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Symposium: Animal Experimentation

WHYANIMAL

EXPERIMENTATION MATTERS
Ellen F r a n k e l P a u l

A

t e e n a g e r is r u s h e d f r o m an a f t e r - p r o m p a r t y to the n e a r e s t e m e r g e n c y r o o m w i t h h e a d and n e c k t r a u m a f r o m a diving b o a r d a c c i d e n t . His n e c k is b r o k e n , a n d t h e p r o g n o s i s is grim. The y o u n g s t e r will in all l i k e l i h o o d be a q u a d r i p l e g i c , w i t h little p r o s p e c t of e v e r r e c o v e r i n g the use of his limbs. For fulfilling t h e s i m p l e s t of life's functions, he will be d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e a s s i s t a n c e of c a r e g i v e r s . T h i s s c e n a r i o is all t o o familiar, a n d immensely frustrating for the attending physicians, w h o c a n offer s c a n t h o p e o f r e c o v e r y because severed or severely damaged spinal cord n e r v e s c a n n o t be n a t u r a l l y r e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e body. W h e t h e r from an a u t o m o b i l e a c c i d e n t or hijinks g o n e w r o n g at the local s w i m m i n g p o o l , i n j u r i e s of this sort are justly c a t e g o r i z e d as catas t r o p h i c , b o t h for t h e p a t i e n t a n d for his family. It is s h o c k i n g to o u r s e n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a life c a n be t u r n e d a r o u n d so r u i n o u s l y in a f r a c t i o n of a second. W h e r e d o e s h o p e lie for this t e e n a g e r a n d for t h o s e w h o will surely f o l l o w him? C u t t i n g - e d g e r e s e a r c h on r e g e n e r a t i n g d a m a g e d n e r v e s may one day u n l o c k t h e secret, a n d ER d o c t o r s will t h e n be able to offer m a n y of t h e s e v i c t i m s a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e t h a n a life of s e v e r e i m p a i r m e n t of m a j o r b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s . Less t h a n o n e m o n t h into t h e new millennium, newspapers carried stories about the identification by three research teams of a gene, n a m e d Nogo, that p r o d u c e s a p r o t e i n that apparently blocks spinal cord and brain n e r v e s f r o m r e g e n e r a t i n g . T h i s m a y be a first s t e p t o w a r d the d e v e l o p m e n t of a drug that could block the protein, and thus allow these damaged n e r v e s to r e p a i r t h e m s e l v e s . H o w e v e r , as in all t h i n g s s c i e n t i f i c , t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s is h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e , a n d m a n y p r o m i s i n g b e g i n n i n g s in

s p i n a l c o r d r e g e n e r a t i o n have l e d d o w n b l i n d alleys. W h i l e n e r v e s in o t h e r p a r t s of t h e b o d y do r e p a i r t h e m s e l v e s , spinal c o r d a n d b r a i n r e s e a r c h is a i m e d at u n l o c k i n g o n e of t h e h u m a n b o d y ' s m o s t m y s t e r i o u s d e f e n s e systems. B r e a k t h r o u g h s in t r e a t i n g s p i n a l c o r d injuries, like p r a c t i c a l l y all m e d i c a l advances, d e p e n d u p o n e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on animals. In t h e studies involving t h e N o g o gene, rats w e r e the e x p e r i m e n t a l animals of c h o i c e . Rats w h o s e s p i n a l c o r d s h a d b e e n p a r t l y p a r a l y z e d e x p e r i e n c e d s o m e restoration o f f u n c t i o n to t h e i r legs after t r e a t m e n t w i t h a Nogo antibody.This success provided researchers w i t h c o n f i r m a t i o n that t h e y w e r e at least pursuing a p o t e n t i a l l y viable c o u r s e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This w a s a m u c h m o r e r e v e a l i n g f i n d i n g t h a n the N o g o p r o t e i n ' s ability to t h w a r t the n o r m a l n e r v e g r o w t h of o t h e r t y p e s of n e r v e s in vitro; thus, t h e r e w a s no a d e q u a t e s u b s t i t u t e for e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o n a n i m a l s . T h e m e m b e r s of o n e of t h e res e a r c h teams, f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Zurich, w h o a c h i e v e d t h e n e r v e r e g e n e r a t i o n in rats h o p e that t h e i r d i s c o v e r y will l e a d to a d r u g that c a n be t e s t e d in h u m a n s suffering f r o m s p i n a l c o r d injuries. Stroke a n d m u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s s u f f e r e r s m a y also b e n e f i t f r o m this s a m e g e n e t i c d i s c o v e r y . In a d d i t i o n to t h e i n n a t e d i f f i c u l t y of s p i n a l c o r d r e s e a r c h , t h e r e is a n o t h e r i m p e d i m e n t to p r o g r e s s , o n e that is p e r h a p s e v e n m o r e frustrating.This i m p e d i m e n t is p o s e d b y t h e m a n y h i g h l y v o c a l activists, p h i l o s o p h e r s , a n d e v e n s o m e scientists w h o o p p o s e all scientific e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on a n i m a l s - - r a t s , birds, a n d m i c e i n c l u d e d . More extreme elements within this antivivisection m o v e m e n t w i s h to e n d a n i m a l r e s e a r c h i m m e d i ately.Animal r i g h t s activists have a t t a c k e d laboratories, t h r e a t e n e d scientists, and, in G r e a t Britain,

