar radiations are damaging to human eyes. ;) Ozone Depletion is ca!sin# $ar' to t$e $!'an e es) 3. UV radiations have potential effects on the human eyes. =) U> ra"iations a&&ect t$e e es o& t$e pop!lation (elon#in# to "i&&erent co!ntries) T$is researc$ %ill present past literat!re an" t$e researc$ &in"in#s o& t$e researc$es "one in past relate" to t$e topic* in or"er to "ra% concl!sions "eter'inin# t$e vali"it o& t$e 'ain clai') T$e res!lts o& t$is st!" %ill anal ze t$e in&l!ence o& Ozone "epletion an" its vario!s aspects in pla in# a 'a.or role in creatin# e e "isor"ers a'on#st $!'ans) Ozone "epletion e&&ects in increasin# e e "isor"ers* is a 'a.or social iss!e t$at is "irectl a&&ectin# t$e %$ole 'an6in") T$is iss!e poses potential $ealt$ ris6s to t$e #lo(al co''!nit on t$e %$ole an" can (eco'e a 'a.or t$reat to t$e 'an6in" in #eneral) Solar radiations are damaging to human eyes T$e solar or !ltraviolet ra"iations are a &or' o& ra"iant ener# t$at co'es &ro' s!n) T$ese ra"iations are classi&ie" accor"in# to t$eir %ave len#t$s* t$at is 'eas!re" in nano'eters) A s$orter %ave len#t$ e/$i(its po%er&!l ra"iation) Solar ra"iation $avin# s$orter %avelen#t$ are 'ore "a'a#in# to $!'ans t$an a visi(le li#$t) 1 ?c?ic$ael et al)*;--45)0ase" !pon t$eir %ave len#t$s* t$ese Ultraviolet ra"iations are classi&ie" as U>@A* U>@0 an" U>@C ra"iations 10!c$"a$l*;--;5)U>@A ra"iations $ave lon#er %ave len#t$ as co'pare" to U>@0 an" U>@C ra"iations) U>@A ra"iations easil pass t$e ozone la er )U>@A ra"iations are less $ar'&!l t$an U>@0 an" U>@C) U>@C ra"iations "o not reac$ eart$ as t$e are a(sor(e" ( ozone ) T$e !niA!e

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

5 c$aracteristics o& t$e ozone per'its t$e ozone la er to (e$ave li6e a planet s!nscreen* t$at #ives an invisi(le &ilter t$at possess t$e po%er to protect all li&e &or's &ro' t$e "a'a#in# !ltraviolet ra"iations) 10!c$"a$l*;--;5)A s'all part o& U>@0 reac$es eart$ t$at ca!ses "a'a#es to $!'an $ealt$) O!r e es 'ainl #et a&&ecte" &ro' t$e U>@0 ran#e o& !ltraviolet ra"iations) 7o%ever* t$e U>@A ran#e can also (e $ar'&!l to e es in case o& a lon# s!n e/pos!re) Despite t$e e&&ective s$iel" o& ozone aro!n" o!r eart$* 'ost o& t$ese ra"iations are still a(sor(e" an" reac$ Eart$+s s!r&ace an" can ca!se pro(le's &or $!'an $ealt$) T$e places $avin# $i#$ li#$t re&lectance %it$ sno% covere" s!rro!n"in#s can res!lt in ac!te e e e/pos!res to U> ra"iations) T$ese sit!ations can increase pain&!l in&la''ation in cornea or con.!nctiva t$at is co''onl 6no%n as sno% (lin"ness 1?c?ic$ael et al)*;--45)Ot$er st!"ies $ave also s!pporte" t$e role o& solar ra"iations in ca!sin# e e illness) Accor"in# to I(ra$i' et al)1;-2;5* it is A!ite esta(lis$e" t$at "epen"in# !pon t$e %avlen#t$ an" e/pos!re intensit * t$e U> ra"iations can ca!se Bop$t$al'ic pro(le'sC) T$e increasin# penetration o& t$e U>@0 ra"iations $as increase" t$e potential ris6s relate" to e e "iseases an" ot$er in&ectio!s "iseases) Accor"in# to I(ra$i' et al)1;-2;5* a #ro%in# rate o& ozone "epletion in at'osp$ere %ill res!lt in increasin# t$e U> ra"iation e/pos!re creatin# a variet o& oc!lar "iseases a'on#st $!'ans) T$e U> ra"iations are 6no%n to "a'a#e cornea an" t$e lens o& t$e $!'an e e 1T)*8 Re"" * ;-225)A c$ronic e/pos!re can* $o%ever lea" to severit o& t$e e e "isor"ers) Evi"ences $ave s$o%n t$at t$e role o& !ltraviolet ra"iations as a ca!se o& "iseases li6e cataracts is !n"enia(le )T$e cornea a(sor(s U>@0 ra"iations as a nat!ral p$eno'enon* $o%ever* a s'all a'o!nt o& t$is ra"iation still penetrates t$e lens an" t$is penetration can res!lt in cataracts 1An"le et al)*;-225) T$e U> ra"iations $ave recentl (eco'e a ris6 &actor &or 'an e e "iseases) 7o%ever* t$is &actor can (e controlle" easil t$ro!#$ t$e !se o&
e e protective lenses to avoi" s!n e/pos!re as t$e

