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CHEESE MAKING

Introduction

There are hundreds of different types of cheese, but each is made using similar principles of coagulating the proteins in milk to form curds, and then separating the curds from the liquid whey. The coagulation of milk proteins can be done as follows: • Using rennet (or ‘chymosin ! " an en#yme e$tracted from cal%es stomachs that coagulates the proteins in milk. &ennet produced by micro"organisms is a%ailable for %egetarian cheeses. • 'ermenting to form lactic acid. • (dding acid (e.g. lemon )uice, lime )uice or %inegar!. • *oiling or • Using plant e$tracts (e.g. papaya sap (papain en#yme!, fig bark (ficin en#yme!, stems of *ryophylum species or lea%es of +alotropis procera. The

or they may be smoked.3 months. ‘semi"hard and ‘hard cheeses (Table . They are made using lactic acid bacteria (see Technical *rief: -oured milk and yoghurt! or an acid.!. Training in production should then be obtained from an e$perienced cheese"maker. and the fla%our gradually changes from a mellow creamy taste after 3"4 months.: Te tu re -oft. more bitter fla%our of %intage cheese after more than . creamy cheeses and include curd cheese. +heese is preser%ed by a number of different mechanisms: the raw milk is pasteurised to destroy most en#ymes and contaminating bacteria5 fermentation by lactic acid bacteria increases the acidity which inhibits growth of food poisoning and spoilage bacteria5 the moisture content is reduced and salt is added. They ha%e a shelf life of around . -oft cheeses are easier to make than hard cheeses and are traditional foods that are popular in many countries. 0ard cheeses (e. days when refrigerated. rosemary or sage. These cheeses are soft. or / days if co%ered with brine and refrigerated.3 months. moist. crumbly.g.different cheese fla%ours and te$tures arise from %ariations in the type of milk. sometimes She!f !ife ( few days ( few months <ne year or more Table . which is intended to be read alongside this Technical *rief!. a mildly acidic taste and a characteristic fla%our1aroma. and then to a strong./"7/ . +heddar cheese for e$ample. chilli pepper.ery firm. 2t is recommended that market research be undertaken to find which types of cheese are popular before contemplating production. dense. and small"curd cottage cheese. can be sliced ./ 9 . to a tangy fla%our of mature cheese after 4" . is a firm solid compressed curd that has a pale yellow colour. and %ariations in the processing conditions. because the demand for hard cheeses may be more limited in some countries and a careful market analysis is needed before starting their production. 2t is matured for different periods of time. such as lemon or lime )uice or %inegar. spreadable 'irm. Type of cheese -oft cheeses -emi"hard cheeses 0ard cheeses Moistur e content (%)7/"8/ . a te$ture that %aries from rubbery to flaky. Those made from buffalo milk are white and those made from cows milk are pale creamy yellow. the amount of fat in the milk. including caraway seed. paneer. garlic. ‘+heddar cheese! and large"curd cottage cheese are produced using lactic acid bacteria and rennet. 0ard cheese requires greater in%estment in equipment and greater skill to produce than soft cheeses.:"7: Fat content ( 9 7: 9 . bacteria that are used to ferment the milk. +heeses may be broadly grouped into ‘soft . white.: Types of cheeses ((dapted from 6airy -cience and Technology =ducation! . 0ard cheeses may also be made with a %ariety of fla%ourings. both of which inhibit bacterial contamination (see also Technical *rief: 6airy processing " an o%er%iew.

