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The industrial internship report on STUDY AND TESTING OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF ELECTRIC METER was conducted at M.R.T – II Lab, PESU (West), Patna. PESU (Patna Electricity Supply Undertaking) is a part of Bihar State Electricity Board and deals with power supply, maintenance and revenue collection in Patna. PESU is divided into four geographical zones, East, West, North and South. The main purpose of the M.R.T lab (or Meter Reading and Testing Lab) is reading and testing of electric meter which are to be installed at houses and industries to measure the amount of electricity used. The lab also checks every batch of meter received at electricity board and marks them as fit/unfit to be used. The lab also monitors the different parameters in the meters manufactured by the company and checks it with the specification provided by them.


It has been charged with the responsibility of promoting a co-ordinated development of generation. 1958 with effect from 1st April. electrical power. its significance and utility value is enormous for the State.A/AI-121/57 dated 25th March. 1948.550 employees working with BSEB. 2 . 2884 . At the zonal level. supply and distribution of electricity in the State of Bihar on an efficient and economic basis of management. also known as Bihar State Power Holding Company Limited (or BSPHCL) was constituted under section 5 of the Electricity Supply Act.700 officer and 14. Though BSEB deals in only one product. The Board was given the responsibility of promoting coordinated development of Generation. Almost all aspects of modern life-style are dependent on it in one way or another. 1948 vides Bihar Government's Notification No. STRUCTURE The Chairman heads the Bihar State Electricity Board and there are posts of Member Administration. Member Generation.e. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity in the State in an efficient and economic manner. Member Transmission and Member Distribution. Member Finance. All in all. Assistant Engineers and Junior Engineers. It arranges to supply the electricity properly to the consumers and maintain their equipment.. In order to ensure that its responsibilities are discharged effectively and efficiently.OVERVIEW OF THE COMPANY Bihar State Electricity Board (or BSEB). 2012) staffs on various posts to generate its own power and to maintain proper distribution system. 1958. as on today. work is supervised by General Managers-cum-Chief Engineers. there are more than 16. A Chief Engineer is assisted by superintendent Engineers. Executive Engineers. i.850 (as of November. the Board has engaged nearly 1. The duties of the Board have been defined in Section 18 of the Electricity Supply Act.

E.B Post Designation chart 3 .B.S.

Gopalganj.Banka. Mithila . 3.. Buxar. Muzaffarpur. Purnea. Saharsa. coordinated development of generation.Arrah. Lakhisarai. 4. Vaishali. Motihari. Jamui. Kishanganj. Bhagalpur . The bio-data and service records of the employee have been computerized at Board's Headquarters. Sitamarhi.Bettiah. 7. Koshi . Monghyr. Katihar.Araria. Sasaram.Patna 2. Siwan. Chapra.2 MW.e.Begusarai.Auragabad. Darbhanga. it also becomes necessary for BSEB to purchase power from outside agencies in order to meet the local demand. Magadh .The responsibility of catering to entire state means BSEB must always be able to understand present as well as future trends of power consumption. Supaul 4 . Pesu . Central . POWER BULLETIN Supply of Electricity in Bihar is organized under 7 Area Boards. Jehanabad. Tirhut . Madhepura. Nalanda. 5. It has to formulate and implement schemes for power generation so that growth in demand can be met successfully in time. Sheikhpura. Bhabhua. 1. As on today. Gaya. The entire organization of the Bihar State Electricity Board has been set up keeping in view the functions entrusted to it i. Bhagalpur. Samastipur. 6. Madhubani. Khagaria. Sometimes. transmission and distribution of electricity in the State. The Board has also its personnel wing to safeguard the interest of all its employees. Nawadah. the installed generating capacity of BSEB in terms of its Thermal and Hydro-Electrical plants exceeds 559. Sheohar. The Board has its full-fledged Accounts and Audit Department for proper keep-up of its financial transaction as also to ensure efficient financial management on the commercial line.

