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TURKEY

SUMMARY

Turkey is a country who is a bridge between Europe and East or Christian World and Muslims World. The Turks are a people who comes from Central Asia to Anatolia and ruling three continents once upon a time. And now, Turkey is the region’s rising power and peace envoy.

SHORT INFORMATION

LOCATION

Turkey is between Europe and Asia. Bordering the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

LOCATION

It is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest, Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to the southeast.

TURKEY AND ITS NEIGHBORS

FLAG AND MOTTO

The flag of Turkey is a red flag with a white crescent moon and a star in its center.1 The motto of Turkey is «Sovereignty belongs to the Nation without any restriction or condition»2

GENERAL

The Republic of Turkey was founded on October 29, 1923. Turkey is a democratic, secular and social state governed by rule of law.3 Turkey’s currency is the Turkish Lira (TL) and its value is determined by free market factors.4 The Turkish peninsula has been, for centuries, a center for commerce and trade. Turkey’s geographic location alone testifies to the leading role that this civilization has played in commercial transactions: Turkey is the only country that bridges 2 continents, Europe and Asia.

SUMMARY
Official Holidays Population: 75.6 Million5 1. Religious Official Language: Turkish6 1. Feast of Ramadan. (3 days) Administrative Type: Democratic 2. Feast of the Sacrifice.(4 days) 7 Republic 2. Other holidays 1. New Year's Day (January 1) Capital City: Ankara8 2. National Sovereignty & Children's Most Populated City: Istanbul Day (April 23) (14.1 Million) 3. Ataturk's Commemoration & Currency: Turkish Lira9 Youth and Sports Day (May 19) 4. Victory Day (August 30)

SUMMARY
Time difference: UTC+2 Daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Monday in March; ends last Sunday in October Working Days: From Monday to Friday Ethnic Groups: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)10 Life Expectancy: 7511 Voting age: 1812 Median Age: 29.2 years13 Religions: Secular Republic // Muslim 98% (mostly Sunni), Unaffiliated 1.2%, Christians 0.4% and Others 0.4%14 Urban population: 71.5% of total population (2011).15

POLITICAL STRUCTURE

POLITICAL STRUCTURE

• Politics of Turkey are exercised in frame of strictly secular parliamentary

representative democratic republic.
• Turkish political system is modeled with separation of powers. • Grand National Assembly of Turkey holds legislative power.16 • Judiciary is free of executive and legislature.17 • Turkey’s current constitution went into effect on November 7, 1982. But it is a military coup constitution and we want to change it.

EXECUTIVE BRANCH
• • • Duty of head of state is carried out by president.

President is elected every five years on basis of universal suffrage.

President is not required to be Member of Parliament, but he or she has to be over forty years of age and have completed higher education.18


• •

Current president Abdullah Gül was elected by Parliament on 28 August 2007.

President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers are in charge of executive power.19 Current PM is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose conservative Justice and Development Party gained majority of parliament seats in 2011 general election.

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH20
Legislative power is exercised in 550seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), with 81 provinces represented. • Its members are elected to term of four years through mitigated proportional representation with election. • Normally known simply as the Meclis (parliament). • Unicameral Turkish legislature. • Founded April 23, 1920 amid Turkish War of Independence. •

ECONOMY

GDP

GDP: 789.3 billion $21 GDP growth rate: from 2011 to 2012 averaged 2.2%22 GDP per capita: 10,666 $23

LABOR FORCE24

Labor Force: 28.6 million Employed: 25.8 million Unemployed: 2.8 million (9.9%) Agriculture: 23.6% Industry: 19.5% Construction: 6.7% Services: 50.3%

SOME PRICES

U.S. dollar rate: ₺2,0025 Euro rate: ₺2,8025 Petrol: €1,7426 Internet (6 Mbps): €19,6427 Domestic Beer (0.5 liter): €1,4327 Rent an Apartment: €285,6327 One-way Local Ticket: €0,7127

BANKNOTES28

COINS 28

INDUSTRY

Turkey has started to export automotive, electronics, aerospace, white goods, iron and steel, clothing, etc. products with several years' development. Turkey is not an agricultural country, has become an industrial country. Has become one of the few countries in the world's fastest growing economy.

TOURISM

In 2012, 30.4 Million people has visited Turkey29 and tourism receipts was 28 Billion $.30

CULTURE

TURKISH TEA (ÇAY)

The most traditional, and most often consumed beverage in Turkey, Çay is a staple upon which the Turkish societal system functions. Often used as an excuse for a meeting, as business, family, or a date, Çay can be an ice breaker, and serves as a great equalizer of men.

TURKISH TEA (ÇAY)

Turkish Tea - by Katharine Branning

TURKISH DELIGHT

It is a kind of candy and very famous in Turkey but contrary to candy it is very soft. Turkish people serve Turkish delight to their guests on religious holidays.

TURKISH COFFEE

Turkish coffee is very important in Turkish culture. It is generally drunk after breakfast. It is served in special tiny cups and it is very strong.

