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Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels

Outokumpu EN 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 ASTM UNS ISO 1.4003 - 1.4512 409 1.4016 430 1.4510 439 1.4509 441* 1.4521 444 S40977 4003-410-77-I S40910 S43000 4016-430-00-I S43035 4510-430-35-I S43932 4509-439-40-X S44400 4521-444-00-I

*Designation 441 is not officially included in the ASTM A240 standard but it is widely used as a colloquial synonym for grade 1.4509.
Characteristic properties

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Moderate to good resistance to uniform corrosion Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking Moderate to good weldability Excellent machinability Good formability Stable price Automotive exhaust system components Catering and appliances Domestic water heaters Elevator and indoor claddings Tubes Storage tanks Bus and railway wagon frames

4510 is another Ti-stabilized grade with chromium content of 17%. This grade is well suited for automotive exhaust systems and other applications requiring good formability. 4509 is a Ti and Nb dual-stabilized ferritic grade with improved weldability and surface appearance. Corrosion resistance is often comparable to that of austenitic grade 4301. It is used in a wide range of applications, such as elevator and indoor claddings, door frames, catering and appliances, tubes and heat exchangers. 4521 is a Ti and Nb dual-stabilized molybdenum alloyed ferritic grade with improved corrosion resistance. The grade is used in water piping, tanks, heat exchangers and domestic water heaters.
Chemical composition

The typical chemical compositions of Outokumpu ferritic stainless steels are shown in Table 2.


Ferritic stainless steels have a ferritic microstructure in asdelivered condition. Welding or other thermo-mechanical treatments may produce other phases, especially with unstabilized grades.
Mechanical properties

General characteristics

Ferritic stainless steels are nickel free materials being used in architecture, building and construction, domestic appliances, kitchenware and automotive exhaust systems. The absence of nickel gives these grades a stable price, making the ferritic grades a more attractive and cost optimized choice. The ferritic offering of Outokumpu is presented in Table 1. Grade 4003 is a structural stainless steel with an impact toughness at low temperatures that is similar to most modern carbon steels and superior compared to other ferritic stainless steel grades. Applications include railroad carriages, bus frames and containers. 4512 is a Ti-stabilized 11Cr ferritic stainless steel grade for elevated temperature applications up to 600 °C. It is widely used in automotive exhaust parts. 4016 is a general 16Cr ferritic stainless steel, used in catering and appliances and many other indoor applications.

Ferritic stainless steels have typically higher yield strength than austenitic stainless steels. Elongation and forming properties are equivalent to those of plain carbon steels. Mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steels are presented in Tables 3 and 4. Figure 1 shows typical mechanical properties of grades 4509 and 4521 at elevated temperatures.
Physical properties

Table 5 shows typical values of some physical properties for Outokumpu’s ferritic stainless steels. The physical properties include two key characteristics in which ferritics differ from austenitic grades: thermal expansion is lower and thermal conductivity is higher in ferritic grades. This has a positive effect for example on distortion and buckling when welding. Ferritic stainless steels are magnetisable, which can be used as a functional part of the product design. Figure 2 shows Young’s modulus of elasticity for grades 4509 and 4521 as a function of temperature.