WHY ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION MATTERS

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for most are generations r e m o v e d from the farm. strokes. dedicated.3 percent of l a b o r a t o r y animals. h o w visual information is stored in the brain (1981). It is difficult for us to think of medical advances and the f u r t h e r a n c e of h u m a n k n o w l e d g e w h e n w e imagine the visage of our family p e t on the laboratory animal's body. Earlier. Perhaps most memorably. and neither do the threats to h u m a n life in the form of p a t h o g e n s as yet u n k n o w n . Other. w o u l d be denied h o p e of future discoveries that might palliate or r e m e d y their afflictions. Antibiotics that are n o w nearing the end of their utility in c o m b a t i n g many deadly bacteria c o u l d n o t be r e p l a c e d b y n e x t . while w o r k w i t h p i g e o n s led to a 1902 award for unraveling the life cycle of malaria.This a c c o u n t is necessarily selective b e c a u s e an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f N o b e l P r i z e s a w a r d e d in m e d i c i n e over the years d e p e n d e d u p o n animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . a d i s c o v e r y that led to n e w tools for fighting s o m e t y p e s of cancers. Although the case for animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n is a strong one. their use has led to m a n y d i s c o v e r i e s that g r e a t l y augm e n t e d o u r ability to treat disease: e x p e r i m e n t a tion on m o n k e y s led to the d e v e l o p m e n t of a vaccine for yellow fever (1951). Today..o r the implementation of a vastly more restrictive regime than the one that the g o v e r n m e n t presently e n f o r c e s . animal rights advocates have thus far b e e n m u c h more successful in stating their case to the public. for animal rights activists to tug at our emotions with pictures of l a b o r a t o r y cats and dogs suffering the aftereffects of disfiguring surgeries. and still do. or suffering from catastrophic accidents. spoiled and d o t e d u p o n as our b e l o v e d pets. It is also selective 8 SOCIETY 9 SEPTEMBER/ OCTOBER 2002 . w i t h the 1952 prize for the d i s c o v e r y of s t r e p t o m y c i n as o n e e x a m p l e of h o w the guinea pig advanced the treatment of infectious diseases.g e n e r a t i o n d r u g s o f greater efficacy. mice c o n t r i b u t e d to the develo p m e n t of the vaccine that eradicated polio. m o r e moderate animal rights advocates wish to severely curtail e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on animals b e y o n d measures already in place for many years in Europe and the United States.Antibiotics d e p e n d e d for their d e v e l o p m e n t . n o n h u m a n p r i m a t e s c o n s t i t u t e 0. with the ultimate goal of e n d i n g all such research. and their treatment.A ban on e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . g e n e t i c diseases. and h o w the brain organizes itself to c o o r d i n a t e internal organs of the b o d y (1949). Life does not stand still. and w o r k on dogs also c o n t r i b u t e d to the 1924 prize w i n n e r ' s dev e l o p m e n t of the e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m . It is very easy. Cows and s h e e p w e r e the subjects of e x p e r i m e n t s that led to the 1905 prize for discoveries involving the p a t h o g e n e s i s o f tuberculosis. The recipient in 1964 e x p e r i m e n t e d on rats to u n d e r s t a n d h o w o u r bodies metabolize cholesterol and o t h e r fats that clog our arteries and lead to heart attacks. Despite the claims to the c o n t r a r y by animal rights activists. a contribution that g a r n e r e d a Nobel Prize in 1945. Most p e o p l e in a d v a n c e d industrial societies have little c o n t a c t with animals. are manageable. Cats aided o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w n e r v e transmitters f u n c t i o n (the subject of the 1970 prize). and c o r o n a r y diseases that s h o r t e n the lives o f millions and leave others in a debilitated condition. rather than mysterious and calamitous. m o n k e y s also played a part in the 1975 prize for the study o f the interaction b e t w e e n t u m o r viruses and genetic material. and c o m p a s s i o n a t e research scientists w h o w a n t to a d v a n c e h u m a n k n o w l e d g e so that future threats to life. then. mice w e r e instrumental in the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of penicillin's role in fighting bacterial infections.w o u l d leave the population vulnerable to the next deadlyAIDS or Ebola virus that suddenly appears.even p o s t e d on the I n t e r n e t a list of ten researchers targeted for assassination. and their use is a m o n g the most controversial. Mice also played a part in the 1996 w i n n e r ' s understanding o f h o w the i m m u n e system detects cells infected with viruses. for most vital medical research there is at this time no sufficient substitute for animals. p a t h o g e n s . o n animal e x p e r i m e n tation. Animals are our furry children. organic and otherwise. Dogs and cats m a d e i m m e n s e l y useful c o n t r i b u t i o n s of their o w n : organ transplantation t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d in dogs g a r n e r e d a Nobel Prize in 1990. Mice and o t h e r rodents c o n t r i b u t e d to the 1984 recipients' develo p m e n t of the t e c h n i q u e of forming m o n o c l o n a l antibodies. w h i c h has b e c o m e the routine s c r e e n i n g device for cardiovascular disease.The slaughter of farm animals is not within our repertoire. People afflicted w i t h genetic or c o m m u n i c a b l e diseases.Yet in the past. W e o u g h t not hobble our ingenious. Contribution o f Animals to H u m a n Health A perusal o f the list of research projects that have received the Nobel Prize in m e d i c i n e since its inception in 1901 reveals just h o w critical animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n has b e e n to the understanding of biological functions.