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?


co'pletel (loc6 U> ra s

6
es &ro' $ar'&!l U>

1An"le et al)*;-225) T$e contact lenses t$at (loc6 U> can protect e

e&&ects) Di"e (ri' $ats an" caps can also (e !se" to re"!ce t$e e&&ect to a li'ite" e/tent)1 Eori:

8 Sto.9i: *;-245)S!c$

&in"in#s reveal t$at t$e !se o& U> (loc6in# contact lenses can si#ni&icantl 'ini'ize t$e e/pecte" oc!lar "a'a#e an" o&&ers a practical sol!tion to avoi" solar ra"iations t$at can (e potentiall $ar'&!l &or t$e $!'an e e) Ozone Depletion is causing harm to the human eyes T$e Ozone La er serves a &!nction o& a(sor(in# solar Ultraviolet ra"iations) T$is protective s$iel" ens!res t$at no "a'a#in# ra"iation reac$es Eart$+s s!r&ace) 10ent$a'*23345 T$is la er saves !s &ro' t$e $ar'&!l e&&ects o& !ltraviolet 1U>5 ra"iations co'in# &ro' t$e S!n an" its "epletion can ca!se a (i# $ar' to t$e 'an6in") U>@A ra"iation is t$e least "a'a#in# t pe a'on#st t$ese ra"iations as it $as t$e lon#est %avelen#t$) T$ere&ore* it reac$es t$e eart$ in #reat A!antities) T$e scientists &ear t$at an increase in t$e U>@0 ra"iations res!ltin# o!t o& Ozone "epletion* can increase t$ese ra"iations reac$ t$e s!r&ace o& t$e Eart$ an" %ill t$!s ca!se e e "isor"ers an" ot$er $ealt$ pro(le's) T$e U>@0 ra"iations res!ltin# o!t o& ozone "epletion*pla a 'a.or role in e e illnesses

an" t$is &act $as (een proven t$ro!#$ vario!s researc$es) E/peri'ents $ave s$o%n t$at U>@0 ra s res!lt
in ca!sin# cataracts 1Eori 8 Sto.9i:, ;-245) Cataract is a 'a.or reason (e$in" t$e vis!al i'pair'ent

an" (lin"ness prevailin# %orl" over. Cataracts ca!se clo!"iness o& t$e lens insi"e an e e* t$at ta6es 'an ears to "evelop in an e e) T$e U> ra"iations t$at reac$ !s res!lt in B"i''in# o& t$e e e

lensC res!ltin# in "evelopin# potential si#ns &or cataracts at earl a#es) A part o& t$e U> ra"iations t$at
reac$es t$e (ac6 o& an e e can res!lt in "eterioration o& retina cells) A lon# e/pos!re to t$ese ra"iations

can si#ni&icantl "a'a#e t$e e e lens an" t$e retina) T$e epit$elial cells o& an e e are 'ost li6el to (e "a'a#e" &irst %$en t$e are e/pose" to t$ese ra"iations) Accor"in# to An"le et al)*