allow the liquid to drain from the curds. or fed to animals!. The curd may be heated up to /3 + to inacti%ate the bacteria and pre%ent further acid de%elopment. 2n many countries. (llow the curds to sink to the bottom of the pan and pour off the whey (whey may be used as a drink.. *oth methods coagulate milk to create pieces of semi"solid curd.. ?asteurise the skimmed milk (see Technical *rief: ?asteurised milk!. " . 0eat cow or buffalo milk to boiling and then reduce the heat to simmering for / minutes. 2t is then cooled. @ashing the curd before salting also reduces the acidity. B. S#a!!$curd cotta"e cheese This cheese can be made with either whole milk. o Curd cheese or paneer ./A by weight! into the simmering milk. paneer. 2t is pressed into blocks and stored in brine until it is sold. +ut the curds to release any e$tra liquid and lea%e it until a solid curd is formed. 7.. traditionally produced soft cheeses ha%e a sour taste and pronounced fla%our. skimmed milk or with added cream. made into whey cheese.+heese >aking Methods of processin" ?ractical (ction Soft cheeses (e. and cream cheese! (cid is produced by lactic acid bacteria but some soft cheese may also be produced by adding acid. @hen the curds ha%e formed a large mass.. ?lace the curds into a mesh sie%e or colander and. 8.: minutes until completely coagulated. +ontinue to stir as the milk starts to separate into curds while adding more lime1lemon )uice. They are made using fermented buttermilk (see Technical *rief: *utter and ghee!. -lowly pour lime )uice or lemon )uice (at . . stop stirring and remo%e the pan from the heat.g. The method of production for skimmed milk cottage cheese is: . and the whey is drained to lea%e the cheese. stirring it slowly using a slotted spoon. cottage cheese. . which is heated gently for about . 3. 6epending on the fat content of the milk (see Technical *rief: *utter and ghee! . 3. without pressing. (dding cream increases its smoothness and impro%es its fla%our and te$ture.. /. The method below describes production of curd cheese (paneer!. litre of milk produces about 3/: g of curd cheese1paneer. ?repare skimmed milk using a cream separator (see Technical *rief: *utter and ghee!. ?repare the starter by adding a culture of lactic acid bacteria 3 .

6o not stir the milk and allow it to stand at 3: " 3/ o+ for .B"37 hours. E. using a knife or a curd cutter ('ig.+heese >aking Methods of processin" ?ractical (ction 7.: minutes. /. or until the pieces are firm and do not break easily when squee#ed. 8.A of the weight of the batch of milk! and co%er the container with a clean cloth. increase the heat and stir it more frequently until the temperature reaches 7/"7Bo+ (within .!! with the )acket filled with hot water.. ?our pasteurised milk at about 3:o+ into a stainless steel )acketed cheese %at ('ig./ cm pieces..:"7: minutes (a temperature increase of about :. e%ery 7 or / minutes. . 3!. (dd starter culture (3". . heat it to /:o+. 2f necessary. 2f the curd doesnFt become firm enough at this temperature.B"37 hours. 0eat the water in the )acketed container to heat the curd slowly to 7: o+ within .. Dently pull the curd away from the container side. it is ready to be cut. @hen curds form.:" ./o per minute!. @hen the curd and whey reach 7:o+. 2f it breaks quickly and smoothly. B.: minutes to drain the whey and allow the curd to become more firm.3. 3 . . stir the curd gently with a large spoon for about a minute at a time. 0old at this temperature for 3:". or until curds form. control the temperature of water in the outer container to maintain the temperature at 3: o " 3/ +.. ./ minutes!. 6uring heating. +ut the curd in each direction to form appro$imately :.:. (either liquid or powder! to a one litre sample of milk and incubate it at 3:"3/o+ for . . insert a knife or spatula into the curd. This allows the curd to heat uniformly and pre%ents curd particles from sticking together. 4. Ceep refrigerated. (llow it to stand for .

. . . mi$ in either sweet or sour cream according to taste. drain most of the whey and pour the remaining curd onto fine cheesecloth on a mesh screen or a colander and drain the whey for 3". ?ack the curd in pots and store in a refrigerator. .+heese >aking ?ractical (ction ."/ minutes in ice water. minutes (not longer or curd particles will stick together in large clumps!. 'or creamed curd.: +heese %at. cool water and then for . 'igure . 'or salted curd.7.4. @ash and cool the curd by immersing the cheesecloth and curd in a pan of clean. 6rain the curd using a mesh sie%e or colander.B.8. ?hoto: +ourtesy of Cleen"'lo -mall -cale 6airy =quipment. @hen the curd has firmed sufficiently. . . mi$ salt into the curd according to taste./.

