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326

lEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, V O L . 10, NO. 3, MAY 1995

A PWM Method for Reduction of Switching Loss in a Full-Bridge Inverter
Ray-Shyang Lai and Khai D. T. Ngo, Member, ZEEE
Abstmct-TThis paper presents the “hybrid pulsewidth mod“( method Which requires O d Y two Of the four Ulatim”1 switches in a to be pulsewidth-modulatedat high frequency, thus significantly reducing the switching losses in the other two switches. For triangular d e n , EfpwM the as the conventional same frequency spectrum and switching losse~ udp0lU PWM (UPWM).A low-frequency model for a fastswitching m-bridiF with hi@qd@ Output is described, and is substantiated by experimental data.

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[l], motor drives, and active filters [2]. The inverter COmpriSeS and S21/S22. The switching poles are switching poles S11/S12 commonly controlled by a variety of PWM techniques [3] and by phase-shifted square-wave drives L41In phase-shifted square-wave drives, the switches are commutated at the output frequency to generate square waves at A and B whose phases are shifted to control the amplitude of v A R . The low switching frequency permits the switching NOMENCLATURE lossisto be low, but generates low-order harmonics which are difficult to filter. ?E is the low-frequency components of 2. In PWM techniques, all switches are usually commutated Bipolar PWM. at a frequency higher than the output frequency so that the PWM carrier waveform or signal. switching harmonics are moved to high frequency and can Filter capacitor. be filtered more easily. Thus, the output waveforms can Effective duty ratio, -1 < de < 1. be made sinusoidal at the expense of high switching loss. Output frequency; modulation frequency. Commonly used PWM techniques are sinusoidal PWM, “overSwitching frequency; carrier frequency. Hybrid PWM. modulated” PWM, and selective-harmonic-elimination PWM HPWM harmonic order. [ 5 ] . In several of these techniques, a modulation waveform is Inductor current. compared with a carrier waveform to determine the switching Integer for locating sideband groups. pattern. The resulting harmonic spectra are usually sensitive to Integer for locating sidebands. the carrier waveform, usually a ramp or a triangular waveform, Filter inductor. as well as to the ratio of the switching frequency to modulation Modulation waveform or signal. frequency. Amplitude modulation ratio. The HPWM technique described herein was conceived to Frequency modulation ratio. synthesize high-quality output waveforms without significant Effective frequency modulation ratio. switching loss penalty. The name arises because in HPWM Quality factor. two of the four switches are pulsewidth-modulated at high Load resistance. frequency for high-quality output, and the other two are SZ2). Switch (also: S 1 2 , S21, commutated at the (low) output frequency to reduce switching Switching function of ,911 (also: 312, sal,3 2 2 ) . losses. The HPWM principle is demonstrated herein for sinuUnipolar PWM. Voltages and nodes A and B. soidal PWM. It can also be demonstrated for the other PWM Bridge output voltage. techniques, as well as for “soft” PWM [61. It is interesting DC input voltage. to note that the mixture of fast and slow switches in the Amplitude of harmonic order h ~ p ~ ~ . same converter is not new. For instance, the “six-step’’ PWM Amplitude of output voltage. described in [71 may be considered an implementation of Output voltage. HPWM in three-phase inverters. LC comer frequency. The HPWM principle and frequency spectrum are described Output angular frequency. in Section I1 and compared with the commonly used sinusoidal PWM schemes. A low-frequency state-space model for a fast switching HPWM inverter is derived in Section 111. The I. INTRODIJCTION switch losses in an HPWM inverter and two conventional HE full-bridge inverter in Fig. 1 is widely employed in pm inverters are compared in Section Iv. Both inverter various applications, such as photovoltaic-utility interface operation and model are verified experimentally in Section
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Manuscript received December 9, 1993; revised February 16, 1995. The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6200 USA. IEEE Log Number 9411042.

V. The significant results are summarized in Section VI. In the derivations, the default unit system is SI (MKS). When this is not the case, the unit will be stated explicitly.