b l o o d t r a n s f u s i o n s that save t h e lives of h e m o p h i l i a c s . As s c i e n c e has b e c o m e m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d s i n c e v i v i s e c t i o n b e c a m e p r e v a l e n t in t h e late n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . m e d i c a l d e v i c e s . c o m p u t e r . w h e t h e r a n i m a l or human. Fortunately. a n d t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of p l a n t s . was removed f r o m t h e m a r k e t v o l u n t a r i l y b y R o c h e Laboratories b e c a u s e of t h e p o t e n t i a l for d a n g e r o u s d r u g i n t e r a c t i o n s . diphtheria. Even w i t h e x t e n s i v e animal t e s t i n g a n d h u m a n testing. A l t e r n a t i v e l y . h u m a n s w h o have c o n s e n t e d to n o n i n v a s i v e a n d n o n h a z a r d o u s p r o c e d u r e s . ) The m o d e r a t e s r e c o g n i z e that a n i m a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t a d v a n c e s s u c h as penicillin a n d all of the o t h e r a n t i b i o t i c s . " A p a i n reliever. N e w drugs. t h e s e o c c a s i o n a l d i s a s t e r s w o u l d b e e v e r y d a y occ u r r e n c e s . and m i c r o o r g a n i s m s as pred i c t o r s of v e r t e b r a t e function. a l t e r n a t i v e s to a n i m a l u s e have.. T h e r e are m a n y t e c h n i q u e s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s utilize to minimize the use of animals: cell extracts. t r a u m a victims. in fact. w i t h t h o u s a n d s if n o t m i l l i o n s of lives in j e o p a r d y . P a r k i n s o n ' s disease. r e i n f o r c e d that m e s s a g e . as p r o x i e s for h o w t h e h u m a n body. w a s v o l u n t a r i l y w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e m a r k e t b y its m a n u f a c t u r e r b e c a u s e its use w a s l i n k e d to liver d a m a g e a n d s o m e deaths. A l z h e i m e r ' s disease. and surgical p a t i e n t s . Nazi a t r o c i t i e s in h u m a n e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n led to t h e N u r e m b e r g Codes. r a t h e r than the h u n d r e d s or a f e w t h o u s a n d w h o t y p i c a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e in h u m a n trials. t h e n . w h i c h i n s i s t e d u p o n animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n before human exposure. or surgical t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d are p r e s u m p t i v e l y safe. a n d as s u b j e c t s for n e w m e d i c a l d e v i c e s and surgical t e c h n i q u e s . S u b s e q u e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t s . It is c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the p r e s e n t a n d the f u t u r e that sets t h e m at o d d s w i t h r e s e a r c h scientists. c y s t i c fibrosis. as t h e animal r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s contend. s u c h as the D e c l a r a t i o n of Helsinki in 1964 by t h e E i g h t e e n t h W o r l d Medical Assembly.m a y r e a c t to n e w d r u g s a n d c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s . It is g r o t e s q u e to i m a g i n e h u m a n trials b e i n g perf o r m e d w i t h o u t s o m e a s s u r a n c e t h a t the d r u g s . p h e n t e r m i n e . tissue and o r g a n s t u d i e s i n vitro. D u r a c t . t h e fact is t h a t in m o s t cases t h e r e are no g o o d s u b s t i t u t e s for animals as e x p e r i m e n t a l subjects.The law r e q u i r e s s u c h t e s t i n g in o r d e r to reveal u n a n t i c i p a t e d d a n g e r s t h a t o t h e r w i s e w o u l d afflict h u m a n trial s u b j e c t s . at least in this c o u n t r y . are f o u n d to c a u s e significant damage. Why. Drugs t h a t a p p e a r p r o m i s i n g in v i t r o m a y be ine f f e c t i v e o r e v e n d a n g e r o u s w h e n i n s t i l l e d in a f u n c t i o n i n g b i o l o g i c a l system. If federal law d i d n o t r e q u i r e that all d r u g s m u s t be t e s t e d on a n i m a l s b e f o r e t h e y go i n t o h u m a n trials and t h e n g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . and p r o c e d u r e s n e e d to b e t e s t e d on animals w h o s e s y s t e m s funct i o n in ways similar to o u r o w n b e f o r e r e s e a r c h ers p r o c e e d to h u m a n trials. Cures for A l D S . insulin. w h i c h m a k e life-saving s u r g e r i e s p o s s i b l e . v a c c i n e s for polio. and a n e s t h e t i c s . a n d future. Is their case a r e a s o n a b l e one? Are t h e r e v i a b l e alternatives to t h e use of animals? The vast m a j o r i t y of s c i e n t i s t s r e s p o n d in t h e n e g a t i v e to b o t h questions. t w o similar d i e t drugs. s o m e t i m e s d r u g s c o m e to m a r k e t that w h e n t a k e n by m i l l i o n s . smallpox. a n d t h e m o d e r a t e p o s i t i o n h e r e .n e w d r u g s w o u l d c e a s e to be p r o d u c e d . an a n t i h y p e r tensive and antianginal medication. d o m o s t s c i e n t i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t a n i m a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n is still n e c e s s a r y ? Alt h o u g h a l t e r n a t i v e s to animals exist a n d are u s e d b y s c i e n t i s t s w h e n a p p r o p r i a t e . (I shall d i s c u s s t h e m o r e e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n in t h e following s e c t i o n .a s sisted m a t h e m a t i c a l m o d e l i n g . b e c o m e b e t t e r s u b s t i t u t e s in s o m e WHY ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION MATTERS 9 . Posicor. and other formerly f e a r s o m e scourges. for fear of c/ass a c t i o n p r o d u c t liability suits. to f o r m t h e p o p u l a r " f e n p h e n . Animal r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s r e s p o n d to t h e s e inv e n t o r i e s o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t in s e v e r a l ways: s o m e m o d e r a t e s a c k n o w l e d g e that using animals was n e c e s s a r y in the past. p r e s e n t . i n v e r t e b r a t e s .p a s t . a n d c o u n t l e s s o t h e r devastating c o n d i t i o n s are the p r e s e n t targets of researchers. cancer. t u r n e d o u t to c a u s e heart-valve irregularities w h e n e i t h e r o n e w a s t a k e n in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r drug. E x a m p l e s of s u c h s u r p r i s e s include the off-label prescribing problem that e m e r g e d w h e n P o n d i m i n a n d R e d u x . t h e s e t r a g i c s u r p r i s e s o c c u r w i t h o n l y a tiny f r a c t i o n of n e w l y m a r k e t e d drugs. m e d i c a l d e v i c e s . More e x t r e m e a d v o c a t e s a d v a n c e an animal rights a r g u m e n t that t r u m p s a n y list of d i s c o v e r i e s that b e n e f i t h u m a n s . b u t m a i n t a i n t h a t s u c h use is no l o n g e r justified b e c a u s e o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l m o d a l i t i e s exist that are e q u a l l y effective. But t h e s e and o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s c a n n o t serve as c o m p l e t e s u b s t i t u t e s for animals.in a w i d e r s e n s e b e c a u s e t h e e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t r e c e i v e d N o b e l Prizes are t h e tip of a vastly l a r g e r i c e b e r g of r e s e a r c h . w h i c h i m p r o v e s a n d prolongs the lives of diabetics. g r a p h i c a l tools that m o d e l b i o l o g i c a l a n d p h a r m a c o l o g i c a l actions. yet activists argue that animal r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be b a n n e d or so s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d that m o s t exp e r i m e n t a t i o n w o u l d be b r o u g h t to an end.

