You are on page 1of 9

CONCEPTS AND MODELS REGARDING THE BEHAVIOR OF ANTISEISMIC DEVICES FOR THE BASE ISOLATION SYSTEM

Polidor BRATU1, Patricia MURZEA2, Carmen ALEXANDRU 3, Ovidiu VASILE4 1 Prof., PhD, Dipl-Eng, ICECON S.A., Bucharest, e-mail : icecon@icecon.ro 2 Assist. Prof., PhD, Dipl.-Eng., Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, e-mail: patricia.murzea@icecon.ro 3 PhD stud, Dipl.-Eng., “Dunărea de Jos” University, Galați, e-mail: carmen.alexandru@icecon.ro 4 Lect., PhD, Dipl.-Eng., Department of Mechanics, University “Politehnica”, Bucharest, e-mail: ovidiu_vasile2002@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT The paper presents the main antiseismic devices, as component elements of the base isolation systems, in such a manner that the functional and constructive parameters are correlated with the inertial and stiffness characteristics of the dynamic isolated building. Also, each device will be characterized through a rheological model, which conditions the eigenvalues and eigenvectors spectrum, as well as the dynamic response to an exterior excitation of a seismic nature. In this context, antiseismic devices defined and characterized by the European Standard EN 15129 will be presented. Based on the requirements formulated in the norm, the devices can be identified and their laws of evolution established and checked as follows: antiseismic devices with permanent rigid connection; antiseismic devices with rigid connections with respect to the instantaneous displacement and antiseismic devices dependent on the velocity and on the velocity variation in time. Keywords: rheological laboratory testing models; dampers;

REZUMAT Lucrarea prezintă dispozitivele antiseismice, ca elemente componente ale sistemelor de izolare a bazei, astfel încât parametrii funcţionali şi constructivi să poată fi corelaţi cu caracteristicile inerţiale şi de rigiditate ale clădirii izolate dinamic. Fiecare dispozitiv va fi caracterizat printr-un model reologic ce condiţionează atât aspectul de valori proprii şi vectori proprii cât şi răspunsul dinamic al excitaţiei exterioare de natură seismică. In acest context, vor fi prezentate dispozitivele antiseismice definite şi caracterizate de standardul EN 15129, astfel încât, pe baza cerinţelor formulate în acesta să poată fi identificate, stabilite şi verificate legităţile de evoluţie ale dispozitivelor după cum urmează: dispozitive antiseismice cu legătură rigidă permanentă; dispozitive antiseismice cu legătură rigidă şi dependentă în raport cu deplasarea instantanee; dispozitive antiseismice dependente de viteza şi variaţia vitezei în raport cu timpul.

Cuvinte cheie: modele reologice; amortizor; testări în laborator

1. INTRODUCTION The antiseismic devices with functional role in the base isolation system of buildings that must be protected against earthquakes are: elastomeric isolators and fluidic dampers based on silicone oil (16, 26, 17). Integrating these devices in the “base isolation system” is a requirement of the new and more modern design concepts. These specialized products must meet certain fundamental demands based on performance functions (23, 5).

Elastomeric devices are designed as viscoelastic isolation elements meant to resist to vertical loading and to lateral deformations with values of the slip angle greater than 450. Due to this reason, the structure of the dynamic isolation device on horizontal direction is composed of multiple elastomeric layers alternating with metallic reinforcing, which, through vulcanization, form a multilayer elastomeric ensemble parametrically defined through stiffness, internal-loss and dissipation (25).