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

7 1;-225*t$e i'portance o& Epit$elial cells in t$e proper &!nctionin# o& an e e cannot (e i#nore" as t$e serve a 6e transport &!nction &or t$e lens as %ell as provi"es a 6e site o& an enz 'e s ste' to protect t$e lens &ro' an o/i"ative stress) E e is t$e part o& t$e (o" t$at is easil e/pose" "irectl to s!nli#$t res!ltin# in ac!te or lon# ter' "a'a#e for humans. T$e %orst conseA!ences &or an e e 'a incl!"e i'paire" vision as t$e U> ra"iation is 6no%n to ca!se opaci&ication o& t$e lens res!ltin# in cataract 1Gr!i.l*;--45) An &actor t$at res!lts in increasin# "irect e e e/pos!re to s!nli#$t* can en$ance t$e ris6s &or oc!lar "a'a#es arisin# o!t o& U> ra"iation) T$ere&ore* people %$o %or6 or #et involve" in recreation t$at res!lt in lon# e/pos!re to s!nli#$t* are li6el to (e on t$e #reater ris6) People
$avin# c$ronic retinal "iseases are also on a #reater ris6 as t$eir retinas 'a (e less "!ra(le to%ar"s acceptin# nor'al e/pos!res o& s!nli#$t)

E e protection &ro' U> ra"iations reac$in# Eart$ "!e to Ozone "epletion* is as i'portant in c$il"$oo" as it is in later a#es) It is i'portant to 6no% t$at U> ra"iation is partl a(sor(e" ( an a"!lt+s e e (!t %ill "irectl pass t$ro!#$ a c$il"+s lens* t$ere&ore it is i'portant t$at t$e 6i"s '!st (e protecte" a#ainst stron# s!nli#$t 10!c$"a$l* ;--;5. T$e c$il"ren nor'all spent 'ore ti'e !n"er s!n li#$t t$an t$eir a"!lts an" t$e are not i''!ne to "eal %it$ t$e ris6s o& oc!lar "a'a#es arisin# o!t U> ra"iations) Accor"in# to an esti'ate" &i#!re * a(o!t $al& o& t$e U> ra s are receive" ( a $!'an (o" till 2, ears o& a#e) An e e lens in c$il"$oo" is not t$at po%er&!l to a(sor( U> ra s) So* it per'its #reat penetration o& U> ra s in t$e sensitive e e str!ct!res li6e retina 1ori 8 Sto.9i: *;-245 )T$e "a'a#es ca!se" to an e e "!e to solar ra"iations 'a (eco'e pro'inent later in li&e (!t t$e 'a start to "evelop internall at an earl a#e) T$ere&ore* it is i'portant to protect c$il"ren+s e es %it$ a (ri''e" $at or s!n#lasses) T$e s!n#lasses !se" &or c$il"ren '!st (e 'a"e o& special plastic lenses to ens!re co'plete protection)

