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Revolutionary New Adaptive Material “SolutionCell © ”
SolutionCell© is a Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH)
www.SolutionCell.com & www.SolutionCell.net

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Brought to you by:

Shawn Paul Boike
Solution Vehicles Co & American Industrial Consultants From: BOEING, Northrop, Lockheed, FORD, GM & NASA
Long Beach, CA. 90803 562.343.5660 / 562.338.9911 (m)
https://www.facebook.com/AmericanIndustrialConsultantsGroup

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

by

Ron Barrett
The University of Kansas, Lawrence Aerospace Engineering Department
and

Cassandra Barrett
The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences

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Presentation Dates
• So. California (Feb 24-28 2014):
Still need to setup; JPL, USAF-LA, Aerospace Corp, Lockheed & SpaceX

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Mon 2/24
Zodiac Aero

Tue 2/25
Aero/Def

Wed 2/26
Northrop UAV *San Diego

Thu 2/27
Boeing Seal Bch

Fri 2/28
Boeing LB

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Eaton/Parker

Aero/Def

San Diego Gen Atomics??

Boeing HB

???

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SolutionCell

• New Patented Material in Europe & USA
– Available for Licensing in the following Markets:

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• "SolutionCell ©":
  

Manufacturing Raw Products Aircraft seating, Aircraft Slats & Flaps Commercial

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   

Separate for Military
Armored Marine Armored Land Space Applications Automotive Industry:


 

Interiors& Seating
Exteriors Ground Effects Consumer Furniture

3
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Revolutionary Adaptive Aerostructures, Changing Flight via Nature's Analogs for Dramatic Fuel Savings
by

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Ron Barrett
The University of Kansas, Lawrence Aerospace Engineering Department and

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

Cassandra Barrett
The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences

1st international Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, San Antonio, Texas
30 September – 2 October 2013
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Outline
1. Introduction & Motivation 2. Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes 3. Biomimetic FAA-Certifiable Artificial Muscles 4. Selected Aerospace Applications 5. Summary

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5. Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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Motivation: The same as nature
T/O & Landing: Maximize CLmax, Reject Gust Loading Cruise: Maximize L/D

Minimize Airframe Weight 1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Successful Applications of Biomimicking Adaptive Materials In the Aerospace Industry:
Weapon Systems

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Piezoelectric, Shape-Memory-Alloys, Electroluminiscent Materials...

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Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Successful Applications of Biomimicking Adaptive Materials In the Aerospace Industry:

8

Disappearing UAVs

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5. Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Selected Aerospace Morphing Concepts
Planform Morphing
www.nextgenaeronautics.com 2008

Section Morphing
Gould et al. 1981

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MissionAdaptiveWing

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

1980’s: Mission Adaptive Wing

www.geocities.com 2008

Pendelton et al. 1981

University of Florida

1990’s: NASA’s AAW Lockheed Martin

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Adaptive Materials & Structures
Shape Memory Alloys Piezoelectric Materials

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Air Muscles

McMurtry 2004

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Conventional Adaptive Materials
Current range of actuator materials available
Can they be used in commercial aircraft as a class? ...or in primary structure?

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5. Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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What Would an Aircraft Designer want if s/he could design an adaptive material???
An "Ideal" Adaptive Aeromaterial/Aerostructure:

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•Material capable of "huge" (>50+%?) strains

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

•Fully proportional, easily controlled
•Stiff & strong enough to handle "real" loads •Lighter & faster than conventional aircraft actuation systems

•Less costly & lower drag than conventional aircraft actuation systems
•Certifiable under FAR 23/25, 27/29

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 5. 28 February 2010

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13

Solution? ...Biomimetics

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Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

"You should pay attention to what Mother Nature has done because she's got a 4.2 billion year lead in research and development.
-Prof. H.W. Smith, PE, Ph.D.

