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MACHINE

A. F. Almarshoud College of Technology P.O.Box 42826 Riyadh 11551 Saudi Arabia

M. A. Abdel-halim Elec. Power and Machines Dept.-College of Eng. Cairo University Giza, Egypt

A. I. Alolah EE Dept.-College of Eng. King Saud University P.O.Box 800, Riyadh 11421 Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a new method for including the crosssaturation effect and the leakage path saturation effect together in the generalized model of a three phase induction machine. Four different cases of operation are investigated at load and no load. The machine performance has been determined with the help of a novel abc-dq circuit model. The model posses the advantages of both the dq and direct phase model.

Subscripts M Main L Leakage S Stator R Rotor g Air gap Superscripts U Unsaturated S Saturated

1. INTRODUCTION

List of symbols

Voltage Current Flux Inductance Rotor speed Time derivative operator Stator resistance Rotor resistance Magnetizing Inductance Stator leakage inductance Rotor leakage inductance Ampere turns The total Resultant of Flux The Reluctance Leakage flux coefficient Saturation factor Flux linkage The total leakage flux linkage permeance Slot and tooth top flux linkage permeance The end winding flux linkage permeance The total flux of stator due to stator currents only The total flux of rotor due to rotor currents only The main flux of stator due to stator currents only The main flux of rotor due to rotor currents only The stator ampere turns drop due to the flux produced by the stator currents only Two types of saturation effects influence the performance of induction machine. The first is the main flux path saturation. The second type is the leakage path saturation. Cross saturation between the d- and q-axis fluxes and mutual saturation between the main and leakage fluxes should be considered for accurate representation. Each type of saturation effects has been discussed separately in many papers in the literatures. Some of the authors neglect the effect of Saturation [l-31. Others take the saturation effects on the magnetizing reactance through the open circuit characteristic and neglect the effect of saturation on the leakage inductance [4-61. The saturation effects on the leakage reactance in terms of the lockedrotor machine current have been also considered [7,8]. The method of representing the saturation of the equivalent leakage reactance as a function of the locked-rotor current does not properly account for saturation effects upon the leakage reactance in the different transient conditions. Many authors discussed widely the cross-saturation [9-121. But it is noted that the mutual saturation effects between the main and leakage fluxes have been neglected. This led to neglecting the effect of saturation on all the leakage inductances and neglecting the influence of the leakage flux upon the saturation level of the main inductances. In fact, this gives noticeable errors especially at starting conditions.

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[~ The voltage. separate magnetization curves for the rotor and stator will be used. + stator direct phase modeling allows unbalanced conditions and nonlinearities arising from the use of electronic switches and other reasons to be easily represented E . Based on the previous circuit model. ~ . MACHINE MODELING The stator of the induction machine is modeled in the direct phase reference frame abc while its rotor is modeled as two pseudo-stationary coils in dq reference frame (Fig.Using pseudo-stationary coils for the rotor results in time independent mutual inductances between the stator and rotor coils. as the unified open circuit magnetization curve has become irrelevant. During the transient conditions the prevailing saturation level changes with time. The inductance matrix is given by: As the two types of saturation effects will be included. Main path saturation only is considered iv. current.[ ~ l + [ wl+P[. A comparison study will be carried out when the motor is loaded and unloaded for the following cases: i. In this regard. Both types of saturation effects are considered The performance of the induction machine will be determined for these cases with the help of a novel abc-dq circuit model.There is no need to transform thestatorvoltageand current quantities as the stator is modeled keeping its original physical arrangement. the voltage matrix equation must be formulated as follows: [VI= [ ~ l . It is recommended to choose the per unit flux components of stator and rotor as state variables. Thus the advantages of the dq model are reserved. Both types of saturation effects are neglected ii. K . Also the stator and rotor flux components were selected as state-space variables. The model posses the advantages of both the dq and direct phase model.ll l. flux and speed vectors are: The current matrix is: [ I ]= [XI-'* [A ] .0196 - . the saturated inductances are updated at each step of time. 0 0 0 1 0 [RI = 0 0 0 0 2 -R2 3 0 0 When the rotor d-axis is chosen along the magnetic axis of the stator phase " a ". This new model has the following advantages: i. r R .* I I I D Fig. ~ ~ ~ ~ . Therefore. O O O R . Also the effects will be considered for all main and leakage inductances.In the present work both types of saturation effects. O O O R . including the cross-saturation and mutual saturation between the leakage and main fluxes will be considered. ml 4 a-axis . Leakage path saturation only is considered iii. 1). 1 : Circuit model of Induction Machine The resistance matrix is given by: 2.