6rain the curds through cheesecloth on a mesh sie%e for 3: minutes. 2nsert a knife into the curd.: minutes. 8. 'inally. o >i$ in salt to taste and refrigerate at 7"B +. tablet.7. drain most of the whey and pour the remaining curd onto fine cheesecloth on a mesh screen or a colander and drain the whey for 3". B. 2t is then used to make %ertical cuts across the %at. 3. the firmer will be the curd.ertical or hori#ontal curd cutters may be either motorised and fitted to a cheese %at or manual cutters as shown in 'igure 3. 4. +hill and harden the curds in the cheesecloth in ice cold water for / minutes. cm cubes using curd cutters./". >i$ rennet in water (. Cotta"e cheese >ilk is coagulated by adding either a lactic acid starter culture or li%e yoghurt (see Technical *rief: -oured milk and yoghurt!.4o+ for ./ teaspoons of powder or 3: " . /. .+heese >aking ?ractical (ction . 2f the curd cuts cleanly. @hen the curd has firmed sufficiently.:: litres of milk! and add to the milk. 'igure 3: +urd cutters. . otherwise wait longer.: ml liquid per . The higher the temperature. -tir occasionally to separate the curds. >i$ for / minutes. Get it stand for . ?hoto: +ourtesy of Dlengarry +heesemaking and 6airy -upply Gtd. +ooking shrinks the curds and they settle to the bottom of the pan. 3. . 7. (llow the milk to stand for about .. the hori#ontal cutter is used to cut the curd in one direction to cut the curd into cubes. . The %ertical cutter is first pulled through the cheese %at to cut the curd in one direction. These are stainless steel frames strung with thin wires or blades. +ut the curd into . @arm chilled pasteurised milk to 3: + and stir in the starter culture or li%e yoghurt.: hours at 3:o+ or until the curd has formed. it is ready to be cut. and rennet using the following method: o ../ minutes and then heat it slowly to .

+heese >aking ?ractical (ction . +olby. ?roduction is by rennet coagulation. . Typically. . >ontasio.7. 0igher temperatures during cooking or washing cause the curd to contract and e$pel more moisture. and lactic acid production is restricted. Se#i$hard cheeses This is a large group of cheeses and includes =dam. and >uenster. @hen the curd has firmed sufficiently. The amount of moisture remo%ed from the curd depends on the temperature and time of cooking and by the wash water temperature. drain most of the whey and pour the remaining curd onto fine cheesecloth on a mesh screen or a colander and drain the whey for 3". Douda. these cheeses are matured for between 3 weeks and E months.

B months. H+ for ./: cm thick and turn them e%ery . 3". using curd cutters ('ig. cm! using kni%es. >i$ -alt (dd salt (appro$ 3A of weight of 7 . -wiss. 2ncubate (llow milk to stand for . 3!. 2noculate ?lace in a stainless steel cheese %at and add 3A starter culture for faster acid -tart production (less for a slower fermentation!.o+ each 8. ?armesan. The cheeses are ripened for . +heddar.:H+.+heese >aking Hard cheeses ?ractical (ction 0ard cheeses (e. &omano! ha%e lower moisture contents than other types. The following process is used to make +heddar cheese: %rocess &aw >ilk ?asteurise Notes 0eat to B. +ut curd into 4 mm cubes.g.4o+.". er cultur e >i$ &ennet >i$ rennet (.: minutes for curd to become firm. -tand -tand for /"./ minutes up to . +ut +ut curd into blocks . 3. +heddar types are salted before pressing. 0eat -lowly increase the temperature by . produced by higher temperature cooking or by controlled fermentation and curd handling./" 3: minutes. +ool +ool with stirring to 3/" .:: litres of milk! and add to the milk.: minutes until it sets to a firm curd./ teaspoons of powder or 3: " . +ut +heck the curd with a spatula to determine if it is firm enough to cut. -tir16rain -tir and drain until the whey is remo%ed. ?asta 'ilata types are worked and stretched in hot water and salted using brine.: ml liquid per .: minutes (see Technical *rief: ?asteurised milk!. +ut +ut blocks into large pieces (e.g. tablet.

: minutes and apply more pressure. &omano! ha%e lower moisture contents than curd! and mi$ into the curd pieces. 'ill 'ill the required amount of curd into a cheesecloth (which has been boiled for . trim and pack in cheese cloth. 7!. allow to stand for .g. ?armesan.3 months.+heese >aking Hard cheeses ?ractical (ction 0ard cheeses (e. inspect./ +. 7 . 'igure . turning the cheese periodically. ?ress for 4 hours (usually o%ernight! ?ack -tore1ripen &emo%e cheese from press. and place in the cylinder of a cheese press ('ig. with a high air humidity (abo%e 4/A! and mature for . 'igure 7: +heese press ?hoto: +ourtesy of Gehman s. ?ress (pply pressure gently. +heddar."./ minutes or sterilised in dilute bleach!.: ?roduction of +heddar cheese. o -tore at temperature below . -wiss.