0885-8993/95$04.00 0 1995 IEEE

Thus. A “positive” buck converter results with V . they can be implemented using slow power semiconductor devices (e. 2. (8) If the frequency of c is much higher than the frequency of m. The HPWM switch operation is illustrated in Fig. Waveforms describing the HPWM switch operation. and the observation that W. (13) (2) (3) The preceding equation is the synthesis rule for HPWM.s21)vg* (1 1) From (21. 5’11 as the active switch with duty ratio d e . 11. (12) ‘0. . The common connection of the buck dc-dc converters is node B. (61. Thus. p=O. A “negative” buck converter results with -V. and (II). (10) (9) - v. one for each polarity of de or w.” When de < 0.. < 0. S 1 2 as the active switch with duty ratio -de. via 5’21. m>c m<c. 1. A full-bridge inverter.512 are de>O A. m = Idel. B is connected to the negative terminal of V .. which usually have lower conduction losses than the corresponding fast power semiconductor devices (e. which is generally low. the switching functions of S1l and . An efficient way to synthesize a positive (negative) v. This can be accomplished by turning on only 5’22 in the S 2 1 / S 2 2 switch pair when v. via S 2 2 . (I2). and the other two pulsewidth-modulated at high frequency. Since 5’21 and S 2 2 are switched at low frequency. A typical pulsewidth modulator receives as input a carrier waveform c and a modulation waveform m and outputs a switching function p according to p=l. of an active filter. MOSFET’s). M CAB = deVg. > 0.. . The switching functions of 5’21 and S 2 2 are = (311 . From (919 (lo). is generally “smooth” and contains practically the low-frequency components of the bridge output voltage VAB which is a PWM waveform. for the following discussion. B is connected to the positive terminal of V . would employ only positive (negative) and zefo pulses in VAB. the low-frequency components of p satisfies pxm where in HPWM. When de > 0. Furthermore.921 and . the S l l / S 1 2 switch pair needs to be driven by a pulsewidth modulator... Fig.921 when v..” Thus. Note that de can contain low-order harmonics to synthesize loworder harmonics for v. Idel < 1 . VAB = P v g .LAI AND NGO: A PWM METHOD FOR REDUCTION OF SWITCHING LOSS 327 + “g -T 1 I 1 If the negative terminal of V . and S I 2 as the “diode. VAB One can expect that because of the LC filter. de The voltage at node A is then VA =sllvg.. de > 0 de < 0. and by turning on only .g. and S 1 1 as the “diode. GTO thyristors). It will be shown later that the effective duty ratio de is proportional to the low-frequency components of the output voltage w. their switching losses are greatly reduced. HPWM WAVEFORMS AND FREQUENCY SPECTRA An HPWM full-bridge inverter is equivalent to two buck dcdc converters. and S 1 1 and S 1 2 the role of the fast (PWM)switches.g. 2. is used as the circuit common. any two of the four switches in the inverter can be operated at the output frequency f. (5) Fig. HPWM Waveforms In general. (1) From (4) and (8). VAB = -pVg. as input. For simplicity. as input.922 are switched at the output frequency f. the output voltage v. the voltage at node B is To synthesize a sinusoidal v.. S 2 1 and Sm are assigned the role of the slow switches.

