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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(1) Introduction………………………………………………………..2

(2) Leadership Vs. Management……………………………………..2

2.1 Leading the Organisation………………………………………………………....2 2.2 Managing the Organisation……………………………………………………….3

(3) Organisation Dynamics and Change……………………………..4

(4) Culture and Change………………………………………………..5 4.1 Assess the Company Culture……………………………………………………...6 4.2 Determine the Desired Company Culture………………………………………..6 4.3 Align the Company Culture………………………………………………………...6 (5) Approaches to Change……………………………………………...7

5.1 Directive strategies. …………………………………………………………………7

5.2 Expert strategies:……………………………………………………………………. 7

5.3 Negotiating strategies. ………………………………………………………………7

5.4 Educative Strategies …………………………………………………………………7

. T. G.10 (9) Bibliography………………………………………………………. it is essential and crucial to embrace change in the tactics as well as the operations in order to gain edge over your competitors..5 Participative strategies. In the increasingly competitive business environment.……………………………………………………. Organization Development and Change. G.8 (7) Management and Leadership development change and Sustainability……………………………………………………………9 (8) Conclusion….12 (1) Introduction Change management can be defined as a systematic approach to shifting/directing employees. …………………………………………………………….. content and process of change are specified as a part of the Change Management plan. and Worley. it is important that the objectives. (2) LEADERSHIP VS MANAGEMENT .. C.. In order to implement change and manage it successfully.. teams and companies from an existing state to a desired future state.11 (10) Web References…………………………………………………. According to Cummings.8 (6) Critical perspectives to Change……………………………………...5. Organisational Change Management should assess the current situation in the organisation and need to identify what needs to be done in terms of operational capabilities to increase the efficiency of the employees and thereby achieve better productivity. 1992..

A leader strives to achieve the goals of the organisation with his confidence and instils confidence in other sub ordinates through directing them towards organisational goals. Jarrett. M.2. M. (2003) “The Seven Myths of Change Management. (2003). According to Jarrett. 22-29. Apart from having a clear vision and an eye for long term objectives. . * Supporting a Developing Culture A true leader understands that mistakes are bound to happen in a competitive environments and offers support when critical feedback is required on the particular task in a constructive manner. a leader engages several stakeholders both internal as well as external towards achieving a collective objective. 14(4).1 Leading the Organisation A leader of the organisation will have a vision and will be able to inspire others through communication to various groups of the company both internal as well as external customers such as stakeholders. A leader will be able to maintain balance between stability and change and is sensitive to the impact that it may have on different parts of the organisation. the following are the features of a leader: * Focusing Effort. objectives and limitations pertaining to solve a problem and makes decisions which will help to add value to the organisation.” Business Strategy Review. * Building Shared Vision. * Facilitating Change Change is unavoidable in the present nature of the competitive markets. A leader clearly states the goals.

Understanding others viewpoints and the ability to persuade others to make them think in the right direction with respect to the given problem. G. Cummings. and Worley. Organization Development and Change. categorised the elements of the leadership as follows: * Self-Awareness. 1992. Jick and Maury A. Peiperl. The ability to identify and manage your own feelings and the awareness to cope with them during tough situations. * Motivation. The Seven Elements of Emotional Leadership.(2. * Emotional Resilience. C. Through dealing with a number people every day in a business environment. * Interpersonal Sensitivity. 2003. * Influence. G. Source: Todd D.. resolving conflicts as well as communicating important information both to the top as well as bottom level subordinates day in day out. Another important element to achieve success is the drive to achieve results whether short or long-term by facing many challenges. The duties and skills of a manager are complementary although different to that of the leader of the organisation. Pressure is a part of modern day business environments and the ability to perform well under these circumstances on a consistent basis in a variety of situations. . the managers then strive to attain those by developing peer relationships and involve in motivating the subordinates towards achieving collective goals.2) Managing the Organisation Henry Mintzberg. Managing Change: Cases and Concepts. this ability to understand others perspectives and their needs and arriving at decisions based on the awareness. T. Once a vision is set by a leader. Other functions include carrying out negotiations.