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

8 All t$e ris6s associate" %it$ t$e U> ra"iations are "!e to t$e constant "epletion o& Ozone

la er) T$ere&ore* it is i'portant t$at a"eA!ate 'eas!res are ta6en on ti'e in or"er to avoi" t$e increase in t$e e e illnesses occ!rrin# "!e to ozone "epletion) UV radiations have potential effects on the human eyes ?an researc$ers $ave reveale" a lot o& si"e e&&ects o& U> ra"iations on a 7!'an E e) T$e st!"ies $ave pointe" o!t ris6s an" potential "iseases t$at are ca!se" ( t$e "irect e/pos!re o& U> ra s) Accor"in# to Le!n et al)1233F5* t$e potential ris6s incl!"e t$e 'or(i"it o& e es an" in&ectio!s "iseases)T$ese possi(le e&&ects are increasin#l (eco'in# A!ite evi"ent "!rin# t$e recent ears)T$e lens o& a $!'an e e loses its tranparenc * t!rns ello%is$ or (ro%n an" (eco'es opalescent %it$ t$e #ro%in# a#e)T$e internal scatterin# o& li#$t also increases t$at res!lts in increase" #lare an" re"!ce" vision)D$en localize" c$an#es start oc!rrin# in t$e corte/* it 'a increase in size an" is li6el to e/ten" to%ar"s t$e e e+s vis!al a/is) T$is a"vance" sta#e in lens opacit 'a "evelop cataract an" reA!ire s!r#ical intervention)T$e spee" o& t$is nat!rall occ!rin# "eca in a $!'an e e is &!rt$er increase" %it$ t$e presence o& U> ra"iations) Accor"in# to I(ra$i' et al)1;-2;5*t$e Ultraviolet ra s can enco!ra#e t$e pro"!ction o& reactive o/ #en species t$at can stop t$e &!nctionin# o& corneal antio/i"ant enz 'es an" can res!lt in cell "eat$) T$e e&&ects o& U> ra"iations can (e ac!te* c$ronic or lon# ter' "epen"in# !pon t$e e/tent an" repitition o& t$e e/pos!re to s!nli#$t) In t$e initial p$ases* t$e s6in an" e e li"s can (e irritate" t$ro!#$ "irect s!nli#$t as t$e e e(all* iris an" lens are e/pose" to scattere" U> ra"iations)1Gr!i.l et al)*;--45) T$e s$ort ter' e/pos!re 'a res!lt in re""enin# o& t$e e e(all* &eelin# o& severe pain*avoi"ance o& li#$t* tearin# an" t%itc$in#)1UNEP*233,5)So'e co''on "iseases lin6e" %it$ U>@0 ra"iations are con.!nctivitis* e e cancer* an" pter #i!')Con.!nctivitis occ!rs as an in&la''ation in t$e 'e'(rane t$at covers t$e anterior portion o& e e(all) Accor"in#

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

9 to 0!c$"a$l1;--;5* in Pter #i!' * t$ic6enin# o& t$e 'e'(rane occ!rs coverin# t$e e e(all) All t$ese 'a.or e e "iseases can occ!r as a res!lt o& increase" e/pos!re to U> ra"iations) A lot o& ot$er e&&ects reporte" ( ?c?ic$ael et al)1;--45 res!ltin# as an ac!te e/pos!re o& U> ra"iations are* cancer o& cornea an" con.!nctiva* Lens Opacit 1cataract5* ac!te solar retinopat$ * 'ac!lar "e#eneration* cli'atic "roplet 6eratopat$ an" ac!te p$oto6eratitis an" p$oto con.!nctivitis) Unli6e t$e s6in* t$e $!'an e e "oes not possess a sel& "e&ense 'ec$anis' to control t$e e&&ects o& U> ra"iations* t$ere&ore it #ets a&&ecte" ( U> in&l!ence easil ) In anot$er st!" ( I(ra$i' et al)1;-2;5* it $as (een reporte" t$at t$e Ultraviolet e/pos!re in $!'ans can res!lt in &or'in# !lcers* e"e'a* e e in&la''ation or t$e sp$eroi"al "e#eneration o& cornea) St!"ies $ave also s$o%n t$at t$e e e (eco'es sensitive %$en e/pose" to s!c$ ra"iations) T$e cataracts an" (lin"ness are co''on "iseases lin6e" %it$ increase" U>@0 in&l!ence on Eart$ 10!c$"a$l*;--;5) A $i#$ intensit e/pos!re to U> ra"iations 'a also "a'a#e t$e o!ter tiss!es o& an e e res!ltin# in Bsno%(lin"nessC (?c?ic$ael et al,2003). These UV radiations directly affect a human eye and result in either degeneration or causing major eye disorders. Therefore it becomes necessary to avoid direct sunlight exposures for a longer period of time to ensure that our eyes receive a minimum effect of these UV radiations. UV radiations affect the eyes of the population elonging to different countries T$ere e/ist 'i/e" evi"ences re#ar"in# t$e role o& Ultraviolet ra"iations res!ltin# in e e "isor"ers a'on#st $!'an pop!lations) Accor"in# to UNEP1233,5*2G "ecrease in Ozone "epletion can ca!se (et%een 2--*--- to 2F-*--- a""itional cases ann!all relatin# to e e "isor"ers) T$is "ata* $o%ever* is (ase" !pon t$e statistics o(taine" &ro' US pop!lation an" is ass!'e" to (e t$e sa'e &or all pop!lations %orl"%i"e) It is also ass!'e" t$at t$e pop!lations t$at are a"eA!atel no!ris$e"* %ill s$o% si'ilar res!lts)