In these figures. HPWM Frequency Spectra If the carrier frequency is not significantly higher than the modulation frequency. the bridge voltages ( W A B ) for these PWM techniques were constructed from the respective modulation waveforms ( m ) and the carrier waveform (c). 5(a)). Consequently. for triangular carriers. 10. and (b) with m a = 0. there is no need to derive the frequency spectrum for HPWM with a triangular carrier since the frequency spectrum for UPWM with a triangular carrier has been given in [4]. the frequency spectrum needs to be identified so that the appropriate steps to deal with undesirable harmonics may be taken. (a) Modulation and carrier waveforms. . 4. [ti]. respectively.and to compare HPWM with the conventional unipolar PWM (UPWM) and bipolar PWM (BPWM).w A B ( ~ ) )and half-wave symmetry ( W A B ( ~ 1 / 2 f s ) = -'UAB(t)). In order to identify the frequency spectrum of HPWM. 4(a). and WAB for HPWM. 3. The modulation functions for the two pulsewidth modulators are out-of-phase as illustrated in Fig. 3-5 show c. (a) Modulation and carrier waveforms. although mf = 9 in Fig. identical frequency spectra for V A B . 6(a) and 7(a). VAB for HPWM Fig. (a) Modulation and carrier waveforms. and BPWM.UPWM. 3. NO. 3(a) are the rectijied UPWM modulation and carrier waveforms in Fig.. the effective frequency modulation ratio found in V A B is Fig. each switching pole is driven by its own pulsewidth modulator.8 and m f ' = 18. the use of out-of-phase modulation functions for the switching poles effectively doubles the switching frequency. 5. Thus. A comparison of Figs. f k . 4(a). HPWM and UPWM generate identical W A Band.m.328 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.8 and m f = 9.8 and mf = 17. Figs. there is a corresponding HPWM harmonic order ~ H P W M with . k). (17) For each harmonic order ~ U P W M determined by the set ( j . respectively. 4(a). VOL. Since the W A B of HPWM and UPWM has odd symmetry ( ~ ~ g ( -= t ) . VAB for UPWM B. This is because the HPWM modulation and carrier waveforms in Fig. The frequency spectra of HPWM and UPWM are shown in Figs. only positive (negative) and zero pulses are present in the positive (negative) half cycle of m. VAB for B P W M m. even m. respectively. only odd harmonics are present. In addition. odd k. (16) hence. 3(b) and 4(b) suggests that for triangular carriers. Thus. (b) Fig. W A B contains both positive and negative pulses in the positive (or negative) half cycle of m. and (b) with m a = 0. hUpWM = jm.911 and 5 2 2 are turned on and off together by a single pulsewidth modulator and a single modulation waveform (Fig. the UPWM harmonic orders for a triangular carrier are + Note that the UPWM m$ has been selected to equal the HPWM m f . In UPWM. Consequently. and (b) with m a = 0. as is evident in Fig. MAY 1995 " I a ' 0 -"I 0 I ' lir. = 2mf = 18. 4(b). the amplitude modulation ratio ma and the frequency modulation ratio m f are defined as follows for sinusoidal PWM: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -I& (a) "I 0 I ' (15) In BPWM. According to [4].

A. and its rectification is a triangular carrier of the same frequency. ma = 0. The maximum harmonic amplitude of HPWM appears to be lower than that of UPWM.8 and m f = 18. During the remainder of the switching pe~od.its harmonics are more difficult to filter.S11 is on and the positive buck converter becomes the switched circuit in Fig. than HPWM and UPWM. 9(b). 6. and (b) ramp carrier. m a = 0. respectively. This is because the ramp carrier does not possess half-wave symmetry. The harmonic spectrum of BPWM with a triangular carrier is shown in Fig. During d e / f s . HPWM INVERTEROPERATION AND ANALYSIS dr P 'b 10 U) 3 0 & & - 70 80 90 100 Fig. HPWM generates less sidebands than UPWM. the HPWM converter transforms into a positive buck converter when de > 0 and a negative buck converter when de < 0. even m f . and is thus more popular. (a) UPWM harmonic spectra of V A B generated using a triangular carrier.S l 2 is on and the . and (b) ramp carrier (b).8 and m f = 17. S22 is tumed on and the positive buck converter shown in Fig. 8. odd IC. m a = 0. 9(a) results. [8]. 8 for comparison purpose.LAI AND NGO: A PWM METHOD FOR REDUCTION OF SWITCHING LOSS 329 3c' 2 ( 1C' 8 Fig. As long as de > 0. 10 U) 30dOf&& 70 80 90 100 Fig. for ramp carriers. It can be observed that the frequency-doubling effect in the UPWM waveform is lost.8 and m f = 9. HWPM Inverter Operation During the course of operation. de > O. Figs. 1 1 1 . Although BPWM is simpler to implement. 6(b) and 7(b) show the harmonic spectra for HPWM and UPWM. (18) The amplitude of UPWM can be found in [4]. 1 the same amplitude: h ~ p = wjm ~ f f IC. (a) HPWM harmonic spectra of W A B generated using a triangular carrier. 7. B P W M harmonic spectra of V A B generatedusing a triangular carrier.