CONSTRUCŢII – No. 1 / 2013

31

The dampers with viscous oil are devices especially designed in such a manner that the two chambers of the cylinder. meaning . instantaneous displacement x=x(t) or with respect to the pulsation of the excitation. For the Kelvin-Voigt model the reaction . Alexandru. is presented with respect to the force. modeled as Kelvin-Voigt. – pulsation of the excitation. 27). being represented by the distinct dynamic response at initial shock. with the same energy dissipation (15. depending on the internal dissipation mechanism. The dynamic response of the order I system is given by the differential equation for the Kelvin-Voigt model: (2) and under the form: (3) for the hysteretic model. as well as the dissipated energy . C. are connected for two distinct situations (14): • the dissipation function through the viscous fluid arc rheological system. (5) is the maximum value of the viscoelatic reaction force of the form: η Q H x(t ) (t ) k b) Histeretic model [H] (6) Fig. Schematization of the order I model for the elastomeric systems test on stand 32 CONSTRUCŢII – No. Conceptually. – reaction force at applied harmonic excitation. the two functions are fundamentally defined. • the dissipation function through the fluid-viscous rheological system. 1. in which: c – viscoelastic force coefficient. c QV (t ) x(t ) k a) Voigt-Kelvin model [V] representing a family of ellipses which can be parameterized with or considering the nature and size of the excitation. – internal loss coefficient. in which f represents the cycle frequency (19. at harmonic cycles as kinematic excitations of the form: x(t)=Aosinωt (13. 36) or hysteretic. one obtains: (4) where ω=2πf. Vasile The rheological model can be KelvinVoigt (23. the dissipation power and the equivalent critical damping ratio of a viscoelastic damping or a IInd order system (22. 1 are specific to the kinematic excitation loading method given by the instantaneous displacement: x=x(t)=Aosinωt (1) The elastomeric systems are coupled in parallel at slip loadings under norm conditions. 2. Patricia Murzea. 7). separated by the division of the flow piston. O. THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ELASTOMERIC ISOLATORS TO CALIBRATION LOADINGS The dynamic schemes from Fig.P. modeled as Maxwell (28). 20). 1). k – stiffness coefficient to shearing. Bratu. . 1 / 2013 . Thus.

c ) CONSTRUCŢII – No. N/m.02 0.14 0.06 0.5 η2 η3 η4 (11) (12) (13) The interest parameters for an elastomeric element are m.c) ∆ Wcin v v c1 c2 2 c3 c4 1.c) 0 0 5 4 c The dissipation power of the elastomeric element is given by: (8) The equivalent critical damping ratio of a complete IInd order system. In Figures 2 to 8.5 Ns/m.14 0.η) 0 0 0 3 x 10 5 2.02 0.04 0.08 A0 [m] 0. Reaction force x 10 5 2.06 0.14 0. .5 0 0 0.08 A0 [m] 0. are presented.02 0. 6): (10) 3 2 c1 1 c2 c3 c4 0 0 0.04 0. 8): (9) For the hysteretic behavior of the elastomeric isolator in concordance with the previous model. c 1 0.06 0. 1 / 2013 33 .5 = ∆Wcin (A0. 2.5 η 2 Qh 0 1.16 a) ∆Wvcin = ∆Wvcin ( A0 .1 0.Concepts and Models Regarding the Behavior of Antiseismic Devices for the Base Isolation System The maximum dissipated energy that corresponds to the area of an ellipse defined is: through and (7) Qv 0 6 x 10 5 Qv = Qv (A 0.04 0.1 0. c ) = Q0 Qh = Qh (A . considering . Hz and the viscoelastic or hysteretic characteristics are ∆Wcin v 0 0 0.η ) = Q0 Fig.12 0. the resulted graphs for the interest parameters.1 0. one has the following parametric quantities of interest (11. with the elements m.16 h h b) Q 0 ( A0 .16 v v a) Q 0 ( A0 .5 1 η1 0. k is (24.08 A0 [m] 0.12 0.12 0. c.