u t i l i t a r i a n i s m ' s f o u n d e r .1 8 3 2 ) . the salient characteristic in his mind. rats. chemotherapy for cancer. a characteristic that all individuals share equally. p a c e m a k e r s for heart irregularities. he finds no basis for limiting moral c o n s i d e r a t i o n to humans. that is. Other sentient (conscious) creatures are capable of e x p e r i e n c i n g suffering and happiness. these goals simply require the use of rodents. Studies in dogs. too. it is not just h u m a n s w h o have benefited and will benefit in the future from animal experimentation. Discoveries that led to human advances have also been used in v e t e r i n a r y practice to improve the lives of animals. d r e w his moral f r a m e w o r k from the w o r k o f J e r e m y B e n t h a m ( 1 7 4 8 . and over a thirty-year span the life e x p e c t a n c y for domesticated cats has b e e n increased by six to eight years.t h e s e and countless other m e t h o d s of treating diseases and educating medical personnel d e p e n d u p o n e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on animals.a n a n i m a l . primates. w i t h g o v e r n m e n t estimates being m u c h l o w e r than those offered by animal rights activists. diabetes. dogs.S. Singer points out. then. hip and joint replacements for degenerative conditions. However. Bentham argued that each individual o u g h t to c o u n t for o n e and not for more than one. hamsters.. From this b e g i n n i n g he derived the greatest happiness principle: that society o u g h t to aim at the greatest h a p p i n e s s for the greatest number. d r o p p i n g by 66 p e r c e n t since 1967. and cats.The U. In the early stages of drug development. higher animals must be used as well. cats. Published in 1975. and in the prox- 10 SOCIETY ~ SEPTEMBER/ OCTOBER 2002 . the trend has b e e n one of a dramatic decrease. A n i m a l L i b e r a t i o n : A N e w Ethics f o r O u r Treatment of Animals formulated arguments that w o u l d dictate the direction of the debate over animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n to this day. Dogs and cats n o w c o m p r i s e less than 1 p e r c e n t of U. an extension that he f o u n d fores h a d o w e d in Bentham. In Singer. and toxoplasmosis. B e n t h a m a r g u e d that morality o u g h t to be based u p o n the c a p a c i t y o f individuals to e x p e r i e n c e pain and pleasure. organ transplants. Interestingly. Yet over the last three decades of the twentieth century.267. animals as research subjects are our best h o p e for understanding and c o m b a t i n g incapacitating or deadly human diseases and conditions. the m o d e r n animal rights m o v e m e n t d r e w its inspiration from a m o r e r e c e n t source: a forcefully argued b o o k w r i t t e n by p h i l o s o p h e r Peter Singer. laboratory animals. for instance. Singer argues. He illustrates this p o i n t with an example: c o n c e r n for a child w o u l d require that w e t e a c h the child h o w to read. including medicines for diabetes.. the training of e m e r g e n c y r o o m physicians in trauma techniques. Singer. e a c h should c o u n t equally in o u r moral calculations.Although estimates of the n u m b e r of animals used in laboratories vary widely. rabbits.The capacity of o t h e r sentient c r e a t u r e s to suffer leads Singer to his principle of equality: all sentient creatures must be given equal consideration. but sometimes. guinea pigs. and o t h e r rodents represent 80 to 90 percent.. have benefited from research on their species. Departm e n t of Agriculture's A n i m a l Welfare Enforcem e n t R e p o r t f o r Fiscal Year 1 9 9 7 r e p o r t e d that 1. For the foreseeable future. irrespective of their abilities or o t h e r qualities. however. and organs in their c o m p l i c a t e d interplay in a living organism. led to treatments for ills that canines suffer.i n facilitating o u r understanding of h o w a substance acts u p o n cells. but a m o u s e does. with the use of cats. because the m o u s e can suffer. and vegetarians o p p o s e d to the h u m a n c o n s u m p t i o n o f animals have advanced their arg u m e n t s since ancient times. and vaccines against rabies and o t h e r illnesses. Most of the time. Cats. while mice. equal o u t c o m e s .S. these and o t h e r alternative t e c h n i q u e s c a n n o t replace a c o m p l e t e biological s y s t e m . the study of neurological diseases such as amyot r o p h i c lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). tissues. cell cultures can rule out toxic or ineffective s u b s t a n c e s and lead r e s e a r c h e r s to substances that w o r k in vitro. life-saving heart and lung surgeries. Most i m p o r t a n t l y for Singer. for example. and farm animals w e r e the subjects of laboratory e x p e r i m e n t s in registered facilities. free to roam. out of necessity. this utilitarian principle is e x t e n d e d b e y o n d humans. he argues.situations. and Singer draws the line at sentience.828 dogs. deserve consideration. Stones have no interest in not being kicked along the street by a schoolboy. a confirmed utilitarian. for example. the study of gene therapies to fight canc e r . especially a m o n g primates. and given this.What does "equal consideration" require? It does n o t require. the use of animals in research has dramatically decreased. at o u r p r e s e n t state of knowledge.Treatments forAIDS. while c o n c e r n for a pig might require that w e leave it a m o n g o t h e r pigs. Animal Rights Philosophy Although antivivisectionists have c o n d e m n e d animal experimentation since the early nineteenth century. Not all entities.

b u t on a " r i g h t s view. For Regan.i m i t y of a d e q u a t e f o o d ."regardless of t h e i r sex. p u b l i s h e d in 1983. w h a t e v e r those interests may b e . a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e of equality.. Critics o b j e c t e d to his claim. The C a s e f o r A n i m a l Rights. " Singer c o n c l u d e s . all p o s s e s s it equally.p r o v i d e d the animal rights m o v e m e n t with a marketing s t r a t a g e m of no m e a n p r o p o r t i o n s . The patt e r n is i d e n t i c a l in e a c h case. Singer e q u a t e d all t h r e e of t h e s e " i s m s " b y asserting that e a c h rests on v i o l a t i o n s of t h e p r i n c i p l e of equality.a l l f e a t u r e s t h a t o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s have i d e n t i f i e d as t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of t h e i r o w n e g a l i t a r i a n a r g u m e n t s ." By f o r s w e a r i n g facts. the p r i n c e and t h e p a u p e r . A n i m a l s ' n o n m e m b e r s h i p in the species H o m o s a p i e n s is r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e accepting this would amount to blatant s p e c i e s i s m . t h a t it w o u l d b e m o r a l l y p e r m i s s i b l e to kill a d i s a b l e d infant if that w o u l d r e s u l t in t h e b i r t h o f a h e a l t h y i n f a n t . in an a t t e m p t to r e b u t this a s s u m p tion of i n h e r e n t value and rights for animals. as in Singer.. w h e t h e r t h e y b e h u m a n animals o r not?' WHY ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION MATTERS 11 .The "racist v i o l a t e s t h e p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y b y giving g r e a t e r w e i g h t to t h e i n t e r e s t s of m e m b e r s of his o w n race. moral capacity.t h e t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t of the i n t e r e s t s of t h e being." O v e r t h e years. a n d t h e y have that value equally. Contemporary debates about whether animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on h e a l t h y animals can be justified if w e refuse to e x p e r i m e n t on severely d i s a b l e d p e o p l e c a n be t r a c e d b a c k to Singer's claim that there is no essential d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h u m a n s a n d animals. to b e t r e a t e d in w a y s that do n o t r e d u c e t h e m to t h e status of things." Equality for h i m is n o t a factual a l l e g a t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are a c t u a l l y equal in their intelligence. t h e b r a i n s u r g e o n a n d t h e fruit vendor." so is e a c h animal. The a b s e n c e in a n i m a l s o f a n imm o r t a l s o u l is r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e this c r i t e r i o n would add a controversial metaphysical assumpt i o n to an a l r e a d y c o n t e n t i o u s d e b a t e . as opp o s e d to factual.m u s t . P a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t e n t i o u s w a s his a p p o i n t m e n t in 1999 as a p r o f e s s o r of b i o e t h i c s at P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y ' s C e n t e r for H u m a n Valu e s . " B u t the b a s i c e l e m e n t . Singer i n t e n d s to i m m u n i z e his v e r s i o n of e q u a l i t y f r o m c o u n t e r v a i l i n g factual a r g u m e n t s that m i g h t . for e x a m p l e . racism and sexism--the two most despicable "isms" of t h e late t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . a r g u e s for a n i m a l r i g h t s b a s e d n o t on a u t i l i t a r i a n m o r a l f r a m e w o r k . M o t h e r Teresa a n d t h e m o s t uns c r u p u l o u s u s e d . "The s e x i s t v i o l a t e s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y b y favoring t h e i n t e r e s t s o f his o w n sex. his equation of"speciesism" with racism and sexism p r o v e d a u s p i c i o u s . [or] b i r t h p l a c e . Rather. His b o o k . n o t an a s s e r t i o n of fact.. Regan c o n s i d e r s t h e s e c r i t e r i a and r e j e c t s t h e m . Regan conc l u d e s t h a t " [ a ] l l w h o have i n h e r e n t value h a v e it equally.. rights. Singer has b e c o m e a v e r y cont r o v e r s i a l figure. religion. " J u s t as e a c h h u m a n i s " t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g s u b j e c t of a life. Tom Regan. "[e] quality is a moral idea. b l a c k or w h i t e . T h i s a p p o i n t m e n t w a s o p p o s e d by r e l i g i o u s f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s as w e l l as a d v o c a t e s for t h e disabled. i d e n t i f y g e n e t i c d i s p a r i t i e s in i n t e l l i g e n c e o r o t h e r qualities that differ by sex o r race. a c o n s c i o u s c r e a t u r e having an individual welfare. m a s c u l i n e or feminine. The g e n i u s a n d t h e r e t a r d e d child. physical s t r e n g t h .a l l have i n h e r e n t value. a n d t h e y are still c o n s i d e r e d to have r i g h t s . s t a t e d in various w r i t i n g s o v e r t h i r t y years.. a n o t h e r p r o m i n e n t m o r a l p h i l o s o pher. t h e r e f o r e . as if t h e y e x i s t e d as r e s o u r c e s for o t h e r s . as o t h e r s have argued. in e v e r y salient feature. Similarly t h e s p e c i e s i s t a l l o w s t h e interests of his o w n s p e c i e s to o v e r r i d e t h e greater i n t e r e s t s of m e m b e r s of o t h e r s p e c i e s . w h i c h largely b u i l t its case u p o n Singer's a r g u m e n t s ." Singer w r o t e . L a c k o f reason is r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e m a n y i m p a i r e d h u m a n s are in t h e s a m e straits.. D i s a b i l i t y a d v o c a t e s s a w this as a t h r e a t to the e x i s t e n c e of p e o p l e w i t h disabilities. h u m a n or n o n h u m a n . g r o u n d i n g of e q u a l i t y is also adv a n t a g e o u s for Singer b e c a u s e it p r o v i d e s an easy t r a n s i t i o n to his c o n t e n t i o n that t h e r e is no essential difference b e t w e e n humans and animals t h a t w o u l d d e l i m i t m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n just to humans. He d e f i n e s s p e c i e s i s m as"a p r e j u d i c e or attit u d e of bias t o w a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s of m e m b e r s of o n e ' s o w n s p e c i e s a n d against t h o s e of m e m b e r s of o t h e r species. Several c r i t e r i a have b e e n a d v a n c e d to d i s t i n g u i s h h u m a n s f r o m o t h e r animals. or o t h e r s a l i e n t q u a l i t i e s . For t h e a n i m a l l i b e r a t i o n m o v e m e n t .c a r s a l e s m a n . race. and have an equal right to be t r e a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t . The moral. t h e r e b y a u g m e n t i n g the total a m o u n t of h a p p i ness in t h e w o r l d . P e r h a p s Singer's m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l a r g u m e n t is his e q u a t i o n o f " s p e c i e s i s m " w i t h r a c i s m a n d sexism. Religious activists o b j e c t e d to Singer's f r e q u e n t l y o u t r a g e o u s s t a t e m e n t s in s u p p o r t of i n f a n t i c i d e and e u t h a n a s i a ." Regan b e l i e v e s that all individuals have i n h e r e n t value.. animals have inhere n t value and. on average. be e x t e n d e d to all beings. has also i n f l u e n c e d t h e a n i m a l r i g h t s movem e n t . W h e n m a r r i e d to s p e c i c s i s m . N o r d o e s he base his a r g u m e n t on a factual claim t h a t t h e races or s e x e s are equal.