heat exchangers. 4512 1.5 0. pipes. 4510 1. % by wt. Typical chemical compositions of the Outokumpu ferritic grades. Ti-stabilized 11Cr ferritic stainless steel grade for elevated temperature applications up to 600 °C. Elevator and indoor cladding.0 Table 2 Others – Ti – Ti Nb Ti Nb Ti .2 Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels Outokumpu ferritic stainless steels Steel designation 4003 1. 2E. dishwashers. 2E. 4016 1. having good impact toughness down to –40 °C.4521 ASTM – 409 430 439 441 444 UNS S40977 S40910 S43000 S43035 S43932 S44400 JIS – SUS 409 SUS 430 SUS 430LX – SUS 444 C 0. catalytic converters. 2J.02 0. 2J. Polished and brushed finishes (2G. Corrosion resistance is often comparable to that of austenitic grade 4301. Ti-stabilized grade with chromium content of 17%. buses. mufflers. 2E. 1D General characteristics A structural ferritic stainless steel.5 16.02 0. Washing machines.4003 Surface finish 2B.4016 1. 2BB.5 11. tubes. 2R.4509 (441) 2B. tubes. A Ti and Nb dual-stabilized molybdenum alloyed ferritic grade with improved corrosion resistance. pipes.4512 (409) 2B. containers. 2E Automotive exhaust system parts. Automotive exhaust system parts: mufflers.05 0. Deco finishes (2M) A Ti and Nb dual-stabilized ferritic grade with improved weldability and surface appearance.4510 1.4510 (439) 4509 1.02 N – – – – – – Cr 11. door frames. water heaters. used in catering and appliances and many other indoor applications.2 17 18 18 Ni 0.4521 (444) 2B Boilers. heat exchangers.4509 1.02 0. storage tanks. 2K). water pipes.2 – – – – Mo – – – – – 2. 2K) 2B. Table 1 Typical applications Railroad carriages.4016 (430) 2B. counter tops. cooker hoods.02 0. Polished and brushed finishes (2G. sinks. support parts. Grade 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 EN 1.4512 1. catering and appliances. catalytic converters and sugar industry applications. 4521 1. 2E A general 16Cr ferritic stainless steel.4003 1. trucks.

4509 250 430 18 1. Rp0.4512 220 380 25 1.  600 500 Tensile strenght (MPa) Figure 1 4509 100 80 Tensile strenght (MPa) 600 500 400 4521 100 80 60 Elongation (%) 60 300 40 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 Temperature (°C) RP0. minimum values according to EN 10088-2. RT ASTM2.4016 280 450 20 1.4003 320 450 20 1. RT Rp0.4521 320 420 20 S40977 280 450 18 S40910 170 380 20 S43000 205 450 22 S43035 205 415 22 S43932 205 415 22 S44400 275 415 20 EN10088-2:2005 (cold rolled. minimum values Grade 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 100°C 240 200 220 195 230 250 150°C 235 195 215 190 220 240 200°C 230 190 210 185 210 230 250°C 220 185 205 175 205 220 300°C 215 180 200 165 200 210 350°C – 160 195 155 180 205 Table 4 Typical mechanical properties of Outokumpu 4509 and 4521 at elevated temperatures. Proof strength Rp0. min. min. values.2 Rp1.2 Rm A2’’ MPa MPa MPa % MPa MPa % MPa MPa A50 % 340 375 500 25 290 310 470 31 330 360 500 26 300 330 460 31 330 360 480 30 370 400 530 28 1.2 (MPa).4510 240 420 23 1.0 Rm A80/A50 No Rp0.2 Rm A50 Elongation (%) 400 300 40 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 Temperature (°C) 20 0 1000 20 0 1000 RP0. values.2 Rm A50 . Table 3 Grade 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 1 Outokumpu typical values EN1.Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels 3 Mechanical properties at 20 °C. 2ASTM A240 Tensile properties at elevated temperatures.2 Rm A80 No. transversal direction).

Figure 2 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature (°C) Young’s modulus (GPa) .4 Thermal conductivity l W/m°C Thermal capacity c J/kg°C Electrical resistivity r µΩm Table 5 Magnetisable EN 1.5 10.7 RT 220 220 220 220 220 220 RT 25 25 25 25 25 23 RT 430 460 460 460 460 430 RT 0.4016 1.6 0. Steel designation Density ρ kg/dm3 Modulus of elasticity E GPa Coefficient of thermal expansion between 20°C and 100°C 10–6/°C 100 °C 10.7 7.0 10.4521 RT 7.7 7.4003 1.4 Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels Physical properties.4509 1.7 7.0 10.6 0.4510 1.4 10.8 RT YES YES YES YES YES YES Young’s modulus of elasticity as a function of temperature for Outokumpu 4509 and 4521.7 7.4512 1.6 0. typical values according to EN 10088-1.0 10.7 7.6 0.6 0.