TURKISH MEAT RAVIOLI

It is called ‘Mantı’ in Turkey. It consists of many bundles with meats in it. It is served with garlic yoghurt sauce and tomato sauce on it. It is difficult but a very delicious meal.

TURKISH RAKI

It's similar to Greek ouzo and French pastis. When mixed with ice and/or water for drinking, it turns milky white. Because of its color and hefty alcoholic punch, Turks call it lion's milk.

AYRAN

Ayran is a cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt. Ayran is served chilled and often as an accompaniment to grilled meat or rice, especially in the summer months. It is thought that ayran was first developed thousands of years ago by the Göktürks.

TURKISH KEBAB

Lamb meat (generally) is grilled with Green pepper and tomato pieces on sticks. We eat Turkish Kebab with Turk’s traditional beverage ‘Ayran’.

BAKLAVA

It is a kind of dessert. We can say that it is our national dessert. It is very hard to make it. Our grandmothers make it well, we just know how to eat it :)

NASREDDIN HODJA
Perhaps the most popular figure in the tradition is Nasreddin who is the central character of thousands of jokes. He generally appears as a person who, though seeming somewhat stupid to those who must deal with him, actually proves to have a special wisdom all his own: One day, Nasreddin's neighbor asked him, "Teacher, do you have any forty-year-old vinegar?"—"Yes, I do," answered Nasreddin.—"Can I have some?" asked the neighbor. "I need some to make an ointment with." — "No, you can't have any," answered Nasreddin. "If I gave my forty-year-old vinegar to whoever wanted some, I wouldn't have had it for forty years, would I?"

KARAGÖZ AND HACIVAT

Another popular element of Turkish folklore is the shadow theater centered around the two characters of Karagöz and Hacivat, who both represent stock characters: Karagöz—who hails from a small village—is something of a country bumpkin, while Hacivat is a more sophisticated city-dweller. Popular legend has it that the two characters are actually based on two real persons who worked for Osman I,the founder of Ottoman Empire.

KISS HAND & TAKE MONEY :)

It is a common attitude in Turkey and also in Muslim countries. When we visit old people, we kiss their hands and put it onto our forehead. Especially on religious days, grandchildren visit their grandparents and kiss their hands, immediately after it grandparents give money to the grandchildren.

SEND TO MILITARY SERVICE

When we send off a family member or a friend to do his military service in Turkey, this farewell turns into a entertainment to encourage the soldier nominee.

HENNA NIGHT

The night before the wedding day, the women among the family and the friends of the bride meet with wearing traditional clothes and turn around the bride singing and dancing with henna in their hands. They sing sadly and wait the bride to cry as she is leaving her house and family. Some piece of henna is also put into each of the women’s palms in the meeting. It is called ‘Henna Night’ in our country.

NEIGHBORLINESS

Neighborliness is very important in Turkish culture and Islamic religion. There is some non-written rules about neighborliness rights in Turkish traditions and also in Islamic Laws.

FOLK-DANCE

Folk dance is our traditional dance and it can differ from region to region and also the clothes are different in every region.

WHIRLING DERVISHES
A Dervish or Darvesh is someone treading a Sufi Muslim ascetic path or "Tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity. In this respect, Dervishes are most similar to mendicant friars in Christianity or Hindu/Buddhist/Jain sadhus. The whirling dance of dervish or Sufi whirling that is proverbially associated with Dervishes is best known in the West by the practices (performances) of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, and is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama. It is, however, also practiced by other orders. The Sama is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reach religious ecstasy (majdhb, fana).

AGRICULTURE

UTILIZATION RATE OF THE SOIL

Utilization ratio of lands depends on the characteristics of climate and landscape. High mountainous areas covers a wide area in our country. There are many steep slopes. Utilization of the soil here is very limited.

UTILIZATION RATE OF THE SOIL31

36% planted area 32% meadows and pastures 26% forest 6% other areas (residential units, bare rocks that unsuitable for agriculture)

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT31

Grains (75.0% of the total)
• • • • 67.8% 25.3% 4.2% 2,7% Wheat Barley Corn Others

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT31

Pulses (8.5% of the total)
• • • • • 41.6% 29.2% 10.7% 16.5% 1.7% Chickpea Lentil Beans Vetch Others

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT31

Industrial Plants (7.2% of the total)
• • • • • • • 49.0% 24.5% 13.8% 7.7% 2.3% 1.7% 1% Cotton Sugar Beet Tobacco Poppy Cumin Anise Others

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT31

Oil Seeds (7.7% of the total)
• • • • • • 72.9% 13.3% 5.9% 3.7% 3.6% 0.6% Sunflower Poppy Sesame Soybean Peanuts Others

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT31

Tuber Crops (1.6% of the total)
• • • • 66.8% 28.1% 3.9% 1.2% Potato Onion Garlic Others

THANK YOU

Thank you for your attention.
Cihad Sevim Sakarya University, Turkey IPLeiria, Portugal
2013

facebook.com/cihad.sevim

Istanbul, Turkey
cihadsevim@gmail.com cihadsevim