will be a function of 4. 4.0 4. the saturation factor of the magnetizing inductances of stator is given by: . separate magnetization curves are used. Each member will be show on effective reluctance to the flow of flux in both directions depending on the resultant of its flux.0197 - .Main flux path saturation considering Cross- . The main flux component associated with any main inductance is affected by saturation as follows: For stator winding and neglecting the saturation: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -w.iq Using the above relations.3. 2: The stator current of motor at no-load - 6.ia -i -ic] 3 . cross saturation occurs between the fluxes of these orthogonal axes. MODELING OF SATURATION Case ( a ) It should b e noted that the iron losses and space harmonics are neglected in this study A..x.lo20 I I i 10 4 I Case ( b ) Saturation: The magnetic circuit of an induction machine consists of iron and air paths. Therefore the member saturation level indicator will be the member resultant fundamental flux. Using the two axes flux concept. ) Fig. . Hence. AT. Therefore. 0 The saturated inductance may be related to the unsaturated one by a saturation factor as follows: Accordingly. The magnetic paths of the fluxes of direct and quadrature axes in each member (stator or rotor) are not isolated from each other. I 40-1 20 - 1 I 10 i d i Case ( c ) -lo-/ ! I 1 201 -i Case ( d ) 4 0 7I 0. To enable taking the effect of the leakage flux upon the reluctance of both the stator and rotor. Consequently the degree of saturation in each member will be determined by the resultant of both axes fluxes. mutual saturation exists between the main and leakage fluxes. the electromagnetic torque is: (2.0 1 I I 2.0 Time ( sec.0 The reluctance of each member is calculated corresponding to the total flux flowing therein in at each step using the magnetization curve belongs to that member. 3 ' 7. there are iron parts conducting some direct-axis flux as well as quadrature-axis flux.Leakage flux path saturation: Each of the stator and the rotor of any induction machine carries the main (air gap) flux in addition to its leakage flux. =# ! M When saturation is considered: o o o w . Consequently saturation affects all the main and leakage inductances in the two axes. B.: The member reluctance.

and when the saturation is considered: -10 j 20 1 I 1 I I I 1 104.4 pu torque 4. S = (AT. the saturation factor of the leakage inductances of stator is given by: -10 ~ I I 1 201 1 Case ( d ) Since. The performance of induction motor has been computed when the motor loaded and unloaded for the following different cases of saturation: i. I I ~ 3 I Case ( b ) The leakage flux component associated with any leakage inductance is also affected by saturation.S. -10 Ij Hence.0198 .0 6. Similarly. Also each main or leakage A computer program has been developed to simulate the motor depending on the model explained in previous section.10 2o .0 Time ( sec. Hence.0 . 3: The stator current of motor when Loaded by 0. Both types of saturation are not considered. Using the above relations. I I 4. + ATsS. . I Case ( c ) Y . A three-phase induction motor having the specifications and parameters given in appendix has been used for computations. the saturation factor of the leakage inductances of rotor will be. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In each step of integration !Rs and !JIRwill be calculated from proper magnetizing curve in terms of the resultant of total flux flow in that member.ATSs)S.0 . for stator winding when the saturation is neglected: Y: =AT.inductance in stator or rotor will be updated by its proper saturation factor. ~ i Case ( a ) Where us and oR are the leakage fluxcoefficients of stator and rotor respectively and they are given by: .) Fig. the saturation factor of the leakage inductances of stator will be. Numerical integration using fourth order RungeKutta algorithm has been applied to compute the currents step by step in the time domain. I 2. - . 0. 20 7 10 Similarly the saturation factor of the magnetizing inductances of Rotor is given by: J. .

The magnitude of stator current is affected by saturation. 5. The per unit flux components of stator and rotor were selected as state variables. Vol. but it is not considerable during the starting period. iv. the effects has been considered for all main and leakage inductances.0 I 4. It is clear. the main flux path saturation will be the most effective during steady state period..0 2. September 1987. CONCLUSION In this study. In case (b) the magnitude of starting current is greater than case (c)... From the computed performance characteristics. Because XI. . Thus the leakage path saturation will be the most effective during this period.G. a new model has been presented for including both types of saturation effect. Stanley. 121 G. The accuracy of the saturation representation has been enhanced by including the cross saturation and the mutual saturation between the main fluxe and the leakage flux.0 6. pp. In case (c) the starting torque exceeds 10. pp.. Also.. Also. by many times. Case ( d ) r5 11.. 57.0 pu while in case (d) the starting torque exceeds 15. and the leakage flux path saturation.465-469. 4: The Torque and rotor speed at no-load 6. But.G. its magnitude in case (c) is greater than its magnitude in case (b).0 Time ( sec.. is larger than X .ii. Vol. It is clear. Tthe main path saturation.3. Avolio. ii. Also. REFERENCES [ 11 H. A comparison study has been carried out when the motor is loaded and unloaded at four different cases of operation. “Dynamic Simulation of an Induction Motor Fed from an Isolated Synchronous . The performance of induction machine has been determined for all cases using a novel abc-dq circuit model that has the advantages of both the dq and direct phase model..2 shows the transient behavior of stator current at noload for all cases. Numerical integration using fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithms has been applied. A computer program has been developed to simulate the different cases of operation. the starting period becomes the shortest.4 and 5 show the electromagnetic torque and rotor speed at no-load and load respectively for all cases. because both types of saturation are considered. iii. Figs. “Transient Behaviour of Induction Motor Flux and Torque during Run-up”. when the current reaches the steady state. The effect of main flux path saturation is clear at steady state. iv.751-757. The leakage path saturation only is considered. 111. Fig.1938. In case (d) the magnitude of stator current is greater in starting period and steady state period because both types of saturation are included in this case. ) Fig. The main path saturation only is considered. The effect of leakage flux path saturation is pronounced during starting period with less effect at steady state period. that flows in X. IEEE Trans.0 I 0. Diana and R. Both types of saturation are considered. while during starting period I. AIEE Trans.0199 - .0 pu. By including the two types of saturation effects together. the followings are concluded: i. in case (d) the starting period is the shortest while case (a) has the longest starting period.”An Analysis of the Induction Machine”. Harley. EC-2(3). These remarks are very clear when motor is loaded as shown in Fig. will be negligible compared to starting current that flows in Xi. the shortest starting period is in case (d).0 lLO.. The starting torque is higher when the main flux path saturation is considered but when both types of saturation effects are considered the starting torque is the highest. [3] Filho and E.