" that a l t e r n a t i v e means are a v a i l a b l e to s c i e n t i s t s if t h e y w o u l d only use them. O n e of t h e g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g this e l e m e n t is t h e Anim a l L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t (ALF).""TheALF . the o t h e r a rights theor i s t . an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o u n d e d in Britain in 1976. l a b o r a t o r y animals are n o t t r e a t e d as e n d s in t h e m s e l v e s . and that these alternative means a r e a c t u a l l y m o r e e f f i c a c i o u s . l o o k s like a factual diff e r e n c e t h a t s h o u l d m a k e a d i f f e r e n c e in t h e i r arg u m e n t s . d e s p i t e t h e i r claims t h a t no factual diff e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h u m a n s a n d animais c a n matter.. d e s p i t e t h e d i v e r g e n c e in t h e i r m o r a l f r a m e w o r k s . o r can m e r i t equal t r e a t m e n t w i t h h u m a n s s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y e x p e r i e n c e p a i n and p l e a s u r e (in Singer's). do n o t m a t t e r morally. animals are p u t on e a r t h for m a n ' s use. T h e Und e r g r o u n d Railroad a n d t h e F r e n c h Resistance are b o t h e x a m p l e s o f p e o p l e b r e a k i n g t h e law in ord e r to a n s w e r to a h i g h e r morality.The p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t for Regan of his r i g h t s v i e w is to d e c l a r e h i m s e l f an" a b o l i t i o n i s t " : all c o m m e r cial a n i m a l a g r i c u l t u r e s h o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d . b o t h o l d a n d new. Yet if h u m a n s w e r e to refrain f r o m u s i n g a n i m a l s as m e a n s to t h e i r ends. On this view.a r e i n c a p a b l e of s u c h r e s t r a i n t . f o u n d e d in 1980 a n d f r e q u e n t l y t h e b e n e f i c i a r y of Hollyw o o d f u n d r a i s i n g e x t r a v a g a n z a s . b e c a u s e t h e y have a soul a n d are G o d ' s p r e f e r r e d c r e a t u r e s .petaonline. (For more information on PETA's p o s i t i o n s .. f r e e i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l animals.s a y .. inc l u d i n g t h o s e uses that aim at t h e a d v a n c e m e n t of h u m a n k n o w l e d g e and t h e r e m e d i a t i o n of human diseases. in o r d e r to save lives.l a c k i n g r e a s o n . can be t h e p o s s e s s o r s of r i g h t s (in Regan's case). w h e t h e r a n i m a l o r h u m a n . Others attack the duo on weak p o i n t s in t h e i r a r g u m e n t s . b y att a c k i n g h u m a n s . c a m p a i g n s for t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e fur t r a d e . and so t h e i r r i g h t s are "systematically violated" and animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n must end. t h e m o r e e x t r e m e w i n g of t h e a n i m a l r i g h t s m o v e m e n t has e n g a g e d in assaults on l a b o r a t o r i e s a n d t h r e a t e n e d the lives of s c i e n t i s t s e n g a g e d in animal r e s e a r c h . a n d o r g a n i z e s activist c h a p t e r s on college campuses. Similarly. causing millions of dollars in p r o p e r t y d a m a g e . Critics have r e s p o n d e d to Singer's a n d Regan's a r g u m e n t s in a n u m b e r o f ways.) Since t h e early 1980s. as beings w i t h i n h e r e n t value. Both c h a r g e t h e i r o p p o n e n t s w i t h a failure to i d e n t i f y a c r i t e r i o n t h a t w o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h h u m a n s f r o m o t h e r a n i m a l s a n d permit s a c r i f i c i n g the l a t t e r to t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e former.Also... as n o t e d a b o v e . b u t as s e r v a n t s to t h e n e e d s of m a n k i n d .ALF has s i n c e s p r e a d to the U n i t e d States.. Singer a n d Regan differ in t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g of their animal r i g h t s p o s i t i o n s .t h e i r m a n n e r of d i s p u t i n g o p p o n e n t s is v e r y similar.The most p r o m i n e n t o f t h e n e w w a v e of activist g r o u p s is P e o p l e for t h e E t h i c a l T r e a t m e n t of A n i m a l s (PETA). h u m a n s w o u l d b e t h e only c r e a t u r e s so r e s t r a i n e d . PETA has o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t onALF's v i o l e n t activities: " T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y s o m e p e o p l e have felt t h e n e e d to b r e a k t h e law to fight i n j u s t i c e . s i n c e all o t h e r s . B o t h c l a i m that f a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s bet w e e n individuals. a n d m u s t be aboli s h e d a l o n g w i t h h u n t i n g a n d t r a p p i n g for s p o r t or c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . have f l o u r i s h e d in r e c e n t d e c a d e s . Animal rights theorists have proposed various w a y s a r o u n d this c r i t i c i s m . advocates vegetarianism. a n d other animal rights theorists. T h e n o t i o n t h a t m o r a l e q u a l i t y r e a c h e s b e y o n d t h e h u m a n s p e c i e s to e n c o m p a s s all s e n t i e n t c r e a t u r e s is v u l n e r a b l e b e c a u s e it is difficult to see h o w c r e a t u r e s w h o c a n n o t r e a s o n or s p e a k can take p a r t in t h e m o r a l c o m m u n i t y . 12 SOCIETY 9 SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2002 . A l t h o u g h PETA itself f o r s w e a r s s u c h t e r r o r i s t m e t h o d s ... t h e n . Regan. Some i n v o k e the traditional Judeo-Christian argument that places h u m a n s . a n d j e o p a r d i z i n g y e a r s of r e s e a r c h .. t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p s fed by r e a d e r s of t h e w o r k s of Singer. A n i m a l Rights A c t i v i s m A n i m a l r i g h t s g r o u p s . s e e i t s w e b s i t e ... w h e r e it c a r r i e s o u t assaults on laboratories. calls for t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f c i r c u s e s for t h e i r alleged c r u e l t y to animals.org. t h e y t h i n k all facts are i r r e l e v a n t to t h e i r a r g u m e n t s .a r e i n c a p a b l e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g or r e s p e c t i n g t h e sorts of r i g h t s a n d d u t i e s t h a t c o m p r i s e any m o r a l system. it is l o a t h to r e p r o a c h this e x t r e m i s t e l e m e n t . h t t p : / / www.o n e is a utilitarian. as s h o u l d all s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on animals. w h i c h are morality-based.Animals w h o c a n n o t refrain f r o m v i o l a t i n g t h e r i g h t s of h u m a n s . C o m m e r c i a l a g r i c u l t u r e e x p l o i t s animals as a ren e w a b l e r e s o u r c e for m a n k i n d . b r e a k s i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . PETA a l s o o p p o s e s t h e t e s t i n g of c o s m e t i c s a n d h o u s e h o l d products on animals. Rationality. PETA is d e d i c a t e d to c o n v i n c i n g the p u b l i c that animal experim e n t a t i o n is a "sadistic scandal. a b o v e t h e animals. b u t t h e y c o n c u r in t h e i r a b o l i t i o n i s t conclusions. Singer a n d Regan are also v u l n e r a b l e on the g r o u n d that t h e y r e j e c t the claim t h a t any facts m i g h t d i f f e r e n t i a t e h u m a n s f r o m animals.. b u t t h e i r a r g u m e n t s still s e e m v u l n e r a b l e on this p o i n t .