including the design and operation of the processing facilities. This in%ol%es control of factors in the process that affect the quality or safety of the product. the design of a dairy and the use of correct cleaning procedures. good quality and free from dirt and e$cessi%e contamination by bacteria. )a* #ateria! contro! The milk used for cheese production should be fresh. These are known as ‘control points and are the points at which checks and measurements should be made. <lder milk may impart an unpleasant fla%our to the final product.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction &ua!ity assurance The quality of milk and the processing conditions that are used for making cheese should be standardised so that consistent quality products are made each time. A(oidin" spoi!a"e Unclean equipment. Hy"iene Technical *rief: 6airy processing " an o%er%iew gi%es details of hygiene and sanitation. poor hygiene of production staff. The temperature and time of heating milk should be monitored and controlled to ensure that it is not o%er" or under" heated. and correct cleaning and maintenance procedures. and incorrect processing and storage conditions will each cause spoilage of cheeses. and incorrect processing conditions. contaminated milk. Starter cu!tures 10 . HACC%' The specific potential ha#ards in making cheeses are food poisoning bacteria from the raw milk. the temperature and time of incubation should be monitored and controlled to ensure that the fermentation takes place correctly. (ll equipment should be thoroughly cleaned after use and checked before production starts again. Technical *rief: 6airy processing " an o%er%iew gi%es details of the methods needed to ensure that good quality milk is used. staff training in hygiene and production methods. 0ygiene requirements are also described in Technical *rief: 0ygiene and safety rules in food processing. 2n fermented cheese production. glass etc. poor hygiene and sanitation during processing. <ther ha#ards that are common to all types of food processing (including contamination of foods by insects.! are pre%ented by correct quality assurance.

o o 8/ + I1" 3 + for . pro%ided that good hygiene is practised. %rocess contro! ( process control schedule should be prepared for each product. incubation time and temperature +heck amount and acti%ity of rennet. compress curds 2n cheesecloth >ature the cheese +heck time and temperature. air humidity is abo%e 4:A and time ?ack1Gabel 2n greaseproof paper or plastic film. (ttach label or print on the wrapper -tore 0old at 7"4o+ in a refrigerator +heck that correct label is used. minute!. +heck amount of starter. This method can be continued for se%eral months. that they are correctly positioned.g. is an e$ample of a process control schedule for +heddar cheese production. 0a#ard (nalysis +ritical +ontrol ?oint 0eat 'irm the curd +ut1drain -alting ?ress ?ack &ipen &emo%e whey (dd salt &emo%e whey. ?roduce lactic acid ?rocess control points +heck temperature and time (e. Sta"e in procesmilk ?asteurise 2noculate starter Acti(i ty 0eat to destroy micro" organisms and en#ymes. and show the correct batch number and use"by or best" before date (depending on the type of product " check legislation at the *ureau of -tandards!. Table . acti%ity of lactic acid bacteria. +heck refrigerator temperature is o o B + I1" 3 + 11 . degree of mi$ing +heck time of pressing. The dried culture is grown in pasteurised milk (see Technical *rief: ?asteurised milk! and then kept in a refrigerator. amount of pressure +heck the weight of the cheese +heck temperature is 9.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction 2n some types of cheese making. rate of temperature increase (see te$t for details! +heck si#e of curd pieces.A of the weight of the batch of milk! is then used each day for a week. but e%entually undesirable bacteria will contaminate the culture and it must be replaced. the correct amount of starter culture and the correct proportions of the two lactic acid bacteria are both important to produce good quality product. " . +ommercially produced dried mi$ed cultures of (-treptococcus thermophilus and Gactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus! can be obtained from many large towns1cities or from suppliers elsewhere./o+. time for draining +heck amount of salt. incubation time and temperature (dd rennet +oagulation of milk proteins . ( part of this ‘master culture (between . The last part is inoculated into pasteurised milk to form a new master culture.