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

10

T$e e/istence o& cataracts see's to (e t$e 'ost co''on e e "isease in co!ntries receivin# $i#$ Ultraviolet ra"iations) So'e o& t$e st!"ies reporte" ( ?c?ic$ael et al)1;--45 relate" to t$e in&l!ence o& U> ra"iations on t$e e es o& t$e pop!lation o& "i&&erent co!ntries provi"e" an in "ept$ anal sis) In one st!" in US* t$e Ultraviolet ra"iations e/pos!re %as &o!n" lin6e" %it$ e e "isor"ers (!t not in t$e ot$er) In In"ia* %$ere t$e lens opacities are #enerall $i#$er t$an Dest* t$e s!nli#$t e/pos!re %as &o!n" associate" %it$ all lens "isor"ers) St!"ies reporte" a(o!t nort$ o& Hinlan"* s$o%e" t$at o!t"oor %or6 %as a ris6 &actor in ca!sin# cataract a'on#st %o'en (!t not 'en* %$ereas a $ospital (ase" s!rve in nort$ern Ital presente" an increase" ris6 o& cataracts lin6e" %it$ t$e ti'e spent o!t"oors) T$e st!"ies con"!cte" in non@ Destern pop!lations "i" not provi"e eno!#$ evi"ences &or t$e e e "isor"ers (ein# $i#$er in areas $avin# #reater U>0 ra"iations) 7o%ever* anot$er st!" (ase" !pon t$e pop!lation o& Icelan"* s$o%e" a positive relation (et%een cataract an" t$e ti'e spent o!t"oors) All t$ese st!"ies reporte" ( ?c?ic$ael s$o%e" varie" res!lts relate" to t$e e e "isor"ers occ!rrin# "!e to U> ra"iations) The differe n c e in the level of eye disord e r s occurring in countrie s is due to the "i&&erences in t$e socio econo'ic con"itions an" cli'ate prevailin# in t$ose co!ntries )Accor"in# to 0ent$a' 123345* t$ese "i&&erences can (e attri(!te" to t$e "i&&erence o& socioecono'ic con"itions t$at "i&&er #reatl a'on#st t$ese areas) 7e ar#!e" t$at 'ost o& t$ese st!"ies ass!'e" t$at "i&&erences in t$e level o& Ultraviolet ra"iation o& vario!s places can #ive #oo" esti'ates a(o!t t$e Ultraviolet ra"iation "oses e/perience" ( "i&&erent pop!lations) 7o%ever* t$is "oes not present a tr!e pict!re as in t$e areas e/periencin# $i#$ Ultraviolet ra"iation c$an#es* a set (e$avior o& people %it$ re&erence to t$e e/pos!re to s!n 'a var ) T$e people 'a ten" to avoi" s!n e/pos!re ( ta6in# rest "!rin# t$at part o& t$e "a %$en t$e solar ra"iation in&l!ence is on its pea6) T$e opposite (e$avior is li6el to (e e/pecte" in areas t$at $ave

