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# 2.

Constant Rule

## 2.3 Continuous Functions 3.1 Definition of Derivative

3.2 Differentiability A graph fails to be differentiable: 1) at a corner, 2) when there is a vertical tangent, 3) at a cusp, 4) when it is discontinuous

Intermediate Value Theorem If f is continuous on closed interval [a,b] and c is any number between f(a) and f(b), then there is at least one number x on the interval such that f(x) = c.

Difference Quotient: 3.3 Taking Derivatives Power Rule: Product Rule: Quotient Rule: 3.4 Motion Along a Line Speeding up when v(t) and a(t) are the same sign. Slowing down when v(t) and a(t) are opposite signs. Limit Identities

3.6 Composite Functions and Chain Rule Slopes of Parametrized Curves (x(t), y(t)) is differential at t if x and y are differential at t

d/dt is the derivative of dy/dx d/dx is the actual second derivative 3.7 Implicit Differentiation Differentiate the whole thing with dy/dx. 3.8 Derivative of Inverse f(x) If f is a one-to-one, differential function with inverse g,

Derivatives

Logarithmic Differentiation Take the log or natural log of both sides and differentiate. Usually when there are fractions or a variable in the exponent. 4.1 Absolute/Extreme Values There can be more than one absolute max/min because they have the same y but different x values. There can be a point that is both max and min if the line is a constant horizontal no slope. Absolute Max: Absolute Min: Relative/Local Values Relative Max: at c if Relative Min: at c if

## for all x on an interval for all x on an interval

Extreme Value Theorem If f is continuous on [a,b] then f has an absolute max and an absolute min on the interval. 4.2 Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives If f is continuous and [a,b] and differential on (a,b) then there exists at least one point c such that:

(the slope of the tangent = the slope of the secant line through a,b) Definitions Let f be defined on an interval with x1 and x2 as any points on the interval where x1 < x2. Increasing: If x1 < x2 then f(x2) > f(x1) for all of (x1, x2) Decreasing: If x1 < x2 then f(x2) < f(x1) If f(x) = 0 at each point in interval, then f(x) = c If f(x) = g(x) at each point on an interval, then f(x) = g(x) + c 4.3 1st Derivative f(x) increases when f(x) > 0 and decreases when f(x) < 0 f(x) has a max when f(x) changes from + to f(x) has a min when f(x) changes from to +

2nd Derivative When f(x) > 0, f(x) is concave up When f(x) < 0, f(x) is concave down Point of inflection is where the 2nd derivative changes sign 2nd Derivative Test Find CTP (where f(x) = 0 or does not exist) Evaluate the second derivative. If < 0, then concave down and maximum. If > 0, then concave up and minimum. 4.4 Modeling/Optimization (Max/Min) Make an equation out of thte known info and then solve for max or min depending on what you need. Cost and Revenue

Cost function C(x); average cost is minimum when marginal cost (C(x)) equals the average cost. Profit P(x) = R(x) C(x) R(x) = C(x) maximum profit when marginal revenue = marginal cost R(x) = xp(x) where p(x) is the price function (demand) Break even point is when revenue = cost. 4.5 Linearization Given f(x), derive to find f(x), then with given value a, substitute into L(x). Then approximate a new value using L(x). Differentials

## Newtons Method Used to approximate zeros and roots.

Calculator

Example is a solution of x2 5. f(x) is x2 5. Pick x1 as 2 or 3 and approximate. 4.6 Related Rates Diagram, then write known and unknowns using Leibniz notation. ie. You have given information, draw a diagram. Given rates of change, write them down as dy/dt or dx/dt, then use given info to come up with an equation, derive, substitute and solve to find the unknown rate. 5.1 Riemann Sum

Part 2

## Simpsons Rule Uses a series of parabolic arcs to approximate the curve.

where n must be even 6.1 Antiderivatives Differential Equation an equation that contains a derivative Separation of Variables Move the variables to each side, then integrate. 6.2 Substitution Method Let u and du. Use u(a) and u(b) for limits. 6.3 Integration By Parts

## 6.4 Exponential Growth/Decay

Newtons Law of Cooling The rate at which an object temperature is changing at any given time is approximately proportional to the difference between its temperature and the surrounding temperature.