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Felicia NICULESCU-ENACHE1,2, Ph.D student, “Politechnica” University of Timisoara 2 Senior Researcher IIIrd Degree, NIRD URBAN-INCERC, Timisoara Branch, e-mail: enache_felicia@yahoo.es

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ABSTRACT This paper presents the computed diagrams showing the soil behavior in two alternative calculation hypotheses (with/without geogrid reinforcement) will be compared, so that the positive effect of two geogrid layers used for reinforcement is revealed. The diagrams show that the use of reinforcement layers contributes to a more uniform distribution of loads and to the decrease of the pressure, thus increasing the bearing capacity of the soil. Keywords: geosynthetics, reinforced soil

REZUMAT [Style: “Abstract Title (RO)”] În articol sunt prezentate, prin comparaţie, diagramele de comportare a terenului în două variante de calcul (cu/fără armare cu geogrile) şi este evidenţiat efectul pozitiv al dispunerii a două straturi de geogrile cu rol de armare. Diagramele arată că dispunerea straturilor de armătură duce la distribuire uniformă a eforturilor şi la scăderea solicitărilor în teren, ducând astfel la creşterea capacităţii portante a acestuia. Cuvinte cheie: geosintetice, pământ armat

1. INTRODUCTION Seismic motion is one of the main causes of buildings failure in case of earthquake; therefore, it is very important to understand correctly and accurately the phenomena that generate it, namely the parameters that characterize it and its effects on the buildings. For the seismic design of the entire system (i.e. superstructure - infrastructure - soil), it is important that the behavior of the foundation soil and of the foundation system used for buildings located in seismic areas is known, as the dynamic loads induced by seismic actions are transmitted through the soil and foundation to the structure above. Geosynthetics are generally polymeric products used to solve geotechnical problems in civil engineering. This includes several product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geocomposites, geocells, and combinations of the above-listed materials. Most geosynthetic products are made of synthetic polymers, such as polypropylene, polyester, polyethylene, polyamide, PVC etc. These materials have

high resistance to chemical and biological degradation and can be processed to meet the requirements of resistance, tensile deformation, providing good adherence with the reinforced soil (NP075-2002). 1.1. Use of geosynthetic materials in construction works Geosynthetic reinforcement of foundation soils that have lower bearing capacities than the loads resulting from the superstructure has emerged as an alternative solution to other ways of improving the bearing capacity of foundation soils. The use of geosynthetic material is effective, as it uniformly distributes the soil characteristics, which can largely vary at the construction site. Many methodologies have been developed worldwide, using various specialized computer software, combining different types of soil (sand, clay, gravel) with various types of reinforcement materials (geogrids, geocells, geomembranes), which were or were not experimentally verified, either in the laboratory or during the construction works (Cicek et al., 2012; Axinte, 2010).