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

11 scarce s!ns$ine an" people !se t$e 'ost o& %$at is availa(le) Accor"in# to ?c?ic$ael et al) 1;--45 t$e %ar' areas o& t$e world, will show differe n t patt e r n s of pers o n al UV radiation s expo s u r e and they are likely to be chan g e d during cloud cover. Therefor e, the prediction s reg ar din g UV expo s u r e s bas e d upon ozon e deple tio n may vary due to the uncer t ain beh a vior al and climatic chan g e s . Also* t$e pop!lations t$at are poorl no!ris$e" are li6el to "evelop t$e e e "isor"ers 'ore t$an t$e ones t$at are a"eA!atel no!ris$e") U> ra"iation e/pos!re ris6s are 'ore prevalent !n"er speci&ic con"itions) T$ese ra"iations are re&lecte" o&& in sno%* %$ite san" an" %ater) T$e U> ra"iation levels are $i#$er at places $avin# $i#$ altit!"es an" are pre"o'inant on t$e (eac$es* "!rin# (oatin# or at s6i slopes) Also t$e ris6s are $i#$er "!rin# 'i"@"a $o!rs partic!larl &ro' 2-a' till 4p' "!rin# s!''er 'ont$s) T$e level o& Ultraviolet ra"iation is #reater near t$e eA!ator* t$ere&ore* t$e pop!lation livin# in t$e so!t$ern US is at a #reat ris6 o& "evelopin# e e "iseases) A revie% o& t$e st!"ies con"!cte" ( t$ese researc$ers reveal t$at U> ra"iations res!ltin# o!t o& ozone "epletion can pose serio!s t$reats to t$e e es o& t$e pop!lations (elon#in# to %ar'er cli'ates an" $i#$ altit!"es %$ere t$e potential ris6 o& (ein# a&&ecte" ( t$e U> ra"iations is '!c$ $i#$er) T$ere&ore* people livin# in t$ese areas '!st ta6e e/tra care an" avoi" o!t"oor activities "!rin# t$e pea6 $o!rs o& s!n e/pos!re in or"er to control t$e severit o& t$e e e "isor"ers) !esults T$e "epletion o& ozone la er is an !n"enia(le p$eno'enon) It+s anticipate" "epletion an" its role in a&&ectin# $!'an $ealt$ $as (eco'e a #reat concern over t$e past A!arter cent!r ) T$e i'pact o& U> ra"iations on $!'an (iolo# an" "isease ris6s $as "ra%n t$e attention o& t$e %orl" to%ar"s t$is iss!e) In partic!lar* t$e c$an#es in t$e U> ra"iation e/pos!re level %ill a&&ect t$e

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

12

inci"ence o& several oc!lar "isor"ers li6e cataract an" ot$ers ( ?c?ic$ael et al)*;--45)T$e "epletion o& ozone la er allo%s t$e !ltraviolet ra s to reac$ eart$+s s!r&ace res!ltin# in ca!sin# a $ar'&!l s!nli#$t e/pos!re &or $!'ans %$ic$ res!lts in increasin# t$e level o& e e illnesses) T$e &in"in#s vali"ate" t$e &irst s!( clai' o& t$e st!" an" s!pporte" t$e &act t$at a lon# e/pos!re to s!nli#$t or s!nra s is a ris6 ele'ent in "evelopin# e e "iseases a'on#st $!'ans) T$ese solar ra"iations %$en a(sor(e" ( a $!'an e e* $ave a potential to "a'a#e cornea an" can lea" to serio!s e e "iseases incl!"in# cataracts )T$e role o& U>@0 ra"iations in ca!sin# oc!lar "a'a#es is '!c$ $i#$er as its penetration in at'osp$ere is #ra"!all increasin#) T$e &in"in#s relate" to t$e secon" s!( clai' o& t$e st!" also reveale" t$at t$e "epletion o& ozone la er is res!ltin# in t$e U> ra s to reac$ eart$ "!e to %$ic$ t$e #et "irectl a(sor(e" ( an e e ca!sin# serio!s e e "isor"ers) C$ronic e e "iseases can res!lt as an e&&ect o& U>@0 ra"iations* t$ere&ore it (eco'es necessar to stron#l avoi" !nnecessar lon# e/pos!res to s!nli#$t) T$e t$ir" s!( clai' o& t$e st!" a(o!t U> ra"iations e&&ects on $!'an e e $as (een artic!late" t$ro!#$ vario!s researc$es) Accor"in# to Gr!i.l1;--45* t$e epi"e'iolo#ical an" t$e e/peri'ental st!"ies $ave s$o%n t$at U> ra"iation is a con&ir'e" ris6 &actor in vario!s &or's o& cataract) It %as also concl!"e" in t$e st!" t$at it+s not onl cataract t$at is ca!se" ( t$e U> ra"iations (!t t$ere are 'an ot$er serio!s e e "isor"ers t$at are e'er#in# as a res!lt o& t$e e/pos!re to U> ra"iations) So'e o& t$ese "iseases incl!"e Con.!nctivitis* sno%(lin"ness* Pter #i!'* e e cancer an" p$oto6eratitis) T$e &o!rt$ s!( clai' o& t$e st!" %as ai'e" to eval!ate &acts (ase" !pon 'an researc$es in or"er to see a relation (et%een U> ra"iations an" t$e e/istence o& e e "iseases in vario!s parts o& t$e %orl") T$e &in"in#s provi"e" 'i/e" o!tco'es) In so'e parts o& t$e %orl" t$e e&&ect %as si#ni&icant an" in so'e* it %as $ar"l o(serve") 7o%ever* in 'ost o& t$e areas* t$e relations$ip o&