factories. which is used to record electrical energy consumption over a specific period of time in terms of units. With the present investment cost on generation alone of above $1000 per kW. including power generation.INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY METER The energy meter is an electrical measuring device. Because of the ever increasing demand for electricity. a great thrust in efficiency in industrial sector has been achieved by the use of monitored energy usage with the help of energy meter. Since most of urban and rural areas are covered by the electrification plan of the government. therefore the electricity board try to go for the cheapest meters it can have which can fulfill their entire requirement. there’s a pretty good demand for the electric meters. ENERGY CONSERVATION With the growing energy needs and storage coupled with the rising energy cost. The suppler of electricity charges the electricity bill on the basis of the readings shown by the meters. the present demand and future prospect of the energy meter department is reasonably good. investment on meter is small in comparison with total investment. A CASE OF ELECTRONIC METERS IN INDIA The price of electricity is determined by several factors. The electric meters are available in single phase and three phase as per the customer’s requirement. etc. the necessary upkeep of our system and regulatory actions by the state and federal governments. Electricity generation units supply the electricity to the electricity board which then is provided to the consumers. The electricity board gives the tender for all the meters to a company as per the annual bidding. Still for domestic consumers. 5 . the cost of meter is large when compared to the collection. shops. MARKET POTENTIAL Energy meters are required wherever power consumption needs to be measured like houses. offices.

The eddy currents are produced in the disc and the effect is such that a force is exerted on the disc in proportion to the product of the instantaneous current and voltage. ELECTROMECHANICAL METERS Electromechanical Meter Electromechanical meter was invented by Elihu Thomson in 1888. A permanent magnet exerts an opposing force proportional to the speed of rotation of the disc. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces results in the disc rotating at a speed proportional to the power being used. which in turn makes the number of revolution proportional to the energy usage. It consumes a small amount of power. Electromechanical meters and Electronic meters. typically around two watts.TYPES OF ENERGY METER Modern day energy meters fall primarily into two broad categories. The field of the voltage coil is delayed by ninety degrees using a lag coil. The one of the two coils is attached in a way that it produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the current. There is a disc made up of a metal which is acted upon by two coils. These kinds of electric meters are operated by counting the number of revolutions of an aluminum disc which keeps on rotating at a speed proportional to the power supplied. 6 .

etc. Apart from the amount of electricity used.ELECTRONIC METERS Electric Meter The type of electric meter in modern times has changed and now we have solid state electric meters which display the power used on an LCD screen whereas there are some latest electric meters which can be made to read automatically. the solid state electric meter type can also record other parameters of the load and supply such as maximum demand. The main current carrying conductors need to pass through the meter itself and so the meter can be located remotely from the main current carrying conductors. 7 . power factor and reactive power used. The technology used in most of the solid state electric meter type is the use of a current transformer to measure the current. which is a particular advantage in large power installations.

Whole Type Meter 2. Single Phase Meter 2. these can be easily incorporated into automated meter reading systems. LT CT Meter 3. Single-phase meters are generally used for domestic purpose. Three Phase Meter Single Phase Meter Specifications: voltage reading: 240V Current: 5 – 30 V Frequency: 50 Hz Impulse: 1600 imp/kwh Working: Modern electricity meters operate by continuously measuring the instantaneous voltage and current and finding their product to give instantaneous electric power which is then integrated against time to give energy used. HT CT Meter 1. 8 . Whole Type Meter is further divided into two categories: 1. Salient features of single phase meters:       Instantaneous start Low power consumption (less than 1 watt saving 30% over conventional meters) Record correct energy with same accuracy under reverse current conditions LED indication for current reversal tampering and phase availability One need to have Power Company to make any adjustment to the meter otherwise self-tampering constitutes a fraud.There are three types of meter: 1. With communication options and support software available for ingle phase meters.

Three Phase Meter Three Phase Meter It stands for three-phase four-wire meter. It is generally used for industrial purpose. 3 point for main supply (R Y B). Specifications: Voltage rating: 3 x 240 V Frequency: 50 Hz Current: 10 – 60 A Impulse: 1600 imp/kwh 9 . 3 for load and 2 for neutral and earth. It has 8 point.

Current transformers are used to measure the current produced in current carrying conductors. The electric meter working in case of watt-hour meters use aluminum disc acted upon by two coils.Working: Voltage and current measurements are electrically isolated for each phase and transformers are used instead of shunts for current sensing. One coil is positioned in such a way to produce magnetic flux in proportion to the voltage on the disc and the other coil produces magnetic flux proportional to the current. 10 .

Current Transformer Meter Current Transformer Meter The meter measures the following parameters:            Active energy Reactive energy (lag/lead) Apparent energy Fundamental active energy R Phase Irms Y Phase Irms B Phase Irms R-N Vrms Y-N Vrms B-N Vrms Frequency 11 .