Thus. As expected.v. slowly. sin(w. If de is quasi-dc.. 9(c) results. The envelope of this current is the current through the inductor.. U. S 2 1 is turned on and the HPWM inverter is essentially a negative buck converter as shown in Fig. B. and the currents through (C) Sii. one can derive the following state-space equation describing the low-frequency performance of the HPWM inverter: where The current through the inductor L is R .e. 10. 9. = del'. The above equation can be used to determine de for synthesis of a given v. (a) Simulated waveforms for d e . U. Fig. Switch 5'12 is turned on for -d. HPWM Inverter Analysis Fig. (a) Positive buck converter. Let U. 4 vo(t)= V.and (4 Szi. 3. 9(d). NO.330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. The current in 5'21 varies at the frequency of d e .. and switch 5'11 is turned on for the remainder of the switching period.. Using this technique and (13) for the low-frequency components of U A B . and the currents in Sll and Szl. and (b)-(c) its switched circuits. be sinusoidal: (20) Then de can be found by substitution of (20) into (19): The low-frequency behavior of a fast-switching PWM converter can be modeled by the technique described in [9]. 10. = de&(& > 0). As long as de < 0. (b) u0. regardless of the sign of de. MAY 1995 -50 5:§=G 0 Fig. U. (d) negative buck converter. If de is quasi-dc. so is U. U. = -de(-Vg) = de&(de < 0). 10 shows the simulated waveforms for de. VOL. The current in 5'11 is switched at the carrier frequency./f.. is essentially proportional to d e . switched circuit shown in Fig. i. If de is sinusoidal.t).

If the two slow-switched switches in HPWM are replaced by . efficiency. conduction loss in each switch.567 1. The switching carrier was a triangular waveform. A series resistance of 25 mR for L and an effective series resistance of 2 mR for C were also included in the simulation.812 1. (a) "-on waveforms of S11.56 kHz for HPWM and BPWM and fs = 2.507 ua FREO - w. 12.717 S: switching loss in %Pin T :total loss in %Pi. UPWM. it can be deduced that the conduction losses (per switch) are about 0. and total switch losses. whereas the UPWM switching losses are distributed evenly among the four switches. From the total loss and switching loss for each switch in Table I.28 kHz for UPWM.062 i 0. The HPWM switching losses are distributed evenly between the two fast switches. and their switch losses are compared in Table 1.LA1 AND NGO: A PWM METHOD FOR REDUCTION OF SWITCHING LOSS 33 1 TABLE I C O M P A R I S O N OF SWITCH LOSSES IN H P W . 13. COMPARISON OF SWITCH LOSSES Fifty-kilowatt HPWM.oHr Fig. R = 1. and (b) VDS and ID Iv. 0. 11. Vertical scale: 1 Ndiv. = 450 V.500 1.565 ITj S i 0.189 1. U P W .564 0. AND B l " hVERTEX. L = 1. VGGand VGS waveforms. and 18 paralleled IRF450 for each switch. Fig. The simulated inverter had V.55% of the input power (Pin) in all cases. Horizontal scale: 2 mddiv. fo = 60 Hz.C = 30 pF.564 1. The BPWM inverter has the highest overall loss.fs = 4.15 mH.005 1.367 T 0. and BPWM inverters have been simulated with different duty ratios. 10 V/div) and vo (20 V/div) of the experimental HPWM inverter. However.976 0. de (the smaller waveform. this is only true when the switching carrier is triangular and the switches are all identical in both schemes. it is seen that From the analysis in Section 1 HPWM and UPWM are very similar in terms of output quality. 5'22 (bottom). Currents in S z l (top) and Horizontal scale: 2 ms/div.3 S s22 0 0.6 R.734 T 0.413 0.629 1. The overall switching losses are approximately the same in HPWM and UPWM. 1 and Table I. unr 1ov ov Fig.955 1.