+heese >aking ?ractical (ction Table 3: ?rocess control points in +heddar cheese production The following control points affect the safety and quality (fla%our and te$ture! of hard cheese: • The temperature and time of heating and cooling the milk. wet curd is due to too much moisture in the cheese. The taste and te$ture are both determined by the amount of lactic acid produced during the fermentation and this in turn depends on the amount of inoculum added to the milk and the temperature1time of incubation. which affect the fla%our and te$ture. taste and te$ture. • (dequate cutting and draining of the curd to remo%e most of the whey. 12 . or that the milk was not properly pasteurised. • +orrect time and temperature of cooking the curd to firm it sufficiently. • +orrect amount of salt added. dry curd results from insufficient acid de%elopment in the curd before it is cut. <%er"heating and slow cooling causes changes to fla%our. the de%elopment of too much acid during the fermentation. or too much whey retained in the curd. • +orrect time and pressure during pressing the curd to gi%e the required te$ture in the final product. cutting the curd too finely. • +orrect amount of rennet and starter culture added. 2f the temperature is too high the bacteria and rennet will be inacti%ated. or holding the curd for too long after cooking. • 2ncubation temperature to allow rapid production of lactic acid by the inoculated bacteria. • Tough. which affects the firmness of the curd. %roduct contro! The main quality factors for cheese are the colour. if it is too low there may be insufficient acid production. • +orrect time of ripening and ripening conditions. The colour is determined mostly by the amount of heating during processing and the fat content of the milk. • Jeasty or sweet fla%ours indicate that yeasts. • -oft. colour and nutritional %alue5 under"heating may result in inadequate destruction of en#ymes and micro"organisms leading to spoilage or food poisoning. heating the curd at too high or too low a temperature. moulds or bacteria were introduced into the cheese by unclean utensils or a contaminated starter culture. heating to a temperature that is too high. &easons for imperfect cheeses: • -our acid fla%our is due to too much lactic acid produced by the fermentation.

( muslin or cheese cloth bag is placed in the mould and curd is poured in.. ( study of the market demand is recommended before starting hard cheese production. Su##ary +heeses are medium"risk dairy products that can be made successfully at a small scale.. Tel: I. The bag is closed and the press plate is lowered into the mould. +heese %at ('ig. ="mail on website at 13 Thermometer (:".: cm diameter plastic drainpipe cut into . kg I1" .: Gangeais./:. which is raised and lowered by a screw..!. /.uip#ent supp!iers +heese moulds • -er%i 6oryl. >anual cheese presses ha%e a press plate.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction %ac+a"in" and stora"e contro! 'or a shelf life of a few weeks. (:!3 78EB .8.. 'rance. 'a$: I. . -kill and e$pertise is required to make hard cheeses. :". (:!3 78 EB . . K2 -ud " *? /8 " . 3! 0eat sealer o • • • • • • • -cales.! +ooler1refrigerator +urd cutters ('ig. E.:: g for milk Materia!s • Gactic acid bacteria starter culture and rennet tablets1liquid are likely to be a%ailable locally from pharmacies in large towns or from dairy suppliers. :"3/ kg I1" .. They are fitted with a plastic or wooden disc for the base section. 2n a refrigerator the product may be wrapped in ‘clingfilm or sealed in a polythene bag using a heat sealer.:: +! . g for weighing ingredients. +heese press ('ig.: cm"3/ cm lengths and ha%ing holes drilled to allow drainage of whey.uip#ent • +heese moulds.. E. -imple cheese moulds can be made from a . +urd cheeses may be more popular in many countries than hard cheeses and they are easier to make at a small scale and require a lower capital in%estment. there may also be a delay in recei%ing income while the cheese matures. cheese does not require sophisticated packaging pro%ided that the temperature is kept relati%ely low and the cheese is not allowed to dry out.

="mail: infoMlehmans.kleenflo. or B..on.infoMfinestkind..us1inde$.com1english1frameset Laccueil. @ebsite: www.htm • Gehman s.<. Cidron. I. Tel: I. Tel: I. /E3B 0wyO. butter P yoghurt making ingredients P equipment • 'inest Cind. *o$ 7.B":E:.co. ="mail: infoMlehmans.lehmans.B8. 444 7..3E3.. 2N 78.us. . U-(. =">ail: infoMglengarrycheesemaking. ?.com.<.B.ca <ther cheese. +anada.4: .co. Cidron.:: = Gynn. &&O.. Tel: I.B3. *o$ 7.html +urd cutters • Dlengarry +heesemaking and 6airy -upply Gtd. @ebsite: http:11www.78 . . <ntario. U-(. ="mail: infoMkleenflo. 488 7.7. 444 7.. Tel: .B.html 14 .<.#a..ca.com +heese %ats • Cleen"'lo -mall -cale 6airy =quipment. @ebsite: http:11www.7.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction www.7B. ?lettenberg *ay BB::.#a1equipment. 8B/"487".7B..7B.4 /.com. @ebsite: www.:. ?.com +heese presses • Gehman s. <hio 77B.78 . 'a$: ..4 /.on. . <hio 77B. = mail.. ?. *o$ . @ebsite: www. B.//... I..finestkind. 488 7.4 /. -outh (frica.lehmans.4 /. .ser%idoryl."444"4. U-(.7B. Tel: I38 (:! 77 /. Gancaster.glengarrycheesemaking.