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CONSTRUCŢII – No. 1 / 2013

.. Zhang et al. 2012. Moghaddas Tafreshi. with a longitudinal and transverse tensile strength of 58 kN / m (Fig. 2004. the calculated load on the foundation surface is: Ntotal = 583 kN. 2012. a theoretical calculation of foundation soil was carried out. 2004.Angle of dilation.Poisson's ratio. The calculation was performed by considering two possibilities. γsat = 19. 2012. 2010. ψ = 0 . with the following characteristics: . Eref = 25000 kN/m2 .2 m x 0. 2. ky = 0.Horizontal permeability coefficient.. et al. it was decided to reinforce the soil with biaxial geogrid (Cicek et al.2 m x 2. Ghazavi and Lavasan. The designed foundation dimensions are 2. 1). PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME To highlight the effect produced by the layout of reinforcement materials. i.. ν = 0. i. the same loading conditions (loads resulted from the superstructure and the foundation itself).F. Mahboubi and Keyghobadi. in order to guide the future development in Romania of guidelines/norms for the design of soil foundation reinforced with geosynthetic materials.90 m. taking into account: the same properties and characteristics of foundation soil material.Axial load – Nx = 477 kN. reinforced soil and unreinforced soil (Fig.9 m/day . et al.Cohesion index – cref = 0 . Zhang J. 2010. Alamshahi and Hataf. the calculation model closest to the natural soil behavior is considered the soil behavior according to the Mohr-Coulomb theory (elastic-perfectly plastic) (Axinte. McGown A.. the author considers that this study on the behavior of geosynthetics-reinforced foundation soil loaded with dynamic forces could prove useful. the same conditions for dynamic (seismic) loads and the same dimensions of foundation area. Niculescu-Enache However.e. 2012.Young's modulus.e.. by using the finite element method (FEM) numerical technique. 3). identical size of the foundation soil area. . 2010).9 m/day . 1986. i. Pokharel et al.. 2008. along with other studies presented in the literature. the foundation under the central pillar. the central foundation. 2010. Dash et al. The building structure and foundation system were calculated beforehand. bears the following loads: . For these reasons.e. kx = 0. Neven and Kavazanjian.40 kN/m3 . In order to determine the behavior of foundation soil with and without reinforcement. 1 / 2013 . 2002. 2010. et al.e. the studied foundation. The studied foundation is part of a threestory framed structure.Angle of friction. φ = 30 . the considered type of soil was one with low bearing capacity. In order to point out the positive contribution of using geosynthetic-reinforcing materials for the foundation soil. 2009. i. Axinte. Lungu I. 2000. because their behavior at the construction site has not been fully understood. In geotechnics.Self weight of the reinforced concrete foundation – Gf =106 kN Therefore. the existence of groundwater was not taken into account. Fraser et al. 2007.Vertical permeability coefficient. The technical characteristics of the material were taken from the TENCATE product presentation catalogue and they are as follows: MIRAGRID GX BIAXIAL 55/55. CONSTRUCŢII – No. Latha and Murthy. 2012. Kleveko.Density while compressed. the foundation with the biggest load was selected. the use of geosynthetic materials as reinforcement of foundation soil for constructions located in seismic areas is not as widespread as the use of such materials for retaining walls. After a detailed study of national and international literature. 2012. Boushehrian et al. Considering the stress resulting from the “special” combination (gravitational loads and 62 seismic loads).3 .Bearing capacity (according to STAS 3300/2-85 and NP 112-2004) pconv = 200 kN/m2 For the ease of calculation. 2006. Michalowski.. Vito A. sand.

Upon studying the literature.2 +2. In order to center the calculation model. . P100-2006. .2m = 0.when using more than one reinforcement layers.the reinforcement elements are efficient up to an estimated length of 3B .the reinforcement consists of 2 layers with geogrids laid out at 0. 1): . so that negligible deformations are recorded at the edges. 1 / 2013 63 .the length of the reinforced layer (geogrid) is 3B = 3 x 2. .25 x 2. the following option was chosen (Fig. in force in Romania.vertical height – 8B => 8 x 2.25 B = 0. the first reinforcement layer needs to be positioned at an optimum depth estimated at 0. 1.The behaviour of foundation soil with and without geosyntethic reinforcement The following loads were considered for the calculation of the studied building: .ag = 0.16 g horizontally. . will be considered. the design acceleration value will be broken down as follows: .7 s.ag = 0.16 g and the control period of the design spectrum is TC = 0. the design peak ground acceleration is ag = 0.2 m. .horizontal length – 5B => 5 x 2.2 m.2 m = 6.unreinforced / reinforced soil CONSTRUCŢII – No. 3.the use of reinforcing elements embedded in structures such as compacted cushions has a double effect: it reduces deformability and increases load bearing.25 B from the foundations base (the loaded area).loads resulting from seismic action. the following conclusions could be inferred: . . but taking into account that an experimental stand to test the results obtained by numerical analysis is envisaged in the future. given the distribution of stresses in the studied reinforced soil. . according to the seismic design code for buildings.the presence of reinforcement elements leads to a higher bearing capacity of the foundation soil.permanent loads from non-structural walls. .25 B. the reference area will have the following dimensions (Fig. Using this information. with the layers at a distance of 0. loads from superstructure elements.live loads.the bearing capacity of the reinforced soil increases as the number of reinforcement layers increases.the distance between the two reinforcement levels is 0.4 m.the foundation soil is considered to be made up of sand. The structure was analyzed by considering that the building is allegedly situated in the Banat region where.2 m + 5 x2.08 g vertically. a reference area for the foundation soil. marked with B = 2. Foundation . used for calculation.2m = 0. . 2). Considering the foundation length. In order to take into account the seismic load from the foundation soil (Fig. 1): .2 m = 18 m. .6 m.4 m from the foundation base.2m = 24.25 x 2. . related to the size of the foundation itself.permanent loads: self weight of the structure.25 B = 0. . RESULTS The bearing diagrams obtained after performing the calculations for both conditions are presented in the following: Fig.

