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g25967bf0a_2956 The Great Depression ● Economic Crisis in America ● Stock market crash October 1929 ○ Bank Closures ○ Excess supply & not enough demand ○ Buying stocks on margin ● Federal Reserve let money fall by 1/3 ○ Caused a deflation Herbert Hoover ● 31st President (1929 - 1933) ● Supported big businesses policies of buying stocks with no margin ● Practiced Laissez Faire ● Republican ● Didn't believe in government relief ● Liberal ● President during the stock market crash of 1929 which triggered the start of the Great Depression. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) ● 32nd President (1933-1945) ● Only president to serve more than 2 terms (served 4 terms) ● Used radio for popularity with the people (Fireside Chats) ● Started “Fireside Chats”, helped people relate to him ● Created the New Deal in 1933 ● He had Polio (refused to take pictures in his wheelchair) ● democrat New Deal ● Work stimulus program created to bring America out of economic crisis ● Programs ○ Works Progress Administration ○ Civilian Conservation Court ○ the National Recovery Administration ○ Social Security ○ Glass-Steagall Act - regulate inner bank control ■ FDIC - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ● Pros ○ Jobs were created ○ Infrastructure of America was improved ○ Stock markets were regulated

○ Cons ○ ○ ○

Deposits were insured Increase of Taxes Government Spending New Deal programs were found unconstitutional

Fascism ● First founded during WW2 ● Mussolini founded it ● Organizing Government rules by a dictator, who controls the lives of people without giving them any choice. ● Hitler used it ● Ideology of radical totalitarianism Weimar Republic ● The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 ● Named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after Germany's defeat in World War I ● Federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy est. in 1919 to replace the imperial form of govt. Adolf Hitler ● Wrote an autobiographical manifesto titled “Mein Kampf” ● April 20, 1889 - April 30, 1945 ● His ideologies started WWII ● German dictator and leader of the Nazi Party ● Frustrated artist and architect in love with classical ideals Benito Mussolini ● Prime minister/dictator of Italy from 1922-1945 ● Italian politician, journalist and leader of National Fascist party ● Sought to create new roman empire ● Symbol was the Fasces Albert Speer ● Hitler's chief architect after the death of Paul Ludwig Troost ● Minister of Armaments and War Production. ● Zeppelinfeld, Munich 1937 ● Roman symbols- the eagle, giant austere frightening forms, power and control ● National symbol the Swastika ● The Thingplatz ● The Matyrion ● The Concentration Camp

Ernst May ● 1886 - 1970 ● German architect and city planner ● Zig-zag houses ● Egalitarian, clean design, decentralized, high quality Walter Gropius ● 1883 – 1969 ● German architect ● founder of the Bauhaus School ● Single cell apartments dedicated to artist/designers ● Egalitarian/Modern/cheap Fritz Lang ● 1890 – 1976 ● Austrian-born U.S. film director ● His career flourished in the 1920s, but in 1934, he fled the Nazi regime and came to the United States. ● Sci-Fi Film Metropolis ● Commentary on the dangers of new industrial society Greek Revival ● A style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ● An architecture movement that was influenced by classical Greek architecture predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States ○ Example: Bank of Pennsylvania, the first U.S. Ionic order building. Art Deco ● Artistic style present in Paris (American is modernistic style) ● Angular/nontraditional forms; Stepped pyramids; influenced by Picasso, cubism, & King Tut’s tomb in Egypt ● Ex: Preiss clock Leo Baekeland ● Creator of Bakelite (basically plastic) ● revolutionized modern day materials and living Both- And- style ● Developed in NY during the 1910s, this was a style that combined the desired artistic form with a more traditional style ○ Example: Empire State building Beaux-Arts

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An influential school of fine arts in France that educated the most talented students in drawing, painting, sculpture, engraving, architecture, and other media; Neo-classical architectural style ○ Examples: Classical sculptures; horror vacui; elaborate and decadent; grand staircases Principles perpetuated by Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris Lasted over 250 years in France, the Louvre facade is Beaux-Arts Richard Morris Hunt was the 1st Beaux-Arts students to bring the styles to the US Classical sculptures, horror vacui, elaborated and decadent, had grand staircases

Depression Modern style ● Concentrated on simplistic, streamline, and clean design ● Was a response to Art Deco style ● It was in style for women to have curvy figures, round blond hair that looked like the sun, and round faces, e.g. Ginger Rogers, and Jean Harlow. ● 1930- 1939 Busby Berkeley ● 1895-1976 ● Dance director who was known for choreographing kaleidoscopic shots in dance numbers. ● Made "Roman Scandals" with Eddie Cantor in 1933 ● Developed his ideas by getting drunk and writing down his hallucinations ● Troop movement inspired Leni Riefenstahl for Triumph of the Will Marcello Piacentini ● 1881 - 1960 ● EUR (Esposizione Universale de Roma) ● Big, White, Intimidating, Scares the shit out of you Andrea Palladio ● Italian Renaissance architect greatly influenced early American architecture . ● Used the 5-part composition – central block w/connected dependencies. ● Built the Villa Rotonda, and was inspired by the Pantheon. ● Used the 3-part front that Jefferson used later in Monticello Thomas Jefferson ● Created one the nation's most comprehensive libraries. ● One of the foremost proponents of Neo-classicism in the U.S. ● 3rd U.S. President ● One of the founding fathers ● Wrote the Declaration of Independence ● Spoke 6 languages - french, italian, spanish, greek, latin, and english

