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# BDC5101 Deterministic Operations Research: Assignment 1

1. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at the Changi International Airport. During the second
quarter, the airline schedules 7 flights daily from Singapore to Hong Kong and 10 flights
daily from Hong Kong to Singapore, according to the following schedule:

Flight Leave
The flight crews live in Singapore or Hong Kong, and each day a crew must fly one flight
from Singapore to Hong Kong and one flight from Hong Kong to Singapore. A crew must
return to its home city at the end of each day. For example, if a crew originates in Hong
Kong and flies a flight to Singapore, it must then be scheduled for a return flight from
Singapore back to Hong Kong. A crew must have at least 1 hour between flights at the city
where it arrives. Thus, some scheduling combinations are not possible. For example, a crew
on flight 1 from Singapore cannot return on flights A, B, or C from Hong Kong. It is also
possible for a flight to ferry one additional crew to a city in order to fly a return flight, if there
are not enough crews in that city.<interpretation: e.g. if there’s not enough sg crews to fly the
return flight from hk to sg, the company can insert one more crew into one of the outbound
flight in order to fill the gap for the returning flight.>
The airline wants to schedule its crews in order to minimize the total amount of crew ground
time (i.e. the time the crew is on ground between flights). Excessive ground time for a crew
lengthens its workday, is bad for crew morale, and is expensive for the airline.
Formulate a linear programming model to determine a flight schedule for the airline.
(Hint: use  to represent the number of crews take Flight i first and return by Flight j.)
__________________________________________________________________________
Let 

to represent the number of crews take Flight i first and return by Flight j. 
to represent the ground time between the Flight i first taken and return by Flight j.
Min

∑, ,
, 
,

∑   ≥ 1.   s. ∑  ≥ 1 ∑  .t.. . ∑  ≥ 1.

∑   ≥ 1 ∑ . ∑   ≥ 1. ≥ 1.

∑ .  ≥ 1.

∑   ≥ 1. ∑  ≥ 1  ≥ 0 and .  ≥ 1 ∑  ≥ 1.

min   =   + 3  + 5  + 6 + 9  + 10  + 12  +  + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 + 10 + 2 + 3 + 6 + 7 + 9 +   + 3  +  + 6.

+ 8.

 + 10.

 + 11.

) s.t. + 5 + 7 + 9 + 10 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 9 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 7 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 2 + 3 +   + 2 (Impossible schedule combinations have already been withdrawn from the equation.   +   +   +  +   +   +   ≥ 1  +  +  +  +  +  ≥ 1  +  +  +  +  ≥ 1 .

+ .

 + .

 + .

≥ 1  +  +  +  ≥ 1  +  +  +  ≥ 1   +   + .

+  +  +  ≥ 1  + .

 +  +  +  +  ≥ 1   +  +  +  +  ≥ 1   +  +  +  +  ≥ 1   +  +  +  +  ≥ 1  +  +  +   +  ≥ 1 .

 +  +  +  +  +  +   ≥ 1 .

……  ≥ 0. +  +  +  +  +  +  ≥ 1   +  +  ≥ 1   +  +  +   ≥ 1   +  +  +   +  ≥ 1 and   ≥ 0. . Ans:   = 1.  = 1.  = 1.   ≥ 0.  = 1.   = 1.

 = 1 Total amount of crew ground time=   +  + 6 +   +  + 6.   = 1. = 1.  = 1.  = 1.

t.  ≥ 0 . Consider the problem Minimize 2 + 3|  −10 | s. 3 − 30 ≥ −. |  + 2 | + |  | ≤ 5.  +  + 2 ≤ 5  ≥ −2. =  − 10 Adding additional constraints s. __________________________________________________________________________ Let . Reformulate it as a linear programming problem and also present it in the standard LP form. + 5 + 4 +   + 3 = %& '()*+ for a total of 10 crews 2. 3 − 30 ≤ .t.

∑ 7 5 ≥ 6  . | |. The illumination 6 of the i th segment is assumed to be ∑8  7 5 . 2 . 6 ∗ ..  ≥ 0 Ans: / = 11. 1 − . 2 ) . Hence.2 + . Provide a reasonable linear programming formulation of this problem. =  Problem becomes Min 2 + 3|. s.2.2 . Our objective is to get close to the desired illumination.1 + .2 =  + 2 . Note that the wording of the problem is loose and there is more than one possible formulation. | ≤ 5 s. . the problem becomes Min ∑8 where < = 1. becomes Min s.3. 2 + 3(.Min: s. The higher the power of the lamp.1 + .t. − −  − 2 ≥ −5  ≥ −2. Thus it is reasonable to think that we’ll try to minimise the lamp power if possible. . 2 + 3. . ∑8  7. . 30 − 3 ≥ −. =  + 2.  = −2.e.t. >. ∗ where 7 are known coefficients.  = 5 To present in standard LP form. Consider a road divided into n segments that is illuminated by m lamps. | = . … . ∗ ∑8  7 5 ≥ 6  8 8 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∑8  7  5 ≥ 6 .