¼ hour. 2. LT CT Meter Salient features of the meter are:        Dual processor design achieves the very high BAUD rate Detect all types of tampers. At the end of each fixed integration period. kVArh lead. average power for that period is calculated. average voltages and average currents The product is shipped with an efficient meter reading program and a highly user friendly base station software for meter data processing Battery backup for meter reading in the event of power outage 12 . kVAh. then this is stored as MD. kVArh lag. 1 hour.Meter has inbuilt capacity to perform self-diagnostic and display error if any for following:     All display segments on meter display Real time clock status Non-volatile memory status Battery status The meter continuously monitors and calculates the average demand in kW and kVA during the integration period set and maximum out of these shall be stored. fraud and anomalies and prevents energy pilferage Capable to directly read primary side values Active and reactive/Apparent pulse outputs 85 days load profile with kWh. MD is calculated on real time for a configuration period viz. ½ hour. If this value is greater than the already existing values during the month.

1/1 A 0.1% to 200% of base current 27°C 0.1A 5/5.Specifications: Voltage Nominal Operation range Burden Current Secondary Current CT ratio Range Temperature Standard Temperature Coefficient Frequency Rated Range Power factor Range 50 Hz -5% to +5% of rated frequency zero lag – unity – zero lead 230/240 V (50 Hz) -30% to +20% of Vn Less than 4 VA/1W per phase 5.03% 13 .

e. The main reason being the lower manufacturing cost of single phase meters using resistive shunt. If the meter under test has closed IP links then the interconnection between voltage and current circuits should be eliminated beyond the meter. it is possible to isolate the voltage source or the current source. Principle is based on mutual isolation of individual voltage current source feeding each meter instead of isolating the voltage and current circuits of the meter.1% as reported by some manufacturers of test systems. Another reason for using meters with non-removable IP links is to prevent their misuse for fraud. Generally.Testing of Meter Testing of electricity meter with (i) interconnected current and voltage circuit Testing of meter is an increasing need for meter manufacturers and meter operators. Disconnection avoids interaction of current and voltage circuits and thus introduction of large unpredictable measurement error. This configuration allows simultaneous testing of any number of meters limited only by mechanical and power capacity of the system. During meter testing the source is normally used as a phantom load to provide test currents and voltage applied to both the meters and the reference meter. (ii) Voltage Source Isolation In traditional approach. In this case the test rack must be equipped with multiple voltages using wiring network for individual connection of each meter to respective winding of the common transformer which is generally known as a multi-secondary voltage isolation transformer or MSIVT. increasing of testing capacity and reduction of cost at high volume testing sites as well. Reason for testing meters with closed links might be reduction of additional work needed for manipulation with the links before and after testing i. special voltage transformer having separate output voltage windings for each meter is used for isolation. The number of secondary windings is at least equal to the number of meters under test plus an additional one for reference meter connection. The additional error introduced by transformer is unpredictable as it depends on the load impedance 14 . for current measurement. The test current flowing into the current terminal is supplied independently from the test voltage. Provision of facility to isolate the voltage and current paths of these meters would result in significantly higher manufacturing cost. The separation of current and voltage circuit at each meter is achieved by opening the IP link in the terminal block. The meter that do not allow opening the links between the current and voltage measuring circuits (I-P links) for test or calibration purposes are increasingly in use. These transformers are specifically manufactured and calibrated for this purpose and windings are typically matched to within 0.

the meter is aid to be accurate. As the current isolation transformers provide an additional load to the current amplifier. Then the reading of meters is increased. These transformers advantageously have a current ratio of 1:1 and over the required current range should have amplitude and phase error small enough as not to introduce significant additional errors. The connection of meter is such that the first meter of outgoing point is connected to next meter of incoming phase. each installed meter must be equipped with individual source. Because of nonlinearity in here in standard transformers. In both cases. The classic test systems specify the accuracy degradation from 0. All meters are connected in series through wire with RSS.created by the tested meters as the absolute accuracy of the MSIVT is not guaranteed. At once 12 meters are tested at a time. (iii) Current Source Isolation The required isolation can be achieved by using transformers in the current circuits with one current transformer per phase for each test position. Testing Meter Equipment        Test bench consisting of ampere meter.5% to 0. The first meter is given the supply and the last meter I connected to the load. For testing the meters. wattmeter. In this way each meter under test is supplied with isolated currents. 15 . The initial readings of all meters are noted. when reading of RSS reaches 5 units. the load supply is cut off.1%. Standard kWh Meter variance including software for 1 phase / 3 phase Stop watch 0-60min HV breakdown tester 0-3kV Shock tester Stray field tester Testing of single Phase Meter The isolation of each meter is realized either using individual isolated voltage source or individual isolated current source. all are laid upon the test bench. voltmeter and frequency meter. The difference between the final and initial reading for each meter is noted. When the error is below 1%. the power of the current source needs to be higher than for the system without current transformer. the overall accuracy of the system significantly decreases at lower currents.