5 -0.02 0.1 0.5 1 0.4 η3=0. = Q0 A0 ∈ [0.01K 0.06 0.02 0.η ) Fig.04 0. Vasile 4 9 8 7 6 5 x 10 = ∆Wcin (A 0.14 0.η) ∆ Wcin h h 1. 3. 5.η) h h 2 x 10 6 Qv = Qv (A .16 -0.8 4 0.75 7 8 η 6 c =2.12 0.1 0.2 c6=1.02 0.16 0.0 c =1.2 0 0 0 0. Bratu.04 0.08 b) ∆Whcin = ∆Whcin ( A0 .η ) Fig.P.04 -0.5 c1=0.04 0.0*105 -1 1 0 -1. Hysteresis curve 14 x 10 6 Pcin = Pcin (A0.08 0 0. c ) cin b) Qh = Qh (x.08 A 0 [m] 0. Alexandru.08 A [m] 0 0.16 -0.06 0.25*105 c2=0.8 0 0.06 0 0.5 c =1.14 0.c) v v c1 2 1.08 η1=0.08 A0 [m] 0.1 0. c ) Pcin = Pcin (A0.0 1 0.08 A0 [m] 0.15]m Fig.6 0.75 1.c) 0 0 0 12 η1 η2 η3 η4 1.06 0.5 x 10 5 Qcin = Qv (x.5 1 ∆Wcin h Qcin v η 4 3 2 0 -0.50*105 c3=0.04 -0.02 0 x [m] 0. C.5 0 -2 -0. O.12 0. 1 / 2013 .4 c4=1.02 0. Dissipated energy 12 x 10 5 cin a) Qv = Qv ( x .12 0.25 1.14 0.2 η2=0.25 5 10 8 Pcin h Qv 0 1.06 0.6 η4=0.16 b) Phcin = Phcin ( A0 .5 4 -1 2 -1.02 0 x [m] 0.14 0.75*105 c4=1.8 c1=0.04 0.4 2 0.5 x 10 5 Qcin = Qh(x.02 0.5 2 3 c =0.02 0.12 0.04 0. Dissipated power 34 CONSTRUCŢII – No.6 c =0.04 0. c ) .η) h 10 c2 c3 c4 8 P cin v 6 c Qcin h 0 -0.06 -0. Patricia Murzea. η ) v v a) Q 0 ( A0 .c) v η1 η2 η3 η4 0.1 0.08 a) Pvcin = Pvcin ( A0 .06 0. 4.06 -0.

00 -0.02 0.5 Qcin [N] v 0 -0.8 0.6 η4=0. Family of curves for the dissipated energy for [V] and [H] models CONSTRUCŢII – No.02 0 x [m] 0. (f= 1).50 c 5=3.0 4 1. η) ∆Wcin h h 0 (ZOOM) 1.25 c 2=1.5 -0.04 0.0 1.07 0.03 0.5 c3=0.6 η2=0.0 c5=1.06 -0.00 c 3=1.6518.08 -0. η) 0 0 0 2.02 0.02 0 x [m] 0.06 -0.5 x 10 5 Qcin = Qv (x.07 0.04 0.c) v 3 2.06 0.04 0.08 A0 [m] 0.6 η4=0.4 η3=0.5 η1=0.15]m a) Hysteretic curve for f = 1 Hz Fig.25 c 6=4. Arie triunghi S =4817.2 ∆Wcin h 1 0 -0.2 1.5 -2 c 1=0.5 -2 0 0.Concepts and Models Regarding the Behavior of Antiseismic Devices for the Base Isolation System 3.0 0.04 -0.c).5 1 0.08 b) h Q0 h = Q0 ( A0 .5 0.5 x 10 5 Qh = Qh (A . Amortizarea ζ =0.5 5 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 2 1.19307 el tr x 10 2.25 c7=1.5 -1 -1.08 c) Fig.8 Qcin = Qv (x.5 -1 -1.75 c 4=2.05 0.η ) 0 x [m] 0.25 7 c2=0. Pentru c= 25000 Ns/m v Aria elipsei 5 S = 3156.4 1.06 0. 1 / 2013 35 .5 2 1.03 0.c) (ZOOM) v v Qcin = Qv (x.5 -2 -2.08 ∆ W cin v c6=1.9507.02 b) ∆Whcin = ∆Whcin ( A0 .8 η5=1.02 0.02 0.06 0.06 -0.75 6 c4=1.08 Qh 0 1.01K 0.η ) A0 ∈ [0.5 -0.8 η5=1.4357.05 0.5 -0.16 -2.c).2 0 -2.14 0. Amortizarea ζ =0.08 a) ∆Wvcin = ∆Wvcin ( A0 .01 0.75 c8=2.4 -1. Family of curves for the reaction forces for [V] and [H] models 10 x 10 4 ∆Wcin = ∆ Wcin (A0.7426. Pentru c= 100000 Ns/m v Aria elipsei 5 S = 12625.02 0.2 1 η2=0.04 A0 [m] 0.02 0. (f= 1).06 0.5 0 0 0.5 Qcin [N] v 0 -0.01 0.6 v -1 0.5 2 9 8 c1=0.06 0.06 0.052138 el tr x 10 2.04 A 0 [m] 0.12 0.1 0. Arie triunghi S =5203.04 -0.4 η3=0.5 1 0. c ) 2 x 10 4 b) = ∆ Wcin(A .5 1 2 0.08 0. 6. 7.04 -0.04 0.08 -0.5 Qcin [N] η1=0.