♫ Eddie Cantor ♫ ● American Jewish comedian ● He was a highly successful entertainer on Broadway, in the new medium of radio, on records, and in film during the 1930s ● Performed in blackface ● Starred in Roman Scandals ● Was an important symbol of hope for many Americans during the depression Atrium / Pompeii House Atrium ● A large space with a rectangular opening through which the sky was visible, courtyard like ● Main central hall in a Roman House ● Typically contained impluvium: small rainwater pool Vestal Virgins ● 5th Century BC ● Only all female Priesthood in Rome ○ Kept sacred fire alive in the Temple of Vesta ● Girls chosen by the Pontifex Maximus ● Sentenced to Death if no longer Virgins Trajan ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Officially declared by the senate as optimus princeps: “the best ruler” Commander of the troops in Upper Germany Lived 53-117AD Ruled 98-117 AD Rome entered the Golden Age during his Reign Adopted by a Roman Senator who was choice for Emperor ○ Commander of the troops in Upper Germany Built Trajan forum

Apollodorus of Damascus ● Trajan’s Architect ● Credited with the design of Trajan’s Forum and Trajan’s Baths ● Major contributor to a new era of Architecture ● Exiled by Hadrian in 129 AD and eventually executed Pantheon ● Built between 118 AD and 125 AD ● A temple built by Hadrian dedicated to all the gods ● Consisted of 3 parts: ○ a porch with columns, ○ a intermediary block,

a Rotunda

Why was Franklin Delano Roosevelt important to America in the 1930s? ● “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself” FDR ● Created new deal, which made new jobs for many Americans, regulated many businesses, encouraged Unions. ● Started a old age pension policy called “social security” ● Using Fireside Chats he was able to connect with the people and communicate during the harsh period, everyone was scared of what might be next, FDR explained his progress and plans, building people’s trust back in the government ● Some people hated him for helping some people liked him ● Remember, the essay question is based around this question! :) Based on your reading, what caused the Great Depression in America in the 1930s? ● Stock Market Crash of 1929 ○ it was one of the major causes that led to the Great Depression. ○ stockholders had lost more than $40 billion dollars. ● Bank Failures ○ Throughout the 1930s over 9,000 banks failed. ○ Bank deposits were uninsured and thus as banks failed people simply lost their savings. ● Reduction in Purchasing Across the Board ○ Individuals from all classes stopped purchasing items. ○ As people lost their jobs, they were unable to keep up with paying for items they had bought through installment plans and their items were repossessed. ○ The unemployment rate rose above 25% ● American Economic Policy with Europe ○ The Smoot-Hawley Tariff in 1930 to help protect American companies. ○ This charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation. ● Drought Conditions ○ The drought that occurred in the Mississippi Valley in 1930 was of such proportions that many could not even pay their taxes or other debts and had to sell their farms for no profit to themselves. ○ The area was nicknamed "The Dust Bowl” ● Drop in prices of gold, America’s primary basis for currency The Bank Crisis and Bank Holidays ● From March 6 to March 10 1933, banking transactions were suspended across the nation except for making change. ● Bank Crisis When faith in banking institutions falls, and people start trying to move their money to other places for safe keeping.

FDR took quick action to attack the Depression, declaring a four-day bank holiday, during which Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act to stabilize the banking system.

Problems w/ gold The Glass-Steagall Act ● From the final exam study guide: “Glass-Steagall is particularly important since it is constantly in the news , today and was the focus of one lecture as well. If you don't include Glass-Steagall in your essay somewhere and show some understanding of it you may lose points.” ● An act the U.S. Congress passed in 1933 as the Banking Act, which prohibited commercial banks from participating in the investment banking business. ● Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ● Repealed in 1999, opening the door to scandals involving banks and stock investment companies Fireside Chats ● 1933 - 1944 ● A series of 30 evening radio talks given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his administration. ● In an attempt to give Americans a feeling of more pride and hope in their country during the Great Depression The FDIC ● Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ● Designed to provide basic support money from starving unemployed families and to help the countries deteriorating infrastructure of public works ● Insured the money people put into a bank up to $5000 ● Prevented people from losing all their savings if a bank failed

The SEC and JFK’s father, Joseph Patrick The NRA ● National Recovery Administration ● “We do our part!” ● Hugh Samuel Johnson was head of the NRA ● Logo featured the blue American Thunder bird with symbols from Greek and Roman mythology ○ Also adapted by Nazis Stimulus money for the poor/economy

The CCC/the AAA/the PWA ● The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) ○ 1933-1942 ○ Designed to provide basic support money for starving unemployed families and to help the country’s deteriorating infrastructure of public works ● The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) ○ 1933 ○ Restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus and therefore effectively raise the value of crops. ● The Public Works Administration (PWA) ○ 1933-1943 ○ Built large scale public works such as dams, hospitals, and schools. Goal was to provide employment and stabilizing purchasing power and to help revive the economy Panic in America Liberals vs. Conservatives Reb. Vs. Demo. The Good Neighbor Policy ● The policy's main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. Alf Landon ● He was best known for having been the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States, defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. African American problems/reactions ● Voted for FDR because his New Deal actions helped since a majority of them were part of the poor