at d e v e l o p i n g alternatives to r e s e a r c h on animals. t h e "gift" a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n e d e x p l o s i v e s . and tripwire lights. razor b l a d e s in e n v e l o p e s . T h e m o s t n o t o r i o u s e x t r e m i s t g r o u p s . d a m a g i n g t h e b u i l d i n g . e i g h t s u c h l e t t e r s w e r e r e c e i v e d . In N o v e m b e r 1999. p o l i c e i n t e r c e p t e d a package m a s q u e r a d i n g as a C h r i s t m a s gift for Profess o r B l a k e m o r e ' s d a u g h t e r . The four years p r e c e d i n g t h e s t u d y acc o u n t e d for $28. w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d f u r t h e r u n s p e c i f i e d v i o l e n c e if t h e r e s e a r c h e r s d i d n o t cease v i v i s e c t i o n b y the fall of 2000. e n s c o n c e d in t h e i r h o m e s b e h i n d a n t i t e r r o r i s t b a r r i c a d e s of s e c u r i t y fences.q u a r t e r s of a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s in d a m a g e a n d set b a c k w o r k on a v a c c i n e against b r a i n c a n c e r . a p h y s i o l o g i s t at O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y w h o w o r k s on a d v a n c e s for t h e t r e a t m e n t o f infants a n d c h i l d r e n w i t h v i s i o n p r o b l e m s .t e r r o r i s t e x p l o i t s . H a n s e n t h r e a t e n e d t h a t t h o s e w h o d i d n o t divest t h e i r shares w o u l d face r o u n d .8 million.) The hunger strike w a s e v e n t u a l l y c a l l e d off. A t t h e Univ e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n . t a r g e t e d s h a r e h o l d e r s of H u n t i n g d o n Life S c i e n c e s (HLS). d e s t r o y i n g e q u i p m e n t . In N o v e m b e r 1999.t e r r o r i s t s . ALF b r o k e into a r e s e a r c h lab at W a s h i n g t o n State University. an u n d e r g r o u n d g r o u p d e d i c a t e d to a full range of e c o . w h o h a d u s e d a m e g a p h o n e o u t s i d e Blakemore's h o u s e since 1994 to d e n o u n c e h i m as a cat torturer. s h o u t e d insults.5 m i l l i o n in a r s o n d a m a g e to a l a b o r a t o r y w o r k i n g on t h e d i a g n o s i s of d i s e a s e s in v e t e r i n a r y animals. a n d o t h e r s y m b o l s of ind u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . In a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y The Oregonian in 1999. t h e y w o u l d kill the t e n s c i e n t i s t s . O n e of t h e i r j o i n t e x p l o i t s w a s a 1996 C o l u m b u s Day w e e k e n d raid against gas sta- tions and fast-food restaurants along Oregon's I n t e r s t a t e 5.M a d i s o n . t h e p r o t e s t e r . and s o m e English g r o u p s are n o t r e t i c e n t a b o u t t h r e a t e n i n g a n d c o m m i t ting acts of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t scientists. a n d an a t t a c k b y a m o b t h a t s u c c e e d e d in b r e a k i n g i n t o t h e i r h o u s e . a n o t h e r assault at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of California at San F r a n c i s c o dama g e d data a i m e d . t a r g e t i n g d e v e l o p e r s . t h e Justice D e p a r t m e n t . t h e British gove r n m e n t h a d a l r e a d y b a n n e d a n i m a l t e s t i n g for cosmetics. w h i c h h a d o p e r a t e d p r i m a r i l y in Britain and Canada. ALF n o t e d t h a t it w a s its s e c o n d assault on a r e s e a r c h facility in Washingt o n State in t h a t m o n t h . was f o u n d guilty of h a r a s s m e n t . aerial h e r b i c i d e spraying. and tobacco. C y n t h i a O'Neill.. T h e article r e c o u n t e d ALF's ack n o w l e d g e d link b e t w e e n itself and the Earth Libe r a t i o n Front. s o m e t h r e e t h o u s a n d s u c h g r o u p s are n o w in e x i s t e n c e . i n c l u d i n g t w o l e t t e r b o m b s . O t h e r attacks have c a u s e d d a m a g e to l a b o r a t o r i e s a n d intimid a t e d r e s e a r c h e r s ..a r e a g r o w i n g m e n a c e . In F e b r u a r y 2000. a l a b o r a t o r y that tests t h e safety of n e w d r u g s on animals. m o t o r c y c l i s t s .t h e .t e r r o r i s m " t h a t h a d o c c u r r e d in t h e e l e v e n c o n t i g u o u s w e s t e r n s t a t e s s i n c e 1980. (In r e s p o n s e to a c t i v i s m of this sort. i n c l u d i n g s o m e raids for w h i c h ALF has p u b l i c l y t a k e n credit: o n e assault at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a c a u s e d t h r e e . c h a i r m a n of Britain's NationalAnti-Hunting Campaign. a n d w r o t e d e n u n c i a tions on his s i d e w a l k . Colin B l a k e m o r e . a n d the d i r e c t o r of t h e W i s c o n s i n Regional P r i m a t e R e s e a r c h C e n t e r fled t o w n w i t h his family after p r o t e s t e r s h e l d vigils in front of his h o m e . In England. The p r o f e s s o r ' s family has e n d u r e d t h i r t e e n y e a r s of h a r a s s m e n t f r o m animal r i g h t s activists.The r e p o r t also d o c u m e n t e d a 1987 raid byALF on the University of California at Davis. o n e p r o t e s t e r . b u t t h e fear persists. ironically. w h e r e t h e first a n i m a l w e l f a r e org a n i z a t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d in 1824. w h i c h c a u s e d $3. alcohol. An a n i m a l r i g h t s g r o u p allied w i t h ALE t h e J u s t i c e D e p a r t m e n t . t h e n e w s p a p e r i n v e s t i g a t e d o n e h u n d r e d m a j o r acts o f " e c o ..8 m i l l i o n of that total.a g r o u p t h a t i n c l u d e s a n i m a l r i g h t s e x t r e m i s t s as w e l l as t h o s e w h o a t t a c k logging c o m p a n i e s a n d ski r e s o r t s in t h e n a m e of p r o t e c t i n g Earth f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c u r b i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e of t h e w i l d e r n e s s . c l a i m e d c r e d i t for t h e letters. In t h e mid-1990s. a n d t h e i r allies.ALF 'raids' have given us p r o o f of h o r r i f i c c r u e l t y that w o u l d n o t have b e e n disc o v e r e d or b e l i e v e d o t h e r w i s e . gas stations.. i n d i c a t i n g that e c o . P o l i c e prot e c t i o n for P r o f e s s o r B l a k e m o r e is at t h e s a m e level of i n t e n s i t y as that a f f o r d e d t a r g e t s of t h e Irish R e p u b l i c a n A r m y . In taking c r e d i t for t h e raid. alarms. y e t he r e m a i n s an o u t s p o k e n d e f e n d e r of animal r e s e a r c h a n d o p p o n e n t of the extremists. " MegTurville-Heitz r e p o r t e d in ScientificAmerican t h a t in 1999 e i g h t y s c i e n t i s t s r e c e i v e d lett e r s b o o b y .w e r e b o r n there.. w a s t r i e d u n d e r a n e w a n t i h a r a s s m e n t law.Activists t h r e a t e n e d that w h e n o n e of t h e i r m e m b e r s w h o w a s e n g a g e d in a h u n g e r s t r i k e died.c l o c k WHY ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION MATTERS 13 . is o n e of t e n British s c i e n t i s t s w h o has b e e n p u t o n an assassination list byALF.A L E for exa m p l e . Damages f r o m these acts a m o u n t e d to $42. and p o u r i n g acids on the floors.t r a p p e d w i t h r a z o r b l a d e s ..It b u r n s e m p t y b u i l d i n g s in w h i c h a n i m a l s are t o r t u r e d a n d killed. Niel Hansen. loggers. Many t a r g e t s of t h e i r o u t r a g e have b e e n f o r c e d to lead lives of s e c l u s i o n and fear..