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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14

Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes
•Animal Muscle Cells and Tissues

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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• Fast-Acting Plant Cells and Tissues

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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15

Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes
Animal Muscle Cell & Tissues

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Solution: Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Actuators Made from 100% FAA-Certifiable materials, but arranged like fast-acting plant cells

The University of Minnesota

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Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Video Credit: 2.Nat. & © C.M. Barrett Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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Albizia julibrissin

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Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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Pulvinus

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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Ground Cells

Phloem
Xylem

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Solution: Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Actuators Made from 100% FAA-Certifiable Materials, but arranged like fast-acting plant cells

The University of Minnesota

20

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Video Credit: 2.Nat. & © C.M. Barrett Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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21

Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures
Fundamental Structural Arrangement:

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Biomimetic Honeycomb Based on Plant Actuator Cells
Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences

The University of Kansas

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22

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

• Easily modeled, light, strong

• Made of conventional materials (aluminum, steel, aramids)
• Already known and accepted by certifying agencies like the FAA
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23

PAH Theory, Experiment & Correlation

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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24

PAH Single-Cell Tension-Compression Test

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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25

Multi-Cell Compression Test

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180mm

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26

PAH Single-Cell Tension-Compression Test

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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27

Comparison to Other Adaptive Materials and Actuators
Conventional Hydraulic Actuators

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High Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb

Atmospherically Triggered Adaptive Honeycombs

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The University of Minnesota A New Approach to Flight Control... Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Based on Nature: The University of Kansas

28

PAH employs distributed, rather than concentrated actuation...

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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29

Distributed airloads

Current Aircraft Actuator Design Philosophy

Control surface loads concentrated at finite hard points
Loads transferred through actuators & tracks

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unclassified

Loads redistributed into primary structure

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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30

PAH Actuator Design Philosophy

unclassified Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

Control surface loads stayed distributed Distributed control surface loads passed thru distributed actuators Distributed loads transferred to primary strucure

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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31

Comparison of PAH to Adaptive Materials and FAA Certified Actuators
High Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb

unclassified

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

Conventional Hydraulics & Pneumatics

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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32

Pressure Adaptive Wing Section

2013 all rights reserved and C.M. al. 2007 Copyright © R.M. Murray et Barrett

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33

Pressure-Adaptive Flap in Wind Tunnel (cont.)

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0kPa CDP

40kPa CDP

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34

PAH Wing Section: Controllable Aerocompliance
Base Stiffness Cell Differential Pressure Behavior 1.6 Net Camber CDP = 40kpa
NCCDP (kPa) 40 20

unclassified

1.4
Lift Coefficient, Cl (~) 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -5 0

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

0

-20 -40

5 10 Angle of Attack, a (deg)

15

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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35

Current Aircraft Technology in Gust Fields

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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36

PAH Wings: Enhancing Ride Quality, Fatigue Properties & Flight Safety via Active Aerocompliance

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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37

The Real Savings... from Class I Design Forward
Structure of a typical FAR-25 V-n Diagram

Commercial Aircraft Structural Weights are set by these points

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Gust Limits Maneuver Limits

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

Load Factor, n (g's)

+1 0 VS1 VA VC VD

-1

Flight Speed, Vflt (kts)
Gust Limits

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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38

Weight Saving Paradigm Shift:
Compression of Gust Lines to within Maneuver ...just like birds do, via dynamic aerocompliance

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

Load Factor, n (g's)

+1 0 VS1 VA VC VD

-1

Flight Speed, Vflt (kts)

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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39

Weight Saving Paradigm Shift:
Compression of Gust Lines to within Maneuver ...just like birds do, via dynamic aerocompliance

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

saving... 7 – 23% total aircraft structural weight!

Load Factor, n (g's)

+1 0 VS1 VA VC VD

-1

Flight Speed, Vflt (kts)

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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40

Reference: Boeing 787
$32B investment in new product RDT&E: • Just over half of the RDT&E was devoted to new materials & manufacturing
to achieve a ~20% weight reduction WRT conventional materials

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1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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41

PAH Implications for Commercial Aircraft
Implications for commercial jets: • Reduction in Structural Weight • Increase in mission integrated L/Dmax • Reduction in DOC at constant range • Increase in range at constant TOW • Airfoil section gust load rejection: • Net airframe gust load rejection • Safe Airframe Life Extension 9 - 22% 6 - 9% 7 - 11% 12 - 18% up to 380% up to 87% 11 - 14%

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

US Pat. 8,366,057 Issued 13 February 2013

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42

Acknowledgements

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Prof. Roelof Vos

NASA Ames Research Center

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43

PAH Flap and Winglet System Implications
Implications for commercial jet fleets:

unclassified

Korean Air:

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

KRW11.807 trillion 2011 in operating expenses Retrofit Impacts: ~ +KRW200B (Net loss in 2011: KRW98B)

New Equipment Impacts: +KRW850B DOC savings + +KRW220B Airframe Life Extension + +KRW660B increased cargo carriage revenue ~ KRW1.7 trillion

European Patent EP 2459442 A2 US Patent 8,366,057 B2 February 2013
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44

Questions?