The shot-blasted cold rolled mill finish 2E has a similar appearance as finish 1D. pickled Cold rolled. but it is typically smoother and available in thinner gauges than finish 1D. 4016. Also Outokumpu’s Ti.and Nb-stabilised ferritic grades 4509 and 4521 can be ground and brushed successfully. heat treated. For the production of the standard 2B finish. smoother finishes accumulate less dirt and have a lower tendency to show corrosion damages than rougher ones. Outokumpu uses normal rolling and pickling practices. Both cold rolled and skinpassed finishes 2B and 2BB are usually brighter and more reflective than their austenitic counterparts because the grain boundaries of ferritic stainless steels are nearly not etched during pickling. This general rule is especially important for lower alloyed stainless steel grades with lower chromium content and without molybdenum addition. Usually a smoother finish is easier to clean than a rougher one causing less effort to keep up the superior hygienic properties of stainless steel. skin-passed Cold rolled. When specifying a stainless steel grade for an application where different stainless steel groups like austenitic and ferritic grades are used side by side – perhaps even beside chromiumplated surfaces – it is worth considering that ferritic stainless steels . heat treated. 4509 and 4512. which operates at relatively mild temperatures for grade 4016. The passive layer of the 2BB surface is enhanced by the use of nitric acid in electrolytic pickling increasing the corrosion resistance of the 2BB finish. Mill finishes The rough hot rolled mill finish 1D is usually produced in thicker gauges. Outokumpu’s mill finishes 2B and 2BB are available in thinner gauges than the shot-blasted mill finishes 1D and 2E. This comprehensive selection of mill finishes is supplemented by a variety of attractive decorative finishes meeting the highest demands on surface quality and visual appearance. the limitation to only one stainless steel group may be the solution to such a problem. Surface finishes available from Outokumpu for ferritic stainless sheet and coil. Additionally. Due to its rough shot-blasted surface profile. If slight colour differences between metal parts become disturbing in some critical applications. pickled Cold rolled. As ferritic grades are regularly chosen for parts with decorative function. Available surface finishes Outokumpu offers ferritic stainless steel in several mill surface finishes that are ready to use for many applications or suitable as starting surface for further finishing steps like brushing or grinding.have commonly a more bluish tone than austenitic stainless steels. the look of the surface is often essential. It is offered mainly for ferritic grade 4003. Due to Outokumpu’s unique RAP™ process. Under conditions of atmospheric corrosion. Finish 2R / BA is only produced as precision strip.   Both cold rolled finishes 2B and 2BB are excellent starting materials for additional finishing operations like polishing. it can be delivered with tighter thickness tolerances than common hot rolled sheet and coil. Due to the additional cold rolling step. it is well suited for painting. Careful control of the annealing process. heat treated. Finish RAP™2E is available for grades 4003. skin-passed Cold rolled. Surface finish EN ASTM 1D 2E 2B 2BB * 2R 2G 2K 2J 1 1 2B BA 3 4 6 Type of process route Hot rolled. however. The process route to produce the bright 2BB finish of grade 4016. Additional surface finish/ steel grade combinations may be available on request. pickled. is identical with the bright annealing process except for the final annealing and pickling steps. enables very gentle pickling of the annealing oxides maintaining the mirror finish produced during bright cold rolling. Even very thin precision strip is available also in bright annealed condition (finish 2R/BA). which may be an advisable measure for improving the corrosion resistance of grade 4003 in more aggressive chromium plated surfaces . The bright 2BB finish can even be mirror-polished easily. the right type and a good quality of the surface finish play a vital role for the performance of ferritic stainless steel grades during service life.Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels 5 Surface properties Ferritic stainless steels are commonly used in applications where the right surface finis is important for the successful use of the material. heat treated. bright pickled. grinding and brushing applied by our customers. mechanically descaled. bright annealed ** Ground Satin polish Brushed Table 6 4003 X X X 4512 Steel grade 4016 4509 4521 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Surface finish designations according to EN 10088-2 and ASTM A 480/A 480M * Outokumpu designation – the 2BB product confirms with standard surface finish 2B ** Only available as precision strip . The annealing is carried out in a standard furnace heated by gas burners.