unreinforced / reinforced soil Fig. 2. 3. 1 / 2013 . σy unreinforced/reinforced soil Fig. Dynamic loads Fig. Distribution of vertical stress. 4. Distribution of total stress . Distribution of vertical Uy displacements unreinforced / reinforced soil 64 CONSTRUCŢII – No. Niculescu-Enache Fig. 5. 6.F. Presentation of the geogrid characteristics Fig.

Normal stress σy at 17. Normal stress σy at 17. 10. 7 Distribution of horizontal Ux displacements unreinforced / reinforced soil Fig. Vertical displacements Uy at 17. 9.96m – just below the foundation base Fig. 8.The behaviour of foundation soil with and without geosyntethic reinforcement Fig. 1 / 2013 .96m – just below the foundation base Fig.69m – just below the first reinforcement layer 65 CONSTRUCŢII – No.

F. 12.69m – just below the first reinforcement layer Fig. Niculescu-Enache Fig. Normal stress σy at 17 m – just below the two reinforcement layers 66 CONSTRUCŢII – No. 1 / 2013 . Vertical displacement Uy at 17.44m – between the two reinforcement layers Fig. Normal stress σy at 17. 14. 11.44m – between the two reinforcement layers Fig. 13. Vertical displacement Uy at 17.

17 Vertical displacement Uy at 16. 1 / 2013 .73 m – 45 cm below the two reinforcement layers Fig.45m – under the two reinforcement layers 67 CONSTRUCŢII – No.73 m – at 45 cm below the two reinforcement layers Fig. 16. 15. Normal stress σy at 16. 18.The behaviour of foundation soil with and without geosyntethic reinforcement Fig. Normal stress σy at 16. Vertical displacement Uy at 17m – just below the two reinforcement layers Fig.

the use of a reinforced ballast cushion will help these loads to will evenly distribute over this cushion. 8. 16. 14. At 17. the pressure diagram narrowing is still present. but the maximum vertical deformation value increases. A reduction in the width of the pressure bulb in the foundation soil immediately below the foundation base is noted (Figs. At 16. The reinforcement of foundation soil with natural bearing capacity smaller than the loads resulting from the superstructure could be improved by placing under the foundation a ballast/sand cushion. so that the vertical pressure and deformations resulting inside the cushion - Fig. As it results from the above analyses. results in the concentration of stresses on a smaller area under the foundation base. 19 Vertical displacement Uy at 16. 6. CONCLUSIONS At 17. the same effect being noted for vertical deformations. 68 CONSTRUCŢII – No. 6. 7. At 17. accompanied by the increase in the extreme pressure and in the maximum vertical deformation values (Figs.44 m – at half distance between the two reinforcement layers. the change in the pressure and deformation diagram already starts immediately below the foundation base. 10. 12. the effect of the geogrid reinforcement is apparent (Figs. 19). 11).45 m – under the two reinforcement layers 4. 7. .45 m – situated 27 cm and 45 cm under the second reinforcement level. At 17.The pressure bulb reduces significantly.The horizontal deformation diagram becomes uniform. Even if the value of deformations and pressures is higher than the one for the same foundation made in unreinforced soil. Niculescu-Enache The deformation surface reduces. the pressure diagram narrows along with the increase in the maximum pressure value.73 m and 16. The theoretical calculation of the foundation soil reinforced with geosynthetic materials is very important in the design stage because it allows establishing the pressure bulb and the deformations that will occur in the foundation soil. thus resulting in a smaller pressure bulb than the one occurring in unreinforced foundation soil. i. 15): . 9). one can determine the size of the ballast/sand cushion in which the geosynthetic materials are inserted. General conclusions The use of various layers of geosynthetic reinforcement material. 17.00 m . 18.69 m . geogrids. Also. the role of geosynthetic materials is to concentrate pressure stresses and vertical deformations.e.situated under the second reinforcement layer. which has a higher bearing capacity than the natural soil around it. 6. This concentration of stresses and deformations leads to the increase of maximum values. 13). reinforced with geosynthetics. the reducing trend in the height of the pressure bulb is still present.F. the deformation surface of the pressure bulb decreases horizontally with the increase of vertical deformation (Fig. 6.96 m depth.situated above the first reinforcement layer. 1 / 2013 . 7. In this way. 7. which was also noted for vertical deformations (Figs.