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

13

U> ra"iations in ter's o& ca!sin# e e illnesses %as A!ite prevalent) Accor"in# to 0ent$a' 123345,a positive relation %as o(serve" (et%een t$e prevalence o& cataract in t$e r!ral a(ori#ines o& A!stralia an" t$e !ltraviolet ra"iations) ?ost o& t$e st!"ies 'entione" in t$e present st!" s$o%e" t$e involve'ent o& U> ra s as a ris6 &actor in "evelopin# e e "iseases in 'an co!ntries) Discussion T$e present st!" i"enti&ie" t$e potential $ealt$ e&&ects o& $i#$ levels o& U>@0 ra"iation on t$e $!'an e e) T$e res!lts reveale" t$at t$ese e&&ects are "iverse an" are "i&&ic!lt to A!anti& as t$e are li6el to (e 'o"i&ie" t$ro!#$ $!'an (e$avio!rs* cli'ate an" t$e "i&&erence in t$e social econo'ic con"itions o& %orl" pop!lations) T$e $!'an (e$avior can si#ni&icantl re"!ce t$e c$ances o& (ein# a&&ecte" ( U> ra"iations i& t$e people a"opt preca!tions to protect t$e'selves a#ainst "irect s!nli#$t) T$e !se o& so&t contact lenses can cover t$e cornea to &or' a protective cover s!rro!n"in# t$e oc!lar s!r&ace an" can re"!ce t$e U>@in"!ce" "a'a#e 1I(ra$i' et al)*;-2;5) T$e !se o& s!n#lasses also &ilters U>0 trans'ission to t$e lens) T$e "i&&erence in cli'ate $as a 'a.or role in $avin# t$e "irect s!nli#$t e/pos!res to a $!'an e e) T$e areas %it$ sno%* clo!"s an" $i#$ altit!"es re&lect o&& U> ra"iations 'ore t$an ot$er areas) Si'ilarl * (eac$es an" s6i@slopes are li6el to $ave 'ore an" "irect s!n e/pos!re ca!sin# $ar' to a $!'an e e) T$e "i&&erence in social econo'ic con"itions o& "i&&erent pop!lation also pla s a 'a.or role in "evelopin# e e "isor"ers) Accor"in# to 0ent$a' 123345*t$e scale o& e e "isor"er t$reats to $!'an $ealt$ 'a (e $i#$ "!e to povert an" 'aln!trition in t$e "evelopin# co!ntries) In s!c$ co!ntries* people rel 'ore on a#ric!lt!ral reso!rces to earn t$eir liveli$oo") T$ere&ore* t$eir e/pos!re to s!nli#$t is relativel 'ore as co'pare" to "evelope" co!ntries) T$e st!" presents a "etaile" anal sis o& $o% ozone "epletion is a&&ectin# a $!'an e e lea"in# to%ar"s serio!s conseA!ences) A li'itation o& t$e st!" is t$at it "i" not revie% t$e

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS?