and r e p l a c e m e n t . The act's c o v e r a g e ext e n d e d b e y o n d dogs. PHS guidelines also c o v e r the responsibilities and m e m b e r s h i p req u i r e m e n t s of IACUCs.criteria designed to minimize animal use. and the managing director of the c o m p a n y d e m a n d e d that a national crime squad be f o r m e d to m o n i t o r the activists. based on the so-called "3 R s " . w h i c h covers all live. laboratories using animals must register w i t h and be i n s p e c t e d by t h e A n i m a l and Plant Health I n s p e c t i o n Service (APHIS). v e r t e b r a t e animals. Securing this license requires approval by an ethical review panel.700 shareholders were so intimidated by the threats that they called for police protection. and primates. veterinary and nursing care.) Using the alias of the BUAV Reform Group. w h i c h provides most of the f u n d i n g for animal e x p e r i m e n tation in the United States. As this law requires. that they receive postoperative care.S. an office w i t h i n the PHS and l o c a t e d at t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f Health (NIH). and the use of analgesics.protests in front of their homes. U n d e r the AWA. Researchers must s e c u r e a license to do p a r t i c u l a r experiments. a n o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y layer is afforded b y the Public Health Service (PHS). o n e of w h o m must be a veterinarian. Since the passage of a m e n d m e n t s to the AWA in 1985. tranquilizers.S. and anesthetics. t h e "U. excluding rats.The original i m p e t u s for passage of the act was a media-generated frenzy a m o n g the public that dogs w e r e being stolen from backyards for sale to laboratories. has i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and oversight responsibility for the PHS Policy.. mice. including rats and mice. and it must minimize the n u m b e r of animals used. in fact. in that way. but the groups that grab the headlines--and. 14 SOCIETY 9 SEPTEMBER/ OCTOBER 2002 and birds . and that t h e y e x p e r i e n c e only o n e major p r o c e d u r e . w h i c h has as its p u r p o s e ensuring that research using p r o t e c t e d animals is justified by the potential benefits that it might secure. The U. G o v e r n m e n t Principles for the Utilization and . It w o u l d be almost a c e n t u r y before American federal legislation addressed animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n via the AnimalWelfareAct of 1966 (AWA). an act that has been a m e n d e d frequently since its passage. in some cases. Many of the 1. as the f o r m e r d e p e n d s o n several federal regulatory agencies for its implementation and enforcement.The Health Research Extension Act of 1985 m a n d a t e d that the Public Health Service draw up guidelines to w h i c h all grantees must adhere. and its principal p u r p o s e remains the p r o t e c t i o n o f cats. an enf o r c e m e n t a g e n c y of the U. in March 2000 Hansen sent p e r s o n a l letters containing an ultimatum with a date by w h i c h shareholders had to divest. In addition to regulation by the D e p a r t m e n t of Agriculture. these comm i t t e e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p r o v i n g all e x p e r i m e n t s and ensuring the safety and conditions of the animals at their respective institutions. reduction. the welfare of l a b o r a t o r y animals has in fact b e e n a c o n c e r n of the British g o v e r n m e n t since it passed the Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876. Current British law governing animal experimentation is s h a p e d by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act of 1986. regulatory s c h e m e is more f r a g m e n t e d than Britain's.r e f i n e m e n t . shape the public agenda--are not inhibited by concern for property rights nor. c o n c e r n for human life. it is surprising that for some of its constituent groups. h u m a n rights and h u m a n welfare seem to c o u n t for so little.TheAWA and its various amendments established standards for the care and treatment of l a b o r a t o r y animals. (Testing drugs on animals is. an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) must be established in each institution that c o n d u c t s animal research.To further c o m p l i c a t e the regulatory landscape. on some occasions.The Office for P r o t e c t i o n from Research Risks (OPRR). D e p a r t m e n t of Agric u l t u r e . the Public Health Service Policy on H u m a n e Care a n d Use o f Laboratory A n i m a l s provides guidelines on presurgical and postsurgical care. The OPRR negotiates with all PHS-supported laboratories for their Animal Welfare Assurances (a d o c u m e n t outlining c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the PHS Policy). A p p r o v e d research must be c o n d u c t e d with the least possible suffering. C o m m i t t e e s must include at least t w o m e m b e r s not affiliated with the institution. to be sure. a legal r e q u i r e m e n t in Britain.S. There are many animal-welfare groups that fors w e a r e x t r e m i s t measures. For a movement dedicated to extending rights beyond human beings to all sentient beings. Regulatory Controls over Animal Research While animal rights activism has a longer history in Britain than it does in the United States. the PHS Policy e n d o r s e s and i m p l e m e n t s a n o t h e r set of guidelines established b y an Intera g e n c y R e s e a r c h Animal C o m m i t t e e . and the British m o v e m e n t ' s extremist e l e m e n t is more r o b u s t than its American c o u n t e r p a r t . T h e act also m a n d a t e s that animals must be anesthetized during painful p r o c e d u r e s unless t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t w o u l d be thwarted. dogs.