it is not possible to simply utilize voltage transformers with separated secondary windings for isolation of individual meters.99 -0. U3 for each meter A and B via common neutral the three independent sources of each meter are interconnected via closed links.7 3.99 -0. I2.9 3.6 6.99 -0. I3. common neutral and current wires I1.00 -0.99 -0. There are three separated voltage sources U1.7 3.7 3. This is the reason interaction between the voltage and current circuits due to non-equality voltage drops on the current wires due to impedance of the wires and contact resistances.5 3. The interconnections cause undefined balance currents destroying the measurement accuracy.7 6.03 kwh S.8 3.6 7 6.99 -0.8 F/R (kwh) 6.8 Difference 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 % Error -0. U2.99 6.7 6.99 -0.99 -0.99 -0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Meter no.5 6.9 3.99 Error Calculation in Single Phase Meter Testing Of Three Phase Meter Multi-phase meters for direct connection are also manufactured with closed IP links. The required isolation of three phase meters with closed links can be achieved only by using isolation current transformers in the current circuits fitted with separate current transformer for each test position.6 4 3.7 6.9 6.99 -0.9 0.8 3.7 3.7 3. Connection of Meter 1L-1S 2L-2S 3L-3S 0L-0S 16 .Calculation: RSS = 3. Due to the common neutral connection of three voltage circuits. 763932 765042 764095 764093 766780 768151 768146 764125 768156 765014 766789 763937 I/R (kwh) 3.

50 Error Calculation in Three Phase Meter 17 .2 9. 43770 43806 43244 43873 43872 43712 43764 I/R (kwh) 0.2 5.3 14.2 0.2 9. meters are correct.2 0.1 F/R (kwh) 9.2 0.50 -0. when the difference of final and initial reading are same.In this meter three supply R.Y.50 -0. In this all meters are connected in series.2 9. no.2 0.50 -0.50 -0.1 9 9 9 9 9 9 % Error 0.2 9.50 -0. Calculation RSS: 9.1 Difference 9. The initial reading of all meters and final RSS reading is noted.50 -0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meter no.050315 S.2 9.B are taken and potential neutral are given to the test bench.2 0.

04%. Radian’s A/D converters is specifically designed for power and energy requirements. They control the current.CONTROL PANEL Electric Control Panel Electric control panels are used in meter testing lab for testing the meter. Single Phase Reference Standard The radian RD-20 single phase electricity reference standard is one of the most versatile reference instruments. This worst case accuracy specification includes the variables of stability. current. frequency. 18 . uncertainty and test system errors. The harmonic analysis option makes available the analysis of customer load through the 50th harmonic order while the built-in comparator option provides for automatic calculation of test result of the meters. simultaneous measuring instruments that registers both forward and reverse energy flow and provides voltage. The RD-20 utilizes Radian’s new Dytronic measurement technology consisting of a Radian designed integrating analog to digital signal converter. power factor. Measurements The RD-20 is a four quadrant single-phase. It has a typical accuracy of 0. Unlike off-the-shelf A/D converters used in other instruments. power and energy information. traceability. voltage. power factor.01% for all measurement functions across its entire operating range. with a maximum worst case accuracy of 0.

I learned that every person is equally important for a company irrespective of his/her designation.T-II Lab at PESU. I learned lots of things during my industrial training at M. I got to implement my knowledge of the course ‘Measurement and Instrumentation’. 19 .CONCLUSION I would like to end the project concluding that the month I spend learning and working with people of M. I took in third semester.R. I got to know how big firms work on daily basis and how each and every worker is key to proper running of daily work. in understanding the concept on big scale.T Lab and above all I learned how to utilize the theoretical learning we are doing in classrooms to the practical world outside. Patna is quite significant to my bachelor degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.R.