1 – 0.5 R20 < 50 < 50 300 – 600 700 – 1000 25 – 100 50 – 150 100 – 250 Reflectance** R60 Table 7 < 50 < 50 300 – 400 450 – 500 125 – 300 200 – 450 300 – 400 * According to ISO 4287 ** According to ISO 2813. Grade 4016 has good corrosion resistance to a 0 20 40 60 80 100 HCOOH.3 0. i.0 0.8 0. For the different organic acids. Especially the properties of the different decorative finishes may deviate from the given numbers.0 0. has good resistance against many alkaline solutions. Outokumpu can provide patterned rolled finishes in various attractive looks.01 – 0. Surface properties of ferritic stainless steel sheet and coil – guiding values.4 2.. a wide range of diluted organic acids as well as against aqueous solutions that do not contain halides. This can be explained by the low solubility of molybdenum in organic media. . 0. Uniform corrosion large variety of media including nitric acid and some organic acids.2 – 2.1 – 0. along the rolling or machining direction *** Outokumpu designation – the 2BB product confirms with standard surface finish 2B. A brief description of their resistance to different types of corrosion follows below. Examples of isocorrosion diagrams for ferritic grade 4521 containing 18% chromium and 2% molybdenum are shown in Figure 3. In many cases. For special decorative effects.e. weight-% Isocorrosion diagram. Even non-linear polished finishes are possible to produce in small amounts.2 – 0.6 Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels Decorative finishes In addition to the mill finishes.4 – 0. Temperature (°C) 140 120 100 80 60 40 4521 4401 4301 904L Figure 3 Formic acid Uniform corrosion is characterized by a uniform attack on the steel surface that has come into contact with a corrosive media. Surface finish EN 1D 2E 2B 2BB*** 2G 2K 2J ASTM 1 1 2B 3 4 6 Ra (µm) 4–6 2–4 0. bromides and iodides. In many applications. Alloying with chromium and molybdenum increases resistance to uniform corrosion.5 – 1.   More about the corrosion resistance can be found in the Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook.1 mm/year. The corrosion resistance of type 4016 is highest when it has a smooth and clean surface.1 mm/year. it is objectionable only from an appearance standpoint.0 1. Broken-line curve represents the boiling point. 4016 is also resistant to most domestic liquids such as detergents and soaps.0 – 5. Outokumpu produces also decorative finishes by brushing and grinding sheet and coil. fluorides. Corrosion resistance The corrosion resistances of Outokumpu ferritic stainless steels are superior to that of carbon steel thanks to their higher chromium content (Cr ≥ 11%).0 – 3. Isocorrosion diagram in formic acid of chemical purity. Grade 904L is a high alloyed austenitic grade. Both wet and dry finishing processes are available to realize different appearances of the surface. they match the corrosion resistance of their austenitic counterparts with comparable chromium and molybdenum content.0 0. The corrosion resistance is generally considered good if the corrosion rate is less than 0. Ferritic grades offer a wide range of corrosion resistance properties from non-severe conditions inside the home to rough outdoor conditions.04 0. the corrosion resistance of 4521 is comparable to 4401/4404 type materials. in formic acid of chemical purity.2 Roughness* Rz (µm) 25 – 40 15 – 30 0. Several standard designs are complemented by a huge variety of brushed and ground finishes that can even be tailored by our service centres to meet the highest demands of our customers. Corrosion resistance of 4003 in strong acids is limited compared to standard austenitic steels and it should be used only in mildly corrosive environments without any additional protection. that are free from chlorides. Uniform corrosion is relatively easily measured and predicted. making disastrous failures relatively rare and it can be limited or prevented by an appropriate choice of material.2 – 2.