The latest revision (in 1996) was written by the Institute for LaboratoryAnimal Research of the NationalAcademy of Sciences.. this defense is necessarily interdisciplinary as well. O-7658-0025-X (cloth) 2000 258 pp. diminution of pain.95 / s WHY ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION MATTERS 15 . and the moral justification for sacrificing animals for the betterment of human life.t o abolishing animal e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n altogether. The "Principles" stress h u m a n e care. birds. l~llen r ranKel l~aUl. Exponents of animal rights find this regulatory scheme in the U. the successors of AIDS. The debate b e t w e e n animal rights advocates and research scientists is a high-stakes battle. the vital role that it plays in palliating and eradicating human and animal diseases.This c o m m u n i t y is being t h r e a t e n e d by animal rights extremists. will find a vibrant scientific c o m m u nity willing and able to m o u n t an effective counterattack. the authors scrutinize how animal experimentation actually functions in the laboratory.. $49. Ellen Frankel Paul is d e p u t y director o f the Social Philosophy a n d Policy Center a t B o w l i n g Green State University. w h i c h together comprise 80 to 90 percent of laboratory animals. Alt h o u g h this is a clear setback for the activists. N o n g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations also play a role in overseeing animal experimentation. For example. eol[ors :i: :~ Why Animal Experimentation Matters is a first attempt by research scientists and moral philosophers to mount a convincing defense against animal rights enthusiasts."The White House Office of Science and T e c h n o l o g y adopted the nine principles endorsed in this docum e n t in 1985. The PHS Policy also mandates c o m p l i a n c e with the Animal Welfare Act. philosophers. She is the e d i t o r o f Social Phil o s o p h y and Policy a n d is the a u t h o r o f Moral Revolution and Economic Science (1979). a n o n p r o f i t organization that m o n i t o r s laboratories and c o n d u c t s on-site inspections.Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Research. and species-appropriate living conditions. Because opponents of animal experimentation come from a variety of intellectual backgrounds. individuals suffering from heritable or communicable diseases. This article originally a p p e a r e d in WhyAnimal Experimentation Matters:The Use of Animals in Medical Research (Transaction. they have not given up on this quest. deficient. a n d is also p r o f e s s o r o f political science a n d p h i l o s o p h y a t B o w l i n g Green State University. ano oeiirey l~aUl. In this collection of eight essays.o u r lives as well as the lives of our parents and our c h i l d r e n . D i s c o u r a g e m e n t and the a b a n d o n m e n t of scientific careers by the best and brightest.w i l l be the price of an abolitionist victory. This important anthology will be of interest to scientists. during the Reagan Administration. $24. and was f u n d e d by the NIH and the D e p a r t m e n t s of Agriculture and Veterans Affairs. It is essential that the public u n d e r s t a n d just h o w i m p o r t a n t it is to all of us and to generations to c o m e that the acquisition of k n o w l e d g e not be thwarted. and policymakers. a n d Equity and Gender:The Comparable Worth Debate (1988). H u m a n l i v e s . so that future scourges. Property Rights and Eminent Domain (1987). In May.S. Still a n o t h e r d o c u m e n t guides research institutions that must c o m p l y with the PHS Policy. relatives of afflicted individuals. More e x t r e m e elements desire to go far b e y o n d r e g u l a t i o n .. This d o c u m e n t is the G u i d e f o r the Care a n d Use o f L a b o r a t o r y A n i m a l s . and mice. w h i c h dates back to 1963 and has b e e n frequently revised. amendment banning inclusion of these species was added to the Farm Bill and signed into law by the president. 2001). w h i c h has already b e g u n in Britain. More moderate forces wish to e x t e n d the AWA's coverage to rats.95 / s 0-7658-0685-1 (paper) 2000 258 pp. is a w o r r i s o m e p r o s p e c t for the United States. 2002. the NIH encourages labs to join the Association for Assessm e n t and Accreditation of LaboratoryAnimal Care International (AAALAC).

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