14

i'pact intensit o& U> ra"iations %it$ re&erence to t$e o!t"oor pro&essions li6e &is$er'an* &ar'ers* etc %$o are 'ost li6el to (e a&&ecte" %it$ t$e ne#ativit it 'a #enerate on $!'an $ealt$) T$ere&ore* it is i'portant t$at t$e &!t!re researc$es '!st consi"er t$is aspect an" incorporate t$is topic &or an in@"ept$ anal sis) T$e concl!sions "ra%n &ro' t$is st!" pose a #reat c$allen#e on t$e #overn'ental a!t$orities %$o are !na(le to 'a6e strict r!les an" re#!lations in or"er to protect ozone "epletion) T$e &in"in#s o& t$e st!" concl!"e t$at t$e ozone "epletion $as a si#ni&icant role in increasin# e e "isor"ers a'on#st t$e $!'an pop!lation)T$ere&ore* t$e res!lts presente" in t$is st!" are a !se&!l piece o& in&or'ation &or t$e polic 'a6ers %$o are in t$e process o& "ra&tin# ne% la%s a(o!t conservin# t$e protective la er o& ozone in or"er to avoi" its $ar'&!l e&&ects on $!'an $ealt$)

References An"le * U)P)* ?alone* I)P)8 To%nsen"* R)R)* 1;-225) In$i(ition o& Lens P$oto"a'a#e ( U>@ A(sor(in# Contact Lenses) Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science , 52 1225)

IS OZONE DEPLETION RESULTING IN INCREASING EYE DISORDERS? 15 0ent$a'* G) 123345) Depletion O& T$e Ozone La er An" C$an#e In T$e Inci"ence O& Disease) The

Impact of Global hange on !isease , "#$ ) Ca'(ri"#e Universit Press) 0!c$"a$l)I) 1;--;5) Ozone Depletion Hact S$eet Series< JS= 8 A) aric.At'osp$ere* Cli'ate 8 Environ'ent In&or'ation Pro#ra''e) Gr!i.l* H)R)D)* Lon#stret$*I)* Norval*?)* C!llen*A)P)* Slaper*7)* Jrip6e*?)L)* Ta6iza%a*Y) 8 Le!n*I)C)>)D) 1;--45) 7ealt$ e&&ects &ro' stratosp$eric ozone "epletion an" interactions %it$ cli'ate c$an#e) %hotochem. %hotobiol. Sci. , 2* 2K@;,) I(ra$i'* O)?)A)*Jo.i'a*T)* Da6a'ats! *T)7)* Do#r! *?)* ?ats!'oto *Y)* O#a%a *Y)* Ne#is$i *J)* S$i'aza6i *I)* Sa6a'oto *Y)* Sasa6i *7) 8 Ts!(ota *J)*1;-2;5) Corneal an" Retinal
E&&ects o& Ultraviolet@0 E/pos!re in a So&t Contact lens ?o!se ?o"el) Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science , 5& 1=5)

Le!n*I)C)>)D)*Tan#*L) 8 Tevini*?) 1233F5) Environ'ental E&&ects o& Ozone Depletion<233= Assess'ent) 2' 145* 24,@2=;) Ro al S%e"is$ Aca"e' o& Sciences ?c?ic$ael* A) I)* L!cas* R)* Ponson( * A)L)* E"%ar"s *S)I)*1;--45) C$apter ,<Stratosp$eric ozone "epletion*!ltraviolet ra"iation an" $ealt$) In (I)*T+ ,*-G+ *-! ,.)*,+*(T,. D7O) T* S) 8 Re"" * J)J)S)J)) 1;-225) Ozone La er Depletion an" Its E&&ects< A Revie%) International /ournal of +nvironmental Science an0 !evelopment , 2 125*4-@4M) UNEP) 1233,5) Environ'ental e&&ects o& ozone "epletion<233, assess'ent) +nvironmental +ffects of O1one !epletion2 "334,*ssessment, .nite0 -ations +nvironment %rogramme ) UNEP) Eori:*L) 8 Sto.9i: *?" 1;-245) T$e In&l!ence o& Ultraviolet Ra"iation on E e) %rimary ,ealth are<Open *ccess, & 125)