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2nd IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon 08), December 1-3, 2008, Johor Baharu, Malaysia

A Control Strategy for the Grid-connected PV System Using a Z-Source Inverter
Jong-Hyoung Park* , Heung-Geun Kim**, Tae-Won Chun***, Eui-Cheol Nho****, Hyun-Jin Shin*****, and Min-Hun chi******
Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Email: bell@knu.ac.kr Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Email: hgkim@knu.ac.kr *** University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Republic of Korea. Email: twchun@mail.ulsan.ac.kr **** PuKyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea. Email: nhoec@pknu.ac.kr ***** Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Email: azurekid@naver.com ****** Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Email: cmh2525@hanmail.net
** *

Abstract— This paper presents the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) and PCC (Point of Common Coupling) current control strategy for grid-connected PV system using the ZSI (Z-source inverter). Several requirements of an inverter for PV-system and the shootthrough effect of the ZSI are analyzed. And then, the MPPT algorithm and PWM method for the ZSI are suggested. The feasibility is studied through the simulation and experiment with 3kW system. Keywords Z-source; PV-system; MPPT; microgird

I. INTRODUCTION Recently, the use of the renewable-energy generating system is increased dramatically because of the exhaustion of fossil fuel and the influence of the environment. The inverter, which converts the output of the renewable energy sources like photovoltaic energy, wind power, and fuel cell to an acceptable electrical source, has gained importance. The traditional inverters, such as the VSI (voltagesource inverter) and the CSI (current-source inverter) require one more separate DC/DC converter, resulting in two stage power conversions. This cascaded arrangement of two power converters increases not only the complexity of the circuitry and control but the cost and the space requirement. Moreover, the increased number of power switches results in a lower efficiency. The ZSI (Z-source inverter)[1] has a unique impedance

network. The ZSI can buck or boost the output voltage using the shoot-through state in a single stage. Besides, no dead time is needed, thus the output voltage is free from voltage distortion. Therefore, in the recent research, the ZSI was applied to the single stage conversion, such as the PV system [2], the fuel cell system[3], and the ac motor drive system[4]. The input current of the ZSI is discontinuous because of existence of the blocking diode, but the output current of PV array should be continuous, thus the LC filter must be installed at the input side of the ZSI. In this paper, the ZSI is used for the PV system. And MPPT algorithm and PWM method is suggested. The feasibility is verified through the simulation and experiment. REQUIREMENT OF AN INVERTER FOR THE GRIDCONNECTED PV SYSTEM The inverter for the grid-connected PV system must satisfy the following requirements. First, the inverter must be able to track the MPP because of the V-I characteristic of the PV array, as shown in Fig. 1. Second, it must be able to control the current at PCC. In other words, the magnitude and phase of the inverter output current should be controlled. Moreover, the current waveform must be sinusoidal. The traditional inverter such as Fig. 2 has two stages for MPPT control(boost converter) and PCC current control(VSI). In case of the ZSI, shoot-through time interval can be used to track the MPP and the PCC current is controlled by the conventional PWM switching scheme.
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Fig. 2. Traditional PV-system. Fig. 1.V-I characteristic curve of PV-array.

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MPPT control by shoot-through reference. V pv i* pv i pv Vdc 2 VP I pv VN (a) Control strategy of shoot-though. Therefore. 6. Grid connected PV-system using Z-source inverter. Voltage characteristic of impedance network. the longer the shoot-through time is. If the current reference is larger than the real current. 3. the output voltage is affected. 949 . A. If the output voltage of the Z source is controlled to be constant. 3. the input current of the ZSI is zero due to the blocking diode as shown in Fig. 9. 7. 5. then the input voltage of the Z source decreases as the shoot-through time interval enlarges as shown in Fig. the shoot-through state is used to control the MPPT. MPPT With the ZSI. Therefore. Z-source output voltage (V) IL = 2 ⋅VC vin (VC = vL ) (vL = vin − VC ) 0 2VC − vin Fig. The output current of PV array should be continuous for MPPT control. the goes down. Current characteristic of impedance network. III. Vdc 2 VP VC iPV vPV DC link iGrid P* vGrid C. 2008.2nd IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon 08). 6. as shown in the Fig. Fig. The Fig. Fig. the iPV v PV Z-source input voltage (V) VC + vL PV array = vL vin VC Fig. SHOOT-THROUGH EFFECT ON THE PV SYSTEM During the shoot-through state. MPPT AND PCC CURRENT CONTROL In this paper. The output voltage of ZSI is zero during the shootthrough time interval. The reduced input voltage of PV-array by shoot-through time of the ZSI. So the shoot-through time increases. vout VC − vL = VC VDC = 3 3 Fig.C VN MPPT VP Q* * va PWM v * b * vc VN (b) PWM wave form generate. Thus the shoot-through time interval should be located within the zero state in order not to affect the output voltage. Johor Baharu. Malaysia I L + iC iin iC iout (I L = −iC ) (iC = iin − I L ) I L − iC 0 2I L iin 2 I L − iin Fig. 7. 8 shows the MPPT control strategy. 4. the operating point can be controlled by adjusting the shoot-through time interval. as shown in Fig. The VC is the voltage of capacitor in the impedance network. IV. the shoot-through time interval can be adjusted by the P&O method with sensing the PV array output current and voltage. The boosted voltage by shoot-through time of the ZSI. 5 shows the grid connected PV system using ZSI. higher the output voltage of the Z source is as shown in Fig. and the PCC current is controlled by VC regulation. 8. It has only six active switches in the single stage and no LC filter. If the shootthrough time interval is in the active state. This causes the increase in the PV array output current because of the decrease in the PV array output voltage. The Fig. December 1-3. an LC filter network was inserted in front of the Z-source impedance network. 4. Because the input of the ZSI is connected to the output of the PV array.