Both high and low nickel contents give a better resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Material selection sheet for some ferritic and austenitic grades in five different atmospheres.e. Thus. When compared to a 4301/4307 austenitic grade. and has only slightly lower resistance than 4301/4307 austenitic grade. pH value. and high. The risk for intergranular corrosion can be reduced by decreasing the carbon content and/or by stabilising the steel. The relatively high chromium content of 4509 improves its resistance to localised corrosion compared to the ferritic grades 4003 and 4016. an elevated temperature (>60°C) is normally required for stress corrosion to occur in stainless steels. titanium and niobium alloying of 4509. the nickel-free ferritic grades have excellent resistances to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking. alloying with an element (titanium or niobium) which forms more stable carbides than chromium. medium. Figure 4 LOCALISED CORROSION RESISTANCE This type of corrosion is characterised by the cracking of materials that are subject to both tensile stress and corrosive environment. The environments which most frequently cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels are aqueous solutions containing chlorides. Type of atmospheres and corrosion category Steel grade Low 4003 4016 4509 4521 4301/4307 4541 4318 4401/4404 4571 + + + – – – Indoor Med X 0 + + + – High X X 0 0 0 + Low 0 + + – + – Rural Med X 0 + – + – High X 0 0 – + – Low X X + – + – Urban Med X X 0 + + + High X X X 0 0 + Low X X X + 0 + Industrial Med X X X 0 0 + High X X X X X 0 Low X X X + + + Marine Med X X X 0 0 + Table 8 High X X X 0 X 0 + = optimum choice.Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels 7 Pitting and crevice corrosion In chloride containing environments pitting and crevice corrosion is possible depending on various parameters like chloride concentration.Corrosion resistance + 4404 4521 4307 4509 4510 4016 4512 4003 5 10 15 PRE 20 25 30 PRE = %Cr + 3. temperature. Thus. Stress corrosion cracking A comparison of the corrosion resistance properties of the ferritic grades with some austenitic grades. The “PRE” (Pitting Resistance Equivalent number) is a measure of relative pitting corrosion resistance of a stainless steel grade in a chloride containing environment (Figure 4). urban. the ferritic grades such as 4016 show a lower resistance to localized corrosion in chloride media. indoor. Intergranular corrosion . industrial and marine with three different corrosion categories. low. – = overspecified .3 %Mo This type of corrosion is also called grain boundary attack and is characterised by corrosion in a narrow band of material along the grain boundaries. redox potential. This kind of stabilized ferritic grade has good resistance to pitting corrosion. Apart from the presence of chlorides and tensile stresses. i. the more corrosion resistant that grade will be. The risk for stress corrosion cracking is strongly affected by both the nickel content and the microstructure. crevice geometry and others. rural. The higher the PRE value. Operations that increase the risk for intergranular corrosion are welding of heavy gauges. x = not suitable. 4512 and 4521 reduces their sensitivity for intergranular corrosion. o = may be used with precautions. heat treatment operations within the critical temperature interval (900-950 °C) and slow cooling after heat treatment or hot forming. Intergranular corrosion is not a common problem for modern stainless steels since the carbon content is generally kept at a low level. The resistance of 4521 to localised corrosion is close to that of grade 4401/4404 austenitic grade.