5 2 1. Arie triunghi S =8107.04 -0.02 0 x [m] 0. Pentru c= 175000 Ns/m v Aria elipsei 5 S = 22095.04 0.02 0.5 Qcin [N] v 0 0.29545 el tr x 10 2.06 -0.5 -0.08 0 0.1 X: 2.04 -0. Arie triunghi S =6950.5 -0.04 0.04 -0. Amortizarea ζ =0.3614 ζ= ζ(c) 0.75e+005 Y: 0.06 0.5 -0. Arie triunghi S tr =9365.08 Qcin = Q (x.8351. Bratu.25e+005 Y: 0.5 -2 0. also called viscous arc.5 -2 -2.40274 el tr x 10 2.08 -0.5 2 1.3565.5 -0.35 0. THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THE HYDRAULIC DAMPER AT A SHOCK IMPULSE Figure 9 presents the principle scheme of a hydraulic cylinder with two separated chambers by a piston with adjustable orifices in terms of cross-section.02 0 x [m] 0.5 -1 -1.06 -0. Vasile Qcin = Qv (x. Arie triunghi S =5951.P.08 h) Fig. At the exterior.5 -1 -1.5 Qcin [N] 0 -0.02 0 x [m] 0.5 x 10 4 5 d) Qcin = Q (x. 8.02 0.02 0.5 -2 -2.08 -0.4 X: 4e+005 Y: 0.25 X: 1. which communicates with the two vehicular chambers of the silicon oil.04 0. Amortizarea ζ =0.5 Qcin [N] 0 -0.04 -0.5 2 1.3 0. Evolution for the hysteretic curves e) Aria elipsei 5 S = 41033. v v f) F Qcin = Qv (x.05214 ζ X: 1e+005 Y: 0.04 0. Alexandru.2399. (f= 1).08 2 c [m] 2. (f= 1).3614 5 el tr x 10 2.08 -0. Amortizarea ζ =0.c).2 0.c). O.06 -0.6635.06 0.45 0.5 1 1.5 1 0. (f= 1).5 Qcin [N] v 0 -0.4291 X: 3.9705.5e+004 Y: 0.5 -2 -2.5 1 0.4027 -0.5 -0.5 1 0.5 1 0. Patricia Murzea.0496.08 x a) General layout k m F Q c g) b) Kelvin-Voight model 36 CONSTRUCŢII – No. Pentru c= 325000 Ns/m v v 3.1931 -2.5e+005 Y: 0. Amortizarea ζ =0.02 0 x [m] 0.4291 x 10 2.c). for which the stiffness of the oil is significant for its sudden compression. (f= 1). the damper can be designed as Kelvin-Voigt.15 0.06 -0. 1 / 2013 .2624. Function of the adjustment model. The Maxwell model is characterized through a significant viscous damping given by the forced flow of the oil without a high elastic compression (12).02 0.5 -1 -1.5 -1 -1.06 0.05 0. Pentru c= 250000 Ns/m v v Aria elipsei S = 31564.2954 X: 2.c).06 0.8555. a control/adjustment and command unit is located.5 2 1. C. Pentru c= 400000 Ns/m v Aria elipsei 5 S el = 50502.5 3 3.