Geotextiles and Geomembranes 29:242-248. Universitatea Tehnică „Gheorghe Asachi“.. K. Limit Loads on Reinforced Foundation Soils. Geotextile and Geomembranes 28:475–482. 2010. use of 2.L. et al... EUROGEO 5 Conference. 2010. TENCATE GEOSYNTHETICS ROMANIA S. 15.. 23... NP 075-2002 – Standard for the geosynthetics in construction works.. Modeling of the cyclic behavior of shallow foundations resting on geomesh and grid-anchor reinforced sand. Lungu I. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 32 :55–68. Bearing capacity of strip footings on sand slopes reinforced with geogrid and grid-anchor. Pokharel S. N.. Zhang J.The behaviour of foundation soil with and without geosyntethic reinforcement would not exceed the bearing capacity of the natural foundation soil. 5. Fraser I. Bearing capacity of geocell reinforcement in embankment engineering. 13.. Cicek E. 11. 1 / 2013 69 . S. Effect of reinforcement form on the behavior of geosynthetic reinforced sand. C. 2002. Tutorial program PLAXIS. H. 6. 25. Et al. Kleveko V. 1986. 2004. 14. Investigation of factors influencing behavior of single geocell-reinforced bases under static loading. 132(4): 448– 455. Stanciu A. et al. teză de doctorat. 2012. Comparison of geogrid and geotextile reinforced earth slabs. A comparison of static and cyclic loading responses of foundations on geocell-reinforced sand.. REFERENCES 1. co-financed by the European Social Fund – Investing in People. Dash S. Performance of different geosynthetic reinforcement materials in sand foundations. STAS 3300/2-85 . 22.. NP 112-2004 – Standard for the design of structures with direct foundation. 9. 4. 2004. Comparative life cycle assessment of geosynthetics versus conventional construction materials. 2000. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 25: 23–32. 10. Keyghobadi M. 12. Lavasan A. P100-2006 .M. CONSTRUCŢII – No.. a study of behalf of the soil retaining wall. 2010. 5:109-113.. Interference effect of shallow foundations constructed on sand reinforced with geosynthetics. et al. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Axinte R.. Editura Junimea. I. Studii asupra folosirii pământului armat în lucrări de construcţii. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 26: 404–415. 2008.5/S/77265.. Iaşi 2010. 2012. Boushehrian A. Presentation catalog. Numerical modeling of bearing capacitz of a strip foundation on geogrid reinforced sand.S.. EUROGEO 5 Conference. 2009.. EUROGEO 5 Conference. 5:218-222. Alamshahi S. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was partially supported by the strategic grant POSDRU 107/1.. Moghaddas Tafreshi S. 16. Boţi N. in the framework of the POSDRU Romania Programme 2007-2013. Iaşi.. 21.Calculation of foundation soil in case of direct foundation. 5:395-402..R. Effect of reinforcement type on the settlement of a strip footing under static loads. Second European Geosynthetics Conference 1:3-23. 2008. 3. et al.. Murthy V. The behaviour of geosynthetic reinforced soil systems in various geotechnical applications. 5:599-603. Model studies on geogrid – or geocell-reinforced sand cushion on soft soil. 2006. Ghazavi M. 2012. 26. Et al. Research of the clay soil reinforced bases work. 2012. Dawson A. 2012. Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering 381-390. 8. 17. 5:317-321.. Hataf N. McGOWN A. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 26 :231– 238. EUROGEO 5 Conference. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 24. Vito A. K.R. et al. 20. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 27 :217–226. Mahboubi A. 18. L. Probleme speciale de geotehnică şi fundaţii. Geosynthetics Inter-national 11(1):3542. EUROGEO 5 Conference. Michalowski R. 7. 23(4): 435-440.R. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 28 :570–578. Kavazanjian E. 2007.. et al. Huabao Zhou. 19. Latha G. Neven M.Seismic design code for buildings. Xuejun Wen. Geogrid-soil interface characteristics in large scale direct shear tests. Seismic Response of a Composite Landfill Cover.. 2012. Zhang L.

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