4 LDR 2.9 -0.3 2. Roping can be avoided by selecting a Ti -stabilized grade such as 4509. be involved for stainless steels.3 1. The typical LDR value of Outokumpu ferritic grades are given in Table 9. corrosion protective coatings. The ductility of ferritic stainless steels usually decreases when the temperature falls below room temperature. Good deep drawability is characterized by a high value of LDR. 4016 has good resistance to atmospheric corrosion in indoor applications.2 2. This surface defect is characterized by surface undulations parallel to the rolling direction of the sheet.0 2. The IE values of Outokumpu ferritic grades are shown in Figure 6.4 0. Ferritic grades can be used in atmospheric environments of widely varied corrosive severity. or they are regularly wiped dry. wet film created by a combination of humidity and impurities in the air. it may be indoor or outdoor and all local corrosion forms can. Their forming properties are similar to those of low alloyed carbon steels. Grade 4003 4512 4509 4521 4301 Table 9 – LDR r Δr 2.2 1. which is the ratio of the maximum blank diameter to the cup diameter.7 0.8 Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels Atmospheric corrosion The term atmospheric corrosion refers to the corrosion of surfaces in the atmosphere.6 2. Good stretchability is characterized by a high value of IE. a bending radius of half the sheet thickness may be used. .4 2.   Grade 4016 is prone to a surface defect known as “ridging and roping” in deep drawing and other large-strain forming operations. The value of planar anisotropy indicates the amount of an uneven elongation in deep drawing operation and generally referred to as earing. Material thickness 1mm. For sheets thinner than 1 mm. Compared to carbon steel.1 1. The minimum bending radius for Outokumpu ferritic grades equals the sheet thickness. can be applied. 4509 and 4521 are particularly suitable for deep drawing.0 0. The Erichsen Index values for 1mm Outokumpu ferritic grades.3 1.3 2. see Table 9. When used in regions with more corrosive atmospheres.1 The values for the austenitic grade 4301 are given for reference. like epoxy or acrylic based paint systems. thickness and grain size.   The stretchability of Outokumpu ferritic grades is comparable to that of low alloyed carbon steels.0 -0. The LDR depends on the thickness of the sheet as illustrated in Figure 5. They are used also in outdoor applications where aesthetics are not the key requirement. Alternatively. depending on the grade. An indicator of material stretchability is the Erichsen Index (IE) value. The stabilized grades 4512.1 2 0. LDR as a function of thickness for Outokumpu 4509. Low earing tendency is characterized by a Δr–value close to zero. Sharp bends should be positioned perpendicular to the rolling direction.1 2. for example industrial zones or coastal areas.5 2. such as inside the home where they are not exposed to water.5 Figure 5 Fabrication Formability 2 Thickness (mm) Outokumpu ferritic grades can be readily cold-formed by all standard processes. 2. Their deep drawability is comparable to that of deep drawing quality carbon steels. The drawability of a material can be described with the average plastic strain ratio r ¯ and the planar anisotropy Δr values. they corrode more slowly. 4510 or 4521.6 0. The height of the ears can be 5-10% of the height of the cup.   Grades 4003 and 4512 are best suited for non-severe conditions. in principle. An indicator of deep drawability is the limiting drawing ratio (LDR).   In the case of an aggressive environment a grade with higher chromium and/or molybdenum content is recommended. in the thin. Therefore demanding cold-forming operations should be carried out with material having room temperature.5 1 1. Typical LDR and anisotropy values for Outokumpu ferritics. a smooth surface finish becomes important to avoid staining and regular cleaning is necessary to maintain the original appearance. This type of corrosion occurs on a steel surface. 12 Erichsen Index (mm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 4003 4016 4512 4509 4521 Figure 6 4301 The austenitic grade 4301 is included as a reference.