Output waveforms of PV-array and ZSI. which is the inductor current of the impedance network. Johor Baharu. 2008. va vb Vn S ap Sbp S cp S an Sbn S cn (c) Voltage and current of PV-array. Fig 12-(a) shows the reference signals for generation of PWM signal. If the VC is higher than the reference voltage. We can see that the VP reference varies in order to track the MPP. December 1-3. And the current waveform. B. the capacitor voltage is controlled constant. Since the capacitor voltage VC of the impedance network is equal to the average value of the input voltage of the inverter. 11 shows the carrier signal and reference voltage signals for generation of the switching signals. the reference value of the active power increases. The output current of inverter increases and the capacitor voltage decreases. So the shoot-through time interval is determined by the PV array characteristic. 12 shows the output waveforms of the PV system. The voltage waveforms are the input and output voltages of the ZSI. Malaysia Fig.2nd IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon 08). thus the three legs are shoot-through state. (1) Vp vc (a) References signals for PWM. resulting in lowering the capacitor voltage. and the maximum power was 3. increases during the shoot through state. The voltage and current at MPP are 230[V] and 13. 11. vc . 12. (b) Voltage of dc-link capacitor. the lower switches in the three legs are switched on.5[A]. vb . P* VC Fig. the capacitor voltage is used for voltage control. respectively. Consequently. P&O method. The control signal VP should have limit value. then the output current is in phase with the voltage resulting in unity power factor. The maximum value is Vdc/2 and the minimum value is the amplitude of the three phase reference voltage signals va . Fig. thus the three legs are shoot-through state again. * iα =K⋅ vα P * + v β Q * (v α 2 2 + vβ ) * .18[kW]. PWM signal by wave and reference voltages. The inductance and capacitance of the ZSI are 3[mH] and 500[uF]. (f) Output power of inverter. iβ =K⋅ v β P * − vα Q * (v α 2 2 + vβ ) . 10. and its shortcircuit current was 16[A]. (e) Output current of inverter. K is the coefficient of DQ conversion. The opencircuit voltage of the PV array was 280[V]. (d) Power of PV-array. The Fig. The current is calculated by the equation 1. The input voltage is boosted by the shoot-though time for the MPPT control. Control of DC-link voltage. 950 . The VP and VN are the control signals for the shoot-through. If the reactive power reference is zero. 13 shows the experiment waveforms. 9. When VP is lower than the carrier signal. 10 shows the PCC current control. VI. 12-(c) shows that operating point of PV array is tracking the MPP. When VN is higher than the carrier signal. Fig. PWM SCHEM Fig. The inverter output voltage references should be between the shoot-through references of VP and VN . V * C V. RESULT The simulation of 3-kW grid connected PV system using a ZSI was carried out through a PSIM. Fig. the upper switches in the three legs are switched on. The capacitor voltage was kept at 380 V. Fig. respectively. PCC current control The Fig.

December 1-3. 639-944. June. F. Issue: 2. pp. Peng. 2007. Malaysia Fig. Johor Baharu. Yi Huang. and Z. IEEE 17-21.” IEEE Power Electronics Letters.2333. X. 2008. Qian. 7-9 Sept.2nd IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon 08). Holland and F. X. R. F. Badin. Fang. June 2003. “Control strategy for fuel cell vehicle traction drive systems using the Z-source inverter. pp. Heung-Geun Kim. Volume: 1. The proposed system can deliver the PV power to the grid with single stage.504 – 510. Z. “Grid Interconnected Z-Source PV System. 2005. VII. the cost to manufacture is reduced and the efficiency is increased. Z. Peng. K.. CONCLUSION The power conversion circuit of the grid-connected PV system using a ZSI was analyzed in this paper. Since no dead time is required. Z. “Z-source inverter for adjustable speed drives. Issue 2.” in Proc of IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference.” Power Electronics Specialists Conference. 33-35. PESC 2007. the THD of the output voltage is quite low. “Z-source inverter. The MPPT control and PCC current control of the ZSI were suggested and its feasibility is verified through the simulation using PSIM. pp. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is the outcome of a Manpower Development Program for Energy & Resources supported by the Ministry of Knowledge and Economy (MKE) REFERENCES [1] Fang Zheng Peng. [2] [3] [4] 951 . 2007. Peng. The experiment wave forms of voltage and current. 13. Page(s):2328 . Yuan.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Volume 39. March-April 2003.