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Natural products from plants

Plants have evolved highly specific chemical compounds that provide defense mechanism against fungal attack, microbial invasion and viral infection. These .bioactive substances occur n plants as secondary metabolites These natural compounds fro plants pose less risk to animals and humans and more environmental friendly than their synthetic counterparts Their mode of action 1. By acting as natural pesticides I an unmodified state ( crude extract !. By providing chemical building blocks necessary o synthesis more complex compounds ". By introducing ne# modes of pesticides action that may allo# the complete synthesis of novel analogue in order counter the problem of resistance of bacteria and fungal pathogens to current used synthetic products. $rguments about plant extract • The efficacy of plant extract compounds aren%t comparable to that of synthetic fungicides and lack consistency • • &atural products ma be phototoxic to crop pant 'ome natural compounds are unstable and may be broken do#n by () or oxidation before the desired biological effects produced.

'econdary metabolites* characteristics, function an possible application in agriculture.

1. Isoprenoids compounds called isoprenoids, terpenoids and terpens.

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Phenolic aromatic compounds* like phenol .2 0 "days after soil treatments.. Plants with antifungal properties • -oung and mature leaf extract of Codiaem variegatum inhibited Alternaia alternate and Fusarium oxysporim invitro.These are + carbon unit like kno#n hormones as gibberllic. abcicic acid an brassionosteroi as other components such as sterols carotenoids rubber and phytol tail of chlorophyll. • &atural product of 3ilsana extract from the giant knot#eed used to control po#dery milde# caused by Sperotheca fuliginea and also against po#dery milde# of tomato . 2. • $. • Treatments of sils #ith 1/0 a1ueous emulsion of the formulated extracts of chili pepper and essential oils of mustard mixture.oene. ! . Colletotrichum spp and Fusarium oxysporum. flavonoids . &on phenolic aromatics compounds contains nonphenolic amino acid( phenylalanine and tryptophan and hormones ( $uxins as #ell as tetrapyrroles( chlorophyll b. apple an rust of bean. Aromatic compounds a. phenyl propanoids. secondarymetabolite extracted from garlic( Allium sativum inhibit spore germnaton of some fungi including Alternaria solani and other Alternaria spp. tannins and kinones. salicylic acid. acassia tree extract and clove oil reduced the population of Fusarium oxysporum #ith 22.

!. Phytomeicne have multiple effect on plant body and their actions re often grow promoting more systemic and beyond the symptomatic treatments of disease. insects and rodent. Invitro evaluation of active component against important biodeteriortion causing fungi. Isolation an identification o antifungal active compounds from plants. #elp in developing cost effective remedies that are affordable to the population. 1. Reasons for interesting with antimicrobials with plant origin. &valuation of plant e'tract includes. %. These phytochemicals may find their way into array of antimicrobial drugs prescribed. " . #elp to overcome the rising incidence of drug resistance amongst pathogenic microbes and the mechanism of action may be different. 2. ". The life span of any antimicrobial is limited hence newer antimicrobial is re!uired ". Invitro evaluation of plant extracts for antifungal active against important biodeteriortion causing fungi. $mong microbes fungi are significant destroyers of food particularly species of $spergillus and Penicillium.Antimicrobials of plant origin to prevent the biodeterioration of grains Biodeterioration means * loss of 1uality and 1uantity f stored food caused by organisms like microbe. $. 1.

• Antifungal activity assays of Allium cepa and Allium sativum( garlic) against Aspergillus niger and garlic was more effective in inhibiting the spore germination and mycelial growth of Aspergillus. invitro evaluation of plant e'tracts includes preparation of e'tracts.g/ ml and petroleum ether e'tracts showed higher antifungal activity than methanolic e'tracts.. 2.1. 'election of appropriate solvent for extraction. • The high terpens hydrocarbon contents in the oils of chamomile lavender eucalyptus and geranium are responsible for antifungal activit aganst Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceous. A!ueous e'tract ( water for preparation of e'tract) • Antifungal activity assays of leaf e'racts obtained from Pepper longum and Pepper nigrum were tested against Aspergillus flavus a 1*+ and %*+ concentration. ". 4 . solvent &'tracts • petroleum ether and methanolic e'tracts of Eupatrium ayapna were tested against Aspergillus niger at 2%* %** -%* and 1*** . invitro evaluation of active component against important biodeteriortion causing fungi. 'election of e plant follo#ed by selection of the plant part b. • 0seful antimicrobial phytochemicals are phenolics polyphenols !uinones flavones favonoida and flavanos tannins coumarins terpenoids essential oils al1aloids lectins and polypeptides. A. .Isolation an identification o antifungal active compounds from plants includes a.