Variation with respect to ω 4. for . 11 and 12. as dynamic rheological response (2. 1.Concepts and Models Regarding the Behavior of Antiseismic Devices for the Base Isolation System m F k c Q c) Maxwell model Fig. .. the variations of Δ with respect to the specific parameters Ω and c.. 9).4): (17) ∆ 10 9 8 7 6 5 ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω (18) The ratio may be written as: (19) For a damper with N/m. meaning . 12. The Hydraulic Damper Scheme In Figures 10. Ns/m. in which Hz. Variation with respect to c Case 2 150 k1 k2 k3 100 k4 k5 k6 k7 50 k8 k9 k 10 For both rheological models.5 1 1. 10. Thus. the next relationships may be written (3. 9. ∆ 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 c 6 7 8 9 10 x 10 6 Fig. 2.5 2 2.. at pulsations of the initial shock of rad/s and eigenpulsations of minimum 300 rad/s. with the transmissibility for maximum displacements will be given differently. 10. k and Ω are presented under the form of families of curves. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics of the antiseismic dampers are determined in laboratory testing 37 . 1 / 2013 4 3 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 k 6 7 8 ω 9 10 x 10 6 Fig.5 5 Ω Fig. Thus. Case 1 200 180 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 c8 c9 c 10 The transmissibility of the force F(t) to the fixed point is estimated through the transmitted force Q(t). where j=0.5 4 4. for the Kelvin-Voigt model one has and for the Maxwell one .5 3 3. Variation with respect to k Case 3 11 ω 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 In this case. 11. CONSTRUCŢII – No. c and k. one has (10. with the ratio . 21): ∆ 160 140 120 100 80 (14) 60 40 20 (15) (16) 0 0 0.