• +heese >aking >ade =asy.ermont..="mail: 2G&2"CenyaMcgiar. U-(. .<.org. *. ?.. . @ 2. 'a$:3/7"3 B.. Nairobi. ?. • (gromisa 'oundation.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction )eferences and further readin" )eferences • 6airy -cience and Technology =ducation. www.agromisa. *o$ /B4E.wisc. '. www. and +arroll... +arroll.edu 6airy P >eat <fficer (2nstitutional -upport P Training!. 'ood and (gricultural <rgani#ation ('(<!.. @ebsite: http:11www.org1 2nternational Gi%estock &esearch 2nstitute 2G&2"Cenya. *rooktondale.rd =dition. and >istry. Cosikowski.ca1dairyedu1home. +anada. *o$ 7.. >adison.org +entre 'or 6airy &esearch. Uni%ersity of Duelph. Tel: 3/7"3 B. @ebsite: www.E43. .html • Technical *rief: *utter and ghee • Technical *rief: 6airy ?rocessing " an o%er%iew • Technical *rief: 0ygiene and safety rules in food processing • Technical *rief: ?asteurised milk • Technical *rief: -oured milk and yoghurt Further readin" • (pplications of *iotechnology to Traditional 'ermented 'oods. and ($tell.. . 2T ?ublications.. • +heese and 'ermented >ilk 'oods.:8:E. The Netherlands. ?. &.<.EE. '. &. NJ. (ddis (baba.org1ilri1 2nternational Gi%estock &esearch 2nstitute (2G&2! =thiopia. *o$ .. B8:: (( @ageningen.foodsci. ?. Doff.EE8. -torey +ommunications 2nc. • (ppropriate 'ood ?ackaging.:87. .. National (cademic ?ress... www..<. • • • • 15 .7EE. . Cenya.cdr.EE3. @ashington 6+.cgiar.fao. . 'ellows... &ome.uoguelph. ?onnal. 6. U-(. Cosikowski and (ssociates.. 2taly. (nimal ?roduction P 0ealth 6i%ision.

<.:/ -outhampton &ow. 2talian +heese . UC.. ?. New Jork. 2taly. *o$ 7.uc. 'ankhauser. . a%ailable at http:11biology. NJ. 2T ?ublications.. +heese.. . &obinson.. . .D.. (ppropriate Technology. New Jork . (pplied -cience. *o$ /B4E.olpato. Gactic -tarter +ulture Technology."./ =ast 73nd. ?ubl..8. New Jork. New Jork. *. +o. 3..(. *o$ .. ?. 'ood and (gricultural <rgani#ation ('(<!.arieties. New Jork. . D. +heese >aking 2llustrated... and .org +entre 'or 6airy &esearch.org.. .edu 6airy P >eat <fficer (2nstitutional -upport P Training!. (. 6a%is.:87. Gondon. . (merican +heese . Nairobi.edu1fankhauser1+heese1+heeseL/Lgallons1+0==-=L/galL::.*. . (merican =lse%ier ?ubl. /. &. Gondon.::.org1ilri1 2nternational Gi%estock &esearch 2nstitute (2G&2! =thiopia. Cenya.clc.agromisa.ol.="mail: 2G&2"CenyaMcgiar. 6airy ?rocessing " 'ood +ycle Technology -ourcebook. and ($tell. (nimal ?roduction P 0ealth 6i%ision.fao.rd =dition. ?iccinardi. . Q.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction • • • • • +heese >aking ?ractice. (ppropriate Technology. Uni%ersity of +incinnati +lermont +ollege.arieties..(.EE4. . (guhob. from ?fi#er and +ompany. B8:: (( @ageningen.E4. -cott.. www. @ 2.. &. -treet. +heese >onographs. >arch. 2nc.wisc.. The Netherlands.:. • • • • 16 . B. • • • • (gromisa 'oundation.<.cdr.htm +heesemaking in the (ndes.:.<. 6e%eloping +heese +o"operati%es. -wiss +heese .. Gtd. *otta##i. 3:.C. &... .EEB.EB/.EE7. 'acts on 'ile ?ublications.:8:E. *. *attistotti. @ebsite: www. ?.. +ottage +heese and <ther +ultured >ilk ?roducts. +.cgiar. *ata%ia <0 7/. Tel: 3/7"3 B. 3E. ?fi#er and +o. and @ilbey.org1 2nternational Gi%estock &esearch 2nstitute 2G&2"Cenya.. No 7.. 3.G. 'a$:3/7"3 B. 7. &ipened -emi" soft +heeses. 6.7EE. www.ol. @ebsite: http:11www. +heese: ( guide to the world of cheese and cheese making.arieties.. . &ome. >adison. (ddis (baba.

