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ZOOM

Technologies

Autonomous System

ZOOM
Technologies

With in AS IGP works ex. RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS

AS

AS Between AS EGP works BGP

AS
• Autonomous System is a set of routers under a single technical administration, using an interior gateway protocol and common metrics to route packets within the AS

– Data traffic path entering or leaving A.S. need to manipulated . (Ex.S.S. connected to multiple A.Single-homed Autonomous Systems ZOOM Technologies Internet / Other AS When to use BGP ZOOM Technologies • BGP is more appropriate if one of the following condition exist – A.S.S. working as transit A. ISP) – A.

• Updates are incremental and trigger .When not to use BGP ZOOM Technologies • BGP is not recommended if one or more following condition exist – If it is Single-home A. CIDR. auto and manual summary (BGP-4) • It is Exterior Gateway protocol • Designed to scale huge inter-network like internet. VLSM.S – Lack of recourses like memory and less processing power in routers – Low bandwidth link between A. – Support FLSM.S – Limited understanding about BGP route filtering and path selection processes BGP Features ZOOM Technologies • Open Standard • Advance distance vector protocol – Path vector protocol • Classless.

799.0.0/8 12.0.0. 200.0. 2007 11.0/8 AS805 AS path : 2019.0.0/8 12.0. TCP port 179 • Metric = Attributes • Administrative distance – 20 External updates – 200 Internal updates • BGP is not designed for load balancing.0. Uses only one path per network Path Vector ZOOM Technologies AS200 AS2003 AS path : 2003.0/8 AS 2007 11.0. 2007 11.BGP Features (continued) ZOOM Technologies • It send updates to manually defined neighbor as unicast • BGP is application layer protocol uses TCP for reliability.0.0.0.0/8 12.0/8 AS799 AS2019 .0.

2007 11. • AS Path is one of the attribute of BGP.Path Vector ZOOM Technologies AS200 AS2003 AS path : 2003.0.0.0/8 BGP Databases ZOOM Technologies • Neighbor table – List of BGP neighbours • BGP forwarding table/database – List of all networks learned from each neighbor. AS path : 2019.0. Path with less AS hop is best path.0/8 AS805 • IGPs announce networks and cost to reach those networks. BGP uses Attribute as Metric. • BGP announces pathways and the networks thatAS2019 are AS799 reachable at the end of the pathway.0/8 12.0. 2007 11.0/8 12. 799. 200.0.0.0.0/8 AS 2007 11.0. – Can contain multiple pathways to destination networks – Database contains BGP attributes for each pathway • IP routing table – List of best paths to destination networks .0.0/8 12.0.0.0.

BGP Message Type ZOOM Technologies OPEN Keep-Alive Update Notification BGP Neighbors ZOOM Technologies • BGP neighbors are routers forming TCP connection for exchanging BGP updates. • Two type of BGP neighbor relationship. – IBGP – EBGP . Also called as BGP Peers or BGP Speakers.

S.BGP Neighbors ZOOM Technologies AS 110 S0 S1 A S2 S2 IBGP S0 S1 B S0 S1 S0 C EBGP S1 S0 EBGP D F AS 5252 E AS 2121 IBGP: Router Forming neighbor relationship within A. IBGP neighbors doesn't need to be directly connected EBGP: Router Forming neighbor relationship between two different A.> Configuring BGP Routing Protocol Router(config-router)# network <network ID> [mask <subnet mask> • Only one instance of BGP per Router • Same network prefix must exist in routing table • Network may not need to be directly connected • Network without subnet mask will take classfull mask . EBGP neighbors needs to be directly connected BGP Configuration ZOOM Technologies Configuring BGP Routing Protocol Router(config)# router bgp <AS no.S.

0.0.> • Router should have a route to reach neighbor • Same command for IBGP and EBGP neighbor BGP Routing Issue ZOOM Technologies OSPF S0 AS 110 IBGP RouteS2 11.0.0.0/8 B S0 S0 C EBGP S1 S0 EBGP D F 11.0.0.BGP Configuration ZOOM Technologies Configuring BGP Routing Protocol Router(config-router)# neighbor <IP-Address> remote-as <AS No.0/8 S0 S1 EBGP Route 11.0.0/8 E AS 2121 AS 5252 .0.0/8 S1 A S2 IBGP S1 EBGP Route 11.

1 11.0.0.0.BGP Routing Issue ZOOM Technologies OSPF S0 AS 110 S2 S1 A Routing Table S2 IBGP S0 S1 Pro B B S0 Routing Table S1 Pro S0 DATA for Network 11.0/8 AS 5252 Solution : • Redistribute BGP into IGP (Not recommended) • Run BGP in All transit routers (routers coming in path from one A.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0/8 S1 A S2 IBGP S0 S0 S1 EBGP Route 11.0/8 E AS 2121 11.0.0.0.1 Int 11.0.0/8 B S0 S1 C EBGP S1 S0 EBGP D F 11.0.0.0/8 E AS 2121 AS 5252 Split Horizon : • Updates coming from IBGP neighbor cannot be forwarded to other IBGP neighbors .0/8 Int S0 S1 C EBGP DATA for Network 11.1 11.0.0.S to other) Split Horizon in BGP ZOOM Technologies OSPF S0 AS 110 IBGP RouteS2 11.0.0.0/8 route ? D EBGP Pro B Routing Table Network DATA for Int S0 S0 F 11.

0.0.0.0.0.0.0/8 B S0 S1 S0 C EBGP S1 S0 EBGP D F 11.0.0.0.0/8 S1 A IBGP S2 EBGP Route 11.0.0/8 B EBGP C EBGP S1 S0 D EBGP F 11.0/8 11.0.0/8 E AS 2121 AS 5252 Solution: • Configure full mesh IBGP neighbor relationship • Use Route Reflector BGP .Full Mesh IBGP Neighbor ZOOM Technologies OSPF S0 AS 110 S2 IBGP IBGP Route Route 11.0.0/8 E AS 2121 AS 5252 Problems : • In Star topology same routing updates to different router need to pass through hub router • This creates repetition of same updates • BGP in full mesh creates (n X (n -1))/2 IBGP Neighbor relationship F AS 5251 .Star Topology ZOOM Technologies OSPF S0 AS 110 IBGP Route 11.0.0.0/8 S0 S1 EBGP Route 11.0.0/8 S1 A S2 S2 S0 IBGP S0 S2 S0 S1 EBGP Route 11.0.

0.0. • Server updates remaining clients.0.0/8 IBGP RouteS2 11. BGP States ZOOM Technologies Idle Connect Active Open Sent Open Confirm Establish .0.0/8 S1 ZOOM Technologies Server OSPF S0 AS 110 R R Client S0 S1 EBGP Route 11.0.0/8 A S2 IBGP S0 S0 S2 R R Client C EBGP R R Client E AS 2121 S1 S0 B EBGP EBGP D F 11.0.0.0/8 AS 5252 Solution : F AS 5251 • Client updates server.Route Reflector IBGP Route R R 11.0.

0. It cannot be used in routing table nor send to other EBGP neighbor till same update come from Interior Gateway Protocol.0/8 E AS 2121 AS 5252 BGP Synchronization Rule : • If updates is received from IBGP neighbor.0. .0.0/8 B S0 S1 C EBGP S1 S0 EBGP D F 11.0.0.0/8 S1 A IBGP S0 S2 S0 S1 EBGP Route 11.0.BGP Synchronization ZOOM Technologies OSPF S0 AS 110 IBGP RouteS2 11.