M. 5. 1 / 2013 . Changing of the damping characteristics due to the addition/decrease of the elastomeric devices in a structural system.. 2009. For the hydraulic dampers the dynamic shock regime is established. 2011. Bratu. 14. Ljubljana University. C. 600 pag. A. REFERENCES 1. 13. 2008.. The XXII-th SISOM 2011. Bratu. Iuss Press. The International Conference on Structural Engineering Dynamics ICEDyn... International Conference on Engineering Rheology (ICER99).. Serban. Bratu. 2011. Bratu. Tavira. 2007. 10. 1999. Function of the adjustment and geometrical. Dragan. Romania. M. 2010.. DiCesare. Bologna. Slovenia. pag 713. F. Mihalcea A. Baumann. The 9-th International Conference "Acoustics... Comportarea la actiuni statice si dinamice – Editura IMPULS. Athens. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Experiments/ Process/ System Modelling/ Simulation & Optimization IC-EpsMsO. Vasile regime. Athena Greece. Analytical models for anti-seismic devices with hysteretic characteristics. Giuclea. O. A. 8(1): 67-71. Vasile O. Mitu A. 36th International Conference on Mecahanics of Solids. Mihalcea. Pavia. Concept of dynamic analysis for the movements of the viaduct provided with elastic bearings.. 9. 4('99"): 399-406. 2011. Italy. based on them. 2nd International Conference ‚Advanced Composite Materials Engineering.. A. 3.. 7. P. P. the damper can be modeled as either Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell. Bohler. P. The significant harmonic force is determined leading to the dynamic action represented by the significant force . Acoustics and Vibrations ICMSAV XXXVI.. Brasov Romania COMAT2008: 20. The 5th European Rheology Conference... Bratu P. Carotti. A. Estimation of the internal energy dissipated inside materials with viscous rheological non-linear behavior subjected to harmonic inertial disturbing force. J. 333-341. V. 2011. P. The modelling of the composite neoprene antivibrating isolators realized by microstructure and macrostructure using significant rheological laws. Romanian Journal of Acoustics and Vibration. Dissipative characteristics for elastomeric anti-seismic insulators depending on the rheological and the applied excitation nature. Pitagora Editrice.V.C. position and shape configurations of the calibration orifices. Proceedings of the 1st European Conf. Alexandru. Portugal. 8. 1999. the elastic and dissipation parameters are determined. 2012. Bratu. Dissipation Capacity evaluation for Neoprene Anti-Seismic Isolators Under Harmonic Dynamic Excitations. Modelling Of Viscoelastic Isolators Consisting Of Composite Neoprene With High Damping Capacity.. Latella. Greece. 11. P. 2008.. P.. 1988. 6. 17. P. N. P. on Constitutive Models for Rubber. Performance analysis in case of viscoelastic systems intended for vibration insulation. Vasile O. Proceedings of The annual Symposium of the Institute of Solid Mechanics and Session of the Commission of Acoustics.... Vibration". Analiza structurilor elastice. Cluj-Napoca. T. 2010. Romanian Acoustic Society.. k and Ω are determined. 12. For the elastomeric elements given kinematic excitations are applied. 1999. The Academy of Technical Sciences of Romania (ASTR). Influence of kinematic or dynamic exciting regime upon the damping characteristics of the elastomeric elements.. Bratu. The hysteretic loops are drawn and. Italy. Constitutive Models for Rubber: 267-273. Materiale Plastice ISI 3(2): 288.. Bratu. Based on real time pressure and flow measurements as well as instantaneous displacements. Arleo. Bratu. Ponzo.M. Bucuresti.M. 16. Zielona Gora Poland Applied Mechanics and Engineering.. 38 CONSTRUCŢII – No. Dolce.P. Bratu.. Patricia Murzea. Bratu. 2011. P. Different numerical models for the hysteretic behavior of HDRB’s on the dynamic response of base-isolated structures with lumped-mass models under seismic loading. P. Vibration transmissivity in mechanical systems with rubber elements using viscoelastic models... Anual Symposium of the Institute of Solid Mecanics SISOM.. P. Bratu. Bratu.. at harmonic cycles generated by given laws. Bucharest.. 3rd International Conference "From Scientific Computing to Computational Engineering. 2000. 4. 15. P. c. Bratu P. Tecniche innovative in ingegneria antisismica e del vents.. Bucharest. G. Reşiţa. Technical Publishing House.. () Rheological Model of the Neoprene Elements Used for Base Isolatoin against Seismic Action. Bucuresti. M. Mitu. Vibration of elastic systems. Bratu. Progetto di Edifici con Isolamento Sismico. 2.

1993. 21. Meinovitch. 1(1): 45-48. 26. Italy.. E.K. 24(3):251274..G. Setua. Faccioli E. 2003.I. 23..B. Wiley. 22. Pandey.. Lindley.K. 2006. Viola. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 6(4): 318-326. 2011.. 1 / 2013 39 . Kelly M. 1(7): 150195. Pitagora Editrice. of the New Zeeland National Society for Earthquake Engineering. Stiffness and Damping in Mechanical Design.. A..E.D. 20. R. 15 (N2): 102-106. 2005 19. Elementi di sismologia applicata all’ingegneria. Passive Vibration Isolation. Fondamenti di dinamica e vibrazione delle strutture. Bologna. Gent. A. I. Italy. Dynamics Structures.. Mechanics of Rubber Bearings for Seismic and Vibration Isolation. Engineering Design with Natural Rubber Units. 1964. Eng. G.. 1990. Struct.N. Raw Materials and Applications. New York. and Control of 24. C. Bologna. CONSTRUCŢII – No. Rivice.J. 27. 25. Giuliani. Pitagora Editrice. Paolucci R.. 1978.. Rivice. Elastic Stability of Rubber Compression Springs. 1991.. Konstantinidis A. 2001.Concepts and Models Regarding the Behavior of Antiseismic Devices for the Base Isolation System 18. New York.. International Journal. D... P. Bull. 28. L. ASME Press. Marcel Dekker Inc. Structural design analysis and fullscale seismically isolated buildings. Tyler. New York. Study of Damping Behavior of Rubber-Plastic Blend. 1999. Rubber Bearings in Base-Isolated Structures. E. Journal of Strain Analysis.