Invitro evaluation of the active component for antimicrobial activity. Invitro evaluation of the antifungal active component. 'eparation and purification of the active component d.e average yield of the compound #as +mgper !+g of seed.3' analyses for structural elucidation. f. 5haracteri6ation and structural elucidation of the active component e. In traditional medicine. !. The poisoned food techni!ues + .&3<. Isolation and characteri6ation of the antifungal active component • Po#dered seeds refluxed in a petroleum ether $nd methanol mixture (2*1 in a soxhlet apparatus for 8 h at 9/:5 then cooled for 48 h at + :5 to obtain the pure compound. leucoderma and inflammatory disease of skin. the seeds used in the treatment of psoriasis. Invitro evaluation of active component for antimicrobial activity against test fungi.. .ected to Infra red (I< . • 1/ species of $spergillus. 5. 1. &3< and gas chromatography mass spectral ( =5. &'ample Potential of 2#2furo32 "2#4212ben5opyran222oneisolated from Psoralea corylifoliaL. ! species of Penicillium isolated form mai6e seeds #hich cause biodeterioration of grains served as test fungi for the antifungal activity assay using the poisoned food techni1ues. . • The bioactive compound #as sub. (7eguminosae is an annual herb #ith medicinal properties.c. to prevent the biodeterioration of mai5e Psoralea corylifolia 7.

PI @ 5. 9/. Treated and untreated seeds #ere stored at room temperature( "/?! :5 for 4 months and the moisture content of the seed sample #as maintained at 1". 'amples of seeds taken fro each treatment and sub. d. c. #here .TA5B 1//.2/ and 1!/ days. Then calculate PI ( percentage of inhibition of mycelial gro#th . 3ai6e grains naturally infected #ith adverse species of Aspergillus and Penicillium treated #ith !+/. ".a.+0. ! controls #ee added one #ithout any treatment and the other #ith recommended dose of fungicides. Invitro evaluation of the active component to prevent the biodeterioration of mai6e a. +//. c. (ntreated seed used as control.ected to seed mycoflora analysis employing the standard method at regular intervals o "/. They found the bioactive compound needed for total inhibition of Aspergillus and Peniciliium species #as much lo#er than the recommended dose f tested fungicides. 5@ diameter of control and T@ diameter of treated colony. d.1/// and 1+// ppm concentration of the bioactive compound. b. 3ycelium discs (+cm of > days old cultures of each species #ere placed at the center of he plates and incubated at !+?1 :5 for > days. <esults sho#ed decrease in mycoflora in all treatment #ith total elimination of seed borne fungi including species of Aspergillus and Penicillium treated #ith 9 . b. 3alt extract salt agar medium amended #ith different concentration of the bioactive compound prepared and poured into sterile petri dishes o cool and solidified.

one could be used to prevent the biodeterioration of mai6e.. a. > . Eevelop package of practice preferably utili6ing the edible plant pat pieces or po#der directly as an amendment in an appropriate 1uality during grain storage d.1. Isolate and identify he endophyte I any associated #ith production of active compound and develop fermentative methods for large production c.D. Identify the gene responsible for the production of active component and enhance its production by bioengineering b.!.".furoC!.. 5hemical synthesis of the active compound. To decrease the cost of production of antimicrobial from plants.ben6opyran. 'o !.1/// and 1+// ppm of bioactive compound in all the storage periods tested #ithout affecting the protein and carbohydrate content.