96-103 [IO] P. 475 A. Saudia Arabia. 336345. Levi. K.0 -10. 18.179. Buckley.0 r1. Vol. 1983. AKBABA.5 / / I I 1 -lo-/ 0. Case ( b ) r t 11. "Saturation Effect in Three-phase . [11] E. pp. Proc. Kovacs and P. Novotny and K Tang.. PAS-102.0 4. 1992.5: The Torque and rotor speed when motor loaded by 0.M. Vol.0 I I . pp.57 1-576. P. September 12-14. Vas. IEEE Annual Meeting.539-548. Msc thesis. 1987. 'I Electric Machines and Power Systems.983 -1. Harashima. Proc. ibid. K. "A Unified Approach to main Flux Saturation Modeling in d-q Axis Models of Induction Machines".W.&Y~. IEEE Trans. Stator Rotor a 0. Khater . E.1. [6] F.0 1 Appendix The motor parameters A Three phase. Hallenius and J.2. A.5 t .. pp.Induction Motors. Vol.O 2. Brown. Pisa.EC-1(1).586-59 1. "Selection of Flux Level in Field-Oriented Induction Machine Controllers with Consideration of Magnetic Saturation". Magnetic circuit data The air gap reluctance = 129. ) 6.o / 0 A~.J.EC-6. ) Case ( c ) tl. ibid.0 2. Italy. E. L . pp. AKBABA and S.86667.. King Saud University. Si = S A = 5. .R..12. [12] K.0 Time ( sec.EC-10(3). Haneyosti and H. ) Fig. Vas. 1987. IEEE Trans. 1999 AT=ab+bb" +cb"' . G. "CrossSaturation in Smooth-Air-Gap Electrical Machines". pp.LO.0 r 0. FAKHRO. of th Intemational Conference in Electrical Machine.0 0. pp. 1995.125 20 -. Vas and J. E. Vol. No. [9] J.091 PU RI = R2 = 0.Lo.. pp. Lorenez. ibid.610E-2 0.IA-23(2). 1988.D. / Case(a) k .wJuL"" /?- k0. The magnetization curves of the motor are fitted in the form: I . "Application of Induction Motor Simulation Models to Power Station Auxiliary Pump Drives". 1980. E.224E+2 0.103-112. Aconnected. Hallenius. 1986. [SI F. Brown. .1824-1831.251 pu H = 0 ..3655E-4 The leakage flux linkage permeances in the SI units are: Ss = 6. Rogers and G.2208+2 4 in webei b C n 5 5 m 9 9 0. ibid.W. 6.1. Vol. Vol. pp. "Analysis of Transient Phenomena Associated with Saturated Three Phase Induction Motor". "The Analysis of A Saturated Self-Excited Asynchronous Generator".0 4. 6 sec. pp. IEEE Trans. "Operating Performance of Inverter Fed Induction Motors Considering Magnetic Saturation".0 4. [131 M. Brown.015 PU X m = 4. 600 V. [4] T. D. pp. P. E. "A Method of Including the Effects of Main Flux Path Saturation in the Generalized Equations of a. Machines". T.R. Vol. [8] M. 1970. 6.0 ~1. PAS-98.193.3659E-4 0. Time ( sec.608E-2 0.10 I " 1 I . Inabo.5 10i - .10 -/" .c. Al-bahooth. No. "Modeling of the Saturated Leakage Reactance of Induction Motors as a Time Varying Parameter for Transient Computations".276-282. 50 Hz induction motor having the following calculated parameters based on manufacture design sheet[ 131: Xi = X2 = 0.0 Time ( sec..Generator". Smith.4 pu torque - 0200 - . V01. = 7.455-461. June 1991.5 107 I ..Q. [7] M.5 2.0 20 -.

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