” IEEE Trans. in 1990. 254-267. no.. Gainesville. Ngo.” IEEHIAS Annu. Wilson and Y. -t . G.S.911 during the turn-on transient are shown in Fig. and Cyclocon version. Enjeti et al.4. Vertical scale: 1 Ndiv. degrees in the same discipline from the California Institute of Technology. and highfrequency converters for utility systems. HPWM is capable of synthesizing high-quality outputs and low-order harmonics with low loss. waveforms to verify the HPWM z l and 5 2 2 are operation and (21). 13 to prove that the S21/S22 switch pair is operated at low frequency. . 1983. both in electrical engineering. ID. Steigerwald. in 1980 and 1984. The switching loss of HPWM is the same as that of UPWM.S. McMurray. 10. m . pp. A. NO. His current research interests are in low-profile magnetics. . T. T. Khai D. “A practical approach to harmonic compensation in power system-Series connection of passive and active filters. 1989. Hoft. from 1984 to 1988. power integrat e d circuits. VI. b . and C = 5 pF. “Programmed PWM techniques to eliminate harmonics-A critical evaluation. Meeting ConJ Rec. U-9.S. K. [2] i .D. Meeting. H. since 1988. pp. IA-19. power semiconductor devices. NY. MayIJune 1974. 27. MAY 1995 An HPWM inverter operates as a positive buck converter and a negative buck converter.v [3] [4] [5] Fig. Applicat. vol.332 1. 1988. Ngo. Peng. . IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.A. Power Electronics: Converters. J. From July 1991 to December 1992. 1991. Ind. G. Taiwan. Yeamans. RJ3ERENCES [I] R. For triangular carriers. and the M. Robinns. vol. D. . Fig. 1020-1025. Pomona. he served as an assistant power engineer in the Preparatory Office of Taipei Rapid Transit Systems. New York. no.. 12 shows the de and v. pp. a branch of the Taipei Municipal Government for public transportation service planning. the HPWM spectrum is identical to the UPWM spectrum with half the carrier frequency. Power Electron. Mohan. The abrupt decrease in the I D waveform at 734. P. The control-to-output transfer function is linear. Horizontal scale: 2 devices with much lower switching speed.” lEEE Trans. Patel and R. Rectification. Mar. The switches were IFR530. A. “Resonant snubbers with auxiliary switches. California Institute of Technology. and A. New York: John Wiley. no. respectively.fs= 10 kHz. V. “Application of power transistor to residential and intermediaterating photovoltaic array power conditioners. N 0 v . pp. CONCLUSION Since it requires only two of the four switches in a fullbridge inverter to operate at low frequency.and VGG (gate drive) of MOSFET switch . L. W. 223-230. in 1988.911. Applications and Design. “Intrinsic harmonics of idealized inverter PWM systems. VOL. He has been an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Florida.8. P. K. “Low frequency characterization of PWM converter. and is superior to the BPWM spectrum. Ray-Shyang L a i received the B. vol. N. Akagi. V. . degree from the University of Florida. degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Califomia State Polytechnic University. 2. pp.” 1976 IEEE/IAS Annu. The inverter had V. pro@ ram in December 1994. .S. 1984. Current through ddiv.5 ps is caused by the “snappy” behavior of the diode model. The experiment generally supports the feasibility of HPWM. which usually have low conduction losses compared to the faster switches with the same ratings. Topology and Analysis in PWM Inversion. F. 829-834. Pasadena.” IEEE Trans I d Applicat. and the M. no. degree from the National Taipei Institute of Technology.. = 50 V. He returned to the University of Florida to complete his study in 1993 and began a Ph.92 mH. He was a Member of Technical S t a f f at General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center.D. M. fo = 60 Hz.. 14. N. pp. Ferraro. D. H. 41W30. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION [6] [7] [8] [9] A 50 W HPWM inverter was built to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. Undeland.. Oct. = 62. PE-I. Ngo (S’82-M’84) received the B. Z. in 1979. 967-973. =0. Gainesville. Thesis. . The waveforms VDS. and F. The feasibility of HPWM has been verified by simulation and experiment.and is approximately half that of BPWM.. T.L = 2. 4. 14. 310-317. His c m n t research interests are in the power convei% e r circuits and power quality control of distribution System. 6. 11. T.. The current in the fast switch S 1 1 is as shown in Fig. vol. and are typical of diode-clamped inductive switching. 1986. Tumbull. VGS. and W. .R = 22 R. Nabae. Schenectady. pp. The currents through S shown in Fig.5 V . Applicar. 3.D. HPWM can have the lowest total losses among the three switching schemes. i C H I P-P 44. Ph. 1989. 3./Apr.. W.” IEEE IAS Con?Rec. May. I d . IEEE Trans. and Ph. “Generalized techniques of harmonic elimination and voltage control in thyristors: Part I-Harmonic elimination.