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What if...

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Something about the flight environment itself could deploy the surfaces...

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46

Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) Flap Systems
Example for LSA wing

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unclassified

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47

Potential Application: Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) Flap
Implications for LSA* based on a 20% increase of clean CLmax:** • 17% reduction in wing wetted area • 20% increase in aspect ratio • 10% increase in L/D • 8% reduction fuel burn and DOC at constant range • 1.5% decrement in TOW and purchase price at constant range • 37% gust rejection loads

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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*45kts flaps-up stall requirement **Based on: Roskam “Airplane Design,” part I, II, V, and VIII, and Cessna 162 Skykatcher Data

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48

PAH Gurney Flap (cont.)
Implications for jets based on a 6% increase of CLmax: 5.8% decrease in wetted area 6% increase in aspect ratio 3% increase in L/Dmax 3.2% reduction in DOC at constant range 3% increase in range at constant TOW 380% section gust load rejection 87% net airframe gust load rejection

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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*Based on: Roskam “Airplane Design,” part I, II, and V,

and Cessna Citation Sovereign

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49

PAH Implications for Commercial Aircraft
Implications for commercial jets: Retrofit STC 3% 0% 2.4% 2.5% 2.2% 43% 21% Class I Design 6% 9 - 22% 6 - 9% 7 - 11% 12 - 18% 380% 87%

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

• Increase in CLmaxL/TO • Reduction in Structural Weight • Increase in mission integrated L/Dmax: • Reduction in DOC at constant range • Increase in range at constant TOW • Section gust load rejection: • Net airframe gust load rejection

unclassified

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50

PAH Cell Modeling

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51

PAH Linear-Elastic Modeling Background
Cellular Material Theory (CMT) after Gibson et al. 1988 Considerations: l • Only valid for small thickness-to-length ratio t qi • Only valid for +/- 20% of strain • Linear stress-strain relationship

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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52

PAH Linear-Elastic Modeling Background

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53

PAH Theoretical Characterization
Global stress-strain relations: @ constant pressure:

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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@ constant mass:

with

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PAH Geo-Kinematic Properties

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unclassified

CDP = Cell Differential Pressure

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Non-linear Mechanics of PAH Structures

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56

Effects of Different PAH Boundary Conditions

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57

PAH Longitudinal Stress-Strain Correlation

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

p = 55kPa
Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett

p = 60kPa
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58

Experimental PAH Stress-Strain Relations

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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Unclassified

distribution unlimited

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rev. 28 February 2010

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59

PAH Four-Cell Tensile Test of Steel PAH

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

Unclassified

distribution unlimited

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rev. 28 February 2010

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60

PAH Bender Experimental Characterization
Validation Experiment: Three-point bend test

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

FEM Modeling:

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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61

PAH Cell Modeling

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

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Unclassified

distribution unlimited

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rev. 28 February 2010

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62

PAH Multi-Cell Compression Test

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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63

PAH Gurney Flaps & Winglets

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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64

Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes
Molecuar Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
Stimulus Myosin head binds to actin

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

6.7nm contraction

Myosin head turns as P1 is released

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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65

Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes
Mechanical Analogs of Animal Muscle Tissues: -Shape-Memory-Alloys -Pneumatic Tubes -Piezoelectric Polymers -Adaptive Gels -Electrostatic Actuators

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Successful Applications of Biomimicking Adaptive Materials In the Aerospace Industry:

66

UAVs & Hovering Missiles

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 5. 28 February 2010

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67

Biomimetic Plant-Cell Based Honeycomb Actuator

unclassified Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

After: Olympio et al. 2007

Standard

Auxetic

Hybrid

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
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68

Aerocompliance: Key to Birds Wings and PAH

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

Gust load relieving smoothes flight

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69

PAH Four-Cell Tensile Test of Steel Honeycombs

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

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Solution: Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures

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70

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Automotive Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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71

Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) Breakdown for Modeling

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010

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Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
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72

PAH Nonlinear Mechanics

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

1.Introduction Actuators 3.Art.Muscles 4.Aerospace 5.Summary Unclassified 2.Nat. distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010