but usually requires an exposure to specific temperature region for several hours or even several years. . distortion and buckling is much lower during welding when compared to that of austenitic or duplex stainless steels. i. This grade is not considered to be used in as-welded condition. On the other hand. MMA) • Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW. second-generation ferritics. Titanium stabilization improves autogenously welded joints by refining the grain structure in the weld metal. Although the significance of grain coarsening embrittlement has somewhat diminished over the years.g. Welding Modern ferritic stainless steels are readily weldable with conventional welding methods including: • Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW. the stabilized grades are practically immune to intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition. 4509 etc. Second-phase embrittlement phenomena. the guidelines regarding the machining parameters and tools given for the low alloyed carbon steels can be used. due to the lower thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity.e. titanium and niobium. Consequently. Stabilization prevents the chromium carbide precipitation. grain coarsening and sensitization. subsequently transforming into martensite and ferrite during cooling. niobium most effectively restricts the grain coarsening in the HAZ. severe embrittlement can occur. Microstructures of ferritics diverge quite a lot depending on the chemical composition of a particular grade. which is much more preferred. Their machining characteristics are similar to those of low alloyed carbon steels with tensile strength of 500 MPa. a postweld heat treatment at 750-800 °C is required for adequate ductility and corrosion resistance in the weld region. nitrogen. the use of a low heat input is still compulsory for ferritic grades producing satisfactory welds (Figure 9). Low chromium grades are practically immune to these secondary-phase formations but the risk increases with higher chromium content. which could otherwise lead to a sensitization embrittlement. Low and medium chromium unstabilized grades usually constist of a mixture of austenite and ferrite at elevated temperatures e. The high austenite content restricts the grain coarsening efficiently. Dual-stabilization (Ti+Nb) notably improves the weldability characteristics. TIG) • Gas metal arc welding (GMAW. 475 °C embrittlement. mostly due to the effects of chromium. Nonetheless.e.and Laves-phase formations are not usually a concern during welding. Stabilized ferritics i. HAZ evolution of ferritic grades. Low Cr grade 4003 is essentially low carbon lath martensitic in the as-welded condition. grade 4003 is the most suitable ferritic grade for structural use and it is included into the Eurocode 3. Consequently. namely grain boundary martensite. In addition. Welding naturally increases the grain size in the heataffected zone (HAZ) but fortunately the carbide and nitride precipitates restrict the grain coarsening similarly to that of austenite in unstabilized grades.Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels 9 Machining Ferritic stainless steels are relatively easy to machine. carbon. The traditional high carbon grade 4016 produces many unwanted phenomena in the weld region. sigma. Due to the excellent toughness properties both in as-delivered and in as-welded conditions (Figure 8). Traditional grade 4016 Figure 7 Modern grades Low carbon 4003 Stabilized. during welding. MIG/MAG) • Plasma arc welding (PAW) • Laser welding • Resistance welding • High frequency welding (HF) Weldability Low interstitial levels and added stabilizers have made enormous improvements to the welding characteristics of ferritic grades (Figure 7). stay ferritic all the way to the molten metal due to the addition of titanium and/or niobium. and lath martensite prevents sensitization by disallowing chromium carbide precipitation.

Due to the limited dissolution of interstitials in ferrite. Hydrogen or nitrogen gases shall not be used when welding ferritics. 439 308L. cold-cracking.g. °C Some loss of toughness is observed in the HAZ due to e. few hours at 200 °C can be effective restoring the ductility of hydrogen embrittled regions. which restores the intergranular corrosion resistance. higher additions of oxygen or carbon-dioxide should be avoided. grain coarsening.e. Helium is sometimes used alongside argon when higher welding speeds are preferred. °C Notice the superb toughness of the base metal and lath martensitic HAZ even in arctic temperatures. For grade 4016. 439 316L. As mentioned previously.22 KJ/m m) 100 Ba se me tal 50 DBTT Shielding gases for ferritic grades are usually argon-based with additional 1-2% O2 / CO2. 309L. DBTT = Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature Filler metals Standard austenitic filler metals are normally used due to their availability. according to ISO 14343-A. 23 12 L. please see the Outokumpu Welding Handbook. However. Nitrogen increases harmfully the interstitial content of the weld metal and adjacent HAZ. For more information on welding and postweld treatments. a low temperature heat treatment e. Ferritic fillers shall only be used for single pass welds. Figure 9 308L. 430LNb. postweld heat treatment can be used for improving the mechanical and corrosion properties of some particular grades. Heat treatment time depends on material thickness. due to increased risk for grain growth in the weld metal. Mechanical cleaning like brushing or grinding gives some improvement but the best results are usually obtained with chemical cleaning methods like pickling pastes or baths. according to ISO 14343-B / AWS A5. heat treatment at 750-800 °C improves the ductility of the weld region by tempering the hard and brittle martensite. . Ferritic ones are preferred under thermal stresses. 410 308L. sour environments or in situations where stress corrosion cracking could occur. J/cm 2 150 Base m 50 HA Z (h ea ti np 100 19 9 L. excellent toughness and good corrosion resistance. 26 DBTT Suitable filler metals for Outokumpu ferritic grades.10 Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels Impact toughness of the grade 4003.g. Material thickness is 2 mm. but usually 1-2 hours is preferred. this treatment allows chromium back-diffusion. 13 19 9 L. 18 L Nb. Post fabrication treatments -40 0 20 -20 Testing temperature. However. the postweld heat treatment is generally unnecessary and often undesirable. Z 17 Ti 19 12 3 L. Impact toughness of the grade 4509. Typical filler metal selection charts are presented in Tables 10 and 11. DBTT = Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. Z 12 L Nb. 309LMo Shielding gases Impact energy. J/cm 2 150 HAZ (hea t inp ut 0 . 430LNb 308L. 409LNb. although high service temperatures can tolerate the issue. 18 L Nb 19 9 L. 23 12 2 L ut 0. Welding reduces the resistance to localised corrosion and therefore various surface cleaning methods are preferred. 18 L Nb 19 9 L.9 Grade 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 Filler metal Table 11 -40 -20 0 20 Testing temperature. Furthermore. which is a common problem with all ferritic grades. etal m ) KJ /m Figure 8 Suitable filler metals for Outokumpu ferritic grades. Z 17 Ti 19 9 L. 430LNb 308L. Hydrogen promotes hydrogen induced cracking i. Grade 4003 4512 4016 4510 4509 4521 Filler metal Table 10 Impact energy. toughness is limited when using ferritic filler metals. For low interstitial or stabilized ferritic grades. Material thickness is 2 mm.