. 6ubach.="mail: 2G&2"CenyaMcgiar.. Tel: 3/7"3 B.6epartment of (griculture.msu. T.htm >aking cottage cheese at home. Support or"anisations • (gromisa 'oundation.<..org1ilri1 2nternational Gi%estock &esearch 2nstitute (2G&2! =thiopia.E4E. Uni%ersity of Duelph.org1 2nternational Gi%estock &esearch 2nstitute 2G&2"Cenya. ..7EE. www.org.:8:E.3EL88. -C(T12T ?ublishers. *o$ . @ebsite: http:11www.ca1cheese1sectiona. U . ?repared by (gricultural &esearch -er%ice. UC. 2T ?ublications.pdf -mall -cale 'ood ?rocessing R a directory of equipment and methods. >asui.. ?.<. 2taly. Q.cgiar. (nimal ?roduction P 0ealth 6i%ision.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction • • • • • • No . >. 6C ?ublishing. ?. Nairobi./: cheeses from e%ery region of 'rance. 0ome and Darden *ulletin.!. 'a$:3/7"3 B. -.wisc.13 page article about dairy farmers in =cuador! 'rench +heeses: The %isual guide to more than . Gondon. B8:: (( @ageningen. • • • • 17 . New Jork.:87. +anada. . 3nd =dition ('ellows.foodsci. @ 2.. ?. a%ailable at www. Gaw.. ?.EBB. >adison. www.. &ome. C.org +entre 'or 6airy &esearch. >arch 3::3 (. Qudge.EEE. Cenya. Number . (#am"(li. @ebsite: www. and Jamada. 2ntroduction to cheese"making. 'ood and (gricultural <rgani#ation ('(<!. .edu 6airy P >eat <fficer (2nstitutional -upport P Training!. Technology of +heese >aking.. *o$ /B4E. *o$ 7. -heffield (cademic ?ress.. =.. Traditional +heese making. UC.fao.3E. -heffield.agromisa. *.cdr. (ddis (baba..edu1hgpubs1modus1morefile1hg. a%ailable at http:11agnic. The Netherlands.. 3::. and *attcock.<.uoguelph.

! B.E3B B. Tel: I7.. Dallen. ="mail: infoMskat./.". 8. 'a$: (3/. 334 /7 //. -wit#erland.org1ilri1 • -C(T.org1 This document was produced by ?eter 'ellows for ?ractical (ction in (ugust 3::4.".77:.+heese >aking ?ractical (ction =thiopia.3. +0"E::: -t.3.ch.E3B B. @ebsite: www. +.safpp.practicalaction..org.net ?ractical (ction The -chumacher +entre for Technology and 6e%elopment *ourton"on"6unsmore &ugby. 334 /7 /7. 18 .cgiar.uk @ebsite: http:11www. 'a$: I7. • -trengthening (frican 'ood ?rocessing. 8. @arwickshire. Tel: (3/.! B. ESK United Cingdom Tel: I77 (:!.77:: 'a$: I77 (:!. @ebsite: www. @ebsite: www.ch. ="mail: inforser%Mpracticalaction.skat.adianstrasse 73."4E3. . ="mail: 2G&2"=thiopiaMcgiar.org.