No change can be observed when these forces are equal. * Study the balance of power involved in an issue * Recognise the key stakeholders on the issue * Analyse opponents and allies * Plan how to influence the target groups . (3) ORGANISATION DYNAMICS AND CHANGE Change management is one the essential and an important aspect of management which ensures that an organisation responds to the environment that it operate in. a leader has to use the insight and the information obtained through interaction to make an informed decision. A good leader cannot look after the operational issues without the help of management and a good manager without the help of a good leader will face many problems in motivating the staff and getting the desired results from them. So it can be deduced that in order for Change to happen the driving force must be more than the restraining force. it can be understood that leaderships is all about creating vision and doing the right thing whereas management ensures that by doing things right. there are two types of forces that affect change. Once the big picture is established. Lewin categorised the following four factors as the important ones: According to his model. On a whole. From this. Change in any business can be driven by many factors. * It is necessary to alter or develop a new vision for a better alternative. An important element to show commitment to a planned action even though there are some challenges and deliver results in line with the ethical requirements. one can understand that both the leadership and managerial skills are complementary to each other. As per McCall. * Conscientiousness and integrity. we must have the ability to organise and manage day to day tasks in order to achieve desired results that are in line with the organisational goals. When information is not completely provided. High Fliers: Developing the Next Generation of Leaders. 1998.* Intuitiveness. M. the result from the dissatisfaction is Change. * Strategies must be developed by the management to embrace Change. W. * One must understand that there will be resistance to change. Out of them. It is characterised by four main features: * When the present strategies do not work. Some of them drive change and the rest restrain change..

it may not change much. the process of culture change must include the following steps: Culture change is tough and time consuming as ‘culture' has been established from a considerable amount of time in an organisation. In general. These changes may be major or minor but it is always important to keep an eye of these and how it may impact the organisation. if an employee leaves the organisation. respect. a replacement will be hired and the culture may change. Sometimes these changes are positive or they may be not. These values may be related to the behaviours of members. However if the culture of the company is strong and established over many years. Culture change is difficult and time consuming because "culture" is rooted in the collective history of an organization. * Look for incongruences between conscious and unconscious beliefs and values and resolve by choosing those to which the organization wishes to commit * Repeat the above three steps over a considerable amount of time as new members bring in different cultures with them and they must be assured that they understand the value and importance of the existing culture in the organisation. and discuss the difference between core values and the beliefs of various subordinate cultures that may be helpful to achieve the organisational goals.Forces for change include: (4) CULTURE AND CHANGE A culture can be described as the set of values and principles that are shared by the members of the group. the cultures of the organisation change and evolve. and because so much of it is below the surface of awareness. With time. . 1991. In the present business environment. Likewise a Company Culture can therefore be understood as the set of shared values. the organisation culture may also change. So in order to embrace change and successfully implement it the following steps must be followed: * Discover core values and beliefs. the changes in the culture of a company are not intended. They also include stated values. principles and practises of the employees of that company. More often than not. Change happens quickly and the organisations must be prepared to embrace change and move ahead in order to survive in the highly competitive environment. The new employee will bring in new set of ideas with him so there is little that will change with respect to the working styles in the organisation. According to William Bridges. Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. Because of this. For example. * Acknowledge.

there are many methods which consultants use. It must be understood that it is very difficult for organisations to have completed a successful culture change. what do they perform. There some consultants who can also do that for free of cost. it is also quite important to decide how your company culture will look like in the near future. the following actions must be performed: * Create an action plan that identify the good things in the current culture and rectify the unaligned areas. Articles or anything that is being written in print media must be analysed carefully.4. Change is an on-going process. how do they perform and identify any common patterns of behaviour. Estimate the impression you project in the market. But the best way to assess your company’s culture is to observe the people around you. Though Vision is a long term objective. * Identify the needed improvements in the day to day operations and formal policies. William G.3 Align the Company Culture It must be checked whether the strategic goals of the company are aligned with your company culture. * Communicate the new culture to all employees and then * Make sure to communicate the new culture to all the staff. it can be slightly altered in order to cater to the continuous changes that take place in the business environment. 4. To ensure this. 4.2 Determine the Desired Company Culture Apart from analysing the existing culture of the organisation.1 Assess the Company Culture To assess your company culture. 1984 (5) APPROACHES TO CHANGE . Analyse the way they react to happenings. Source: Dyer. You can observe different companies that exist in the market and can either choose or draw inspiration from those which suit well with your organisation. Strategies For Managing Change. suppliers and your customers are saying. * Initiate plans for desired actions and behaviours. One important way is to always listen carefully to what your employees.

Thurley and Wirdenius (1973) proposed five approaches to manage change effectively. In this approach.4 Educative Strategies This approach believes in educating the employees to understand the importance. 5. The end users who are most affected by this change will have an opportunity to speak about how they feel about these changes and their views are being taken into consideration. the willingness of the senior management of the organisation to negotiate and bargain in order to effect change. 5. On the brighter side. The use of power of position in order to take quick decisions and implement them straightaway can be observed with this style of change management. Using this strategy.2 Expert strategies: According to this strategy. So therefore it is natural that the implementation process may sometimes is not up to the expectations of the senior managers. On the flip side this approach is lengthy process and it may take more time than usual to implement change as consensus must be obtained between the senior management and those who are most affected by the change. . the change process is normally led by specialist project team or senior member of the management. 5.1 Directive strategies. this directive approach to change accommodates to implement change quickly throughout the organisation. Let us discuss each of them in detail: 5. valuable ideas or information will be missed and the employees are not usually happy with the sudden change which is difficult to absorb straightaway. Initial resistance from the employees will be reduced as necessary training will be given to them to understand why the change is essential and make understand the benefits of the change process. However this disadvantage of this approach is that because it does not take the view point of others into consideration. persuasion. values of the change that is necessary for the betterment of the organisation in the long run. To accomplish this. in other words the end users. the management believes that the Change can be effectively managed only with the appointment of some ‘experts’. This approach is primarily viewed as a problem solving approach though there is likely to be little involvement with those affected by this change. This approach is more suited to technical problems especially in the IT industry such as introduction of new software or hardware or new management information systems as so on.3 Negotiating strategies. Sometimes the changes which are incorporated by the expert may not be liked by those who are affected by the change and they may not appreciate the solution. In this approach. The advantage of this approach is that the employees feel involved with the change process and will be supportive throughout the implementation process. a manager uses the authority to impose change without the involvement of other people. They may also agree to some of the adjustments and concessions that may be required for implementation of change.

experience. Jick. However the benefits outweigh the disadvantages and the changes are more likely to be supported within the organisation and they make the individuals feel they are important in the decision making process.5 Participative strategies. Barry A. While implementing change process in the organisation. it more driven by the individuals within the organisation. As the name indicates. 5. Rosabeth Moss. It should be understood that resistance to change is natural and is deeply evolved from reinforced emotions. Change can affect the organisation in many ways both positive and negative. These include maturity. 1992. health. skills sets. The senior level management is responsible for managing change and the implementation of change which can bring about positive culture in the organisation and direct them towards achieving the desired results. The drawback of this approach is that it takes longer than usual for the training all the employees. Though consultants and experts are used to facilitate the process. On the other side.training and selection and education will be provided by consultants and specialists along with other senior management of the company. Patience and tolerance are essential and make people understand the need to adopt the change in a convincing manner. The Challenge Of Organizational Change.The primary disadvantages of this process time and cost. A manager must be able to interpret and communicate the process effectively to his subordinates. Stein. The discussions might take longer than usual and are time consuming. not instruct or impose. they will not have impact in the decision making process. The duties that an employee can do differ from one person to another and depends of a variety of factors. This approach gives the employees a chance to learn from the experience and will get to understand more about the organisation and the way it functions which will lead to increasing their skills and knowledge. The outcomes are not certain and the payment to experts can extend to longer periods of time. The responsibility to manage the change does not lie with the employee. . stability. this strategy concentrates on involving all the people right from the senior management to those people who are going to be affected by the change. and Todd D. Although this process is led by the management in general. The management must play a key role through the process of change and make the transition as smooth as possible. Various views from different sections of the organisation are obtained before the changes are implemented. (6) CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES TO CHANGE According to Kanter. which would not be responded well by the team. though it is a bit longer the individuals within the company will have positive commitment towards the change. age. motivation etc. The manager’s role is crucial in this process as he needs to understand others’ views and respond positively and make the employees understand the nature and importance of the change process.

incremental or transformative change can be introduced. 1998. It is used to understand change at a very fundamental level with the help of diagrams and models in understanding and managing change. reliability and character profiles. According to Erik Erikson’s interesting Psychological theory. Managing Change. to attain corporate sustainability. government departments and public sector which need high levels of concentration and discipline. nursing. those who generally accept change are not best at being able to work dependably and reliably and follow processes. These people are normally find change difficult to embrace. It will then be easy to make them understand the need and the importance of change that is going to be implemented in the organisation. But once understood they will cooperate with the implementation of the Change. (7) MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Depending on the size of the organisation.the dream organisation * See the gap * Assess the readiness for change * Set the scene for action * Secure basic compliance * Move beyond compliance * Create the performance criteria . Before you take any step or make a decision think from others viewpoint of change. In some industries such as health services. analysing the motivations and priorities of different people depend on the stage of life they are in.The Psychological Contract is an important part of Change. administration. For Successful transformation of the organisation. there is a need for an integrated plan of action. Understanding the weaknesses and strengths of the employees may also help in dealing with the change. The key to successfully manage change is to understand the people’s needs in a better way. On the flip side. Robert. They will undergo more tests on their dependability. According to Heller. The following action plan suggests the following: Identify where you are now * Develop the vision . Certain types of people in the organisation who are generally reliable/dependable/habitual often find change very difficult to accept.

Organization Development and Change. Kouzes. 1998. . In this process. William Bridges. G. Organisation Change is a strategic imperative. Although leading and managing change is tough. managers and the leaders of the organisations are impatiently taking hasty decisions. J.. M. Bibliography Cummings. G. M.* Launch and manage the transformational change program * Maintain the rage (8) Conclusion In today’s global and fast paced environment. Much has been understood and learning the need for change and the importance of managing it effectively.. 1990 McCall. in the process of implementing change and gaining competitive advantage over business rivals. The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations. Reframing Organizations. and Worley.. W. 1992. 1991. implementing these true principles which are tried and tested can help managers and leaders improve the organisation’s success. and Posner. C. T. Lee Bolman and Terrance Deal. Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. Bass. They find it difficult to understand what went wrong and why are they not able to make progress despite taking many measures to control change. High Fliers: Developing the Next Generation of Leaders. they often forget to realise that the fundamental and sound principles which are prerequisites for a successful change to happen. Unfortunately. 2002. Z. B.

William.up. 2000. 1991.htm http://upetd. Stewart and Hal B.za/thesis/available/etd-05092005-123748/unrestricted/03chapter3. Heller. Barry A. 2002. Rosabeth Moss. Terms Of Engagement: Changing The Way We Change Organizations. 1992. Kanter. 1992.html . Succeeding with Change: Implementing Action-Driven Strategies.ac. Web References http://www. Black. Tony Eccles.Daryl R.pdf http://www. The Challenge Of Organizational Change. Bridges. Conner. William G. Managing Change.com/changemanagement. Robert. and Todd D.businessballs. Stein. Leading Strategic Change. Gregersen.practical-management. 1998.com/Leadership-Development/Leadership-Vs-Management. Managing at the Speed of Change. Timothy J. Strategies For Managing Change.1996 Axelrod. 1996. J. Jick. The Human Side Of Change. Managing Transitions: Making The Most Of Change. 1984 Galpin. Dyer. Richard H.

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