Stainless Steel tubes Forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges. cold rolled sheet and strip.outokumpu. steels for constructions Welded steel tubes for pressure purposes – Stainless steel tubes Welded circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes . forged fittings etc. . Before using products supplied or manufactured by the company the customer should satisfy himself of their suitability.Outokumpu Ferritic Stainless Steels 11 Products Ferritic grades are available as hot rolled plate. Care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication are accurate but Outokumpu and its affiliated companies do not accept responsibility for errors or for information which is found to be composition Information given in this brochure may be subject to alterations without notice. technical delivery conditions. sheet and strip. Suggestions for or descriptions of the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and Outokumpu and its affiliated companies accept no liability in respect thereof. Material standards EN 10028-7 EN 10088-2 EN 10088-3 EN 10088-4 EN 10217-7 EN 10296-2 ASTM A182 / ASME SA-182 ASTM A240 / ASME SA-240 ASTM A276 ASTM A479 / ASME SA-479 Eurocode 3 / EN 1993-1-4 ISO 15510 Flat products for pressure purposes – Stainless steels Stainless steels – Corrosion resisting sheet/plate/strip for general and construction purposes Table 12 Stainless steels – Corrosion resisting semi-finished products/bars/rods/wire/sections for general and construction purposes Stainless steel flat products. go to www. for high temperature service Heat-resisting Cr and Cr-Ni stainless steel plate/sheet/strip for pressure purposes Stainless and heat-resisting steel bars/shapes Stainless steel bars for boilers and other pressure vessels Design of steel structures – Part 1-4: General rules – Supplementary rules for stainless steels Stainless steels . For more information. and as bar and rods depending on steel grades.

Outokumpu is a global leader in stainless outokumpu. technical know-how and support. Customers in a wide range of industries use our stainless steel and services worldwide. Sweden. You have the idea. Finland research. What makes Outokumpu special is total customer focus – all the way. Our vision is to be the undisputed number one in stainless. with success based on operational . 2012. as well as very strong and durable material. Being fully recyclable. Tornio Research Centre 95490 Tornio. We offer world-class stainless steel. Centrumtryck AB. maintenance-free.1510EN-GB:1. Outokumpu General Stainless. Avesta. from R&D to delivery. stainless steel is one of the key building blocks for sustainable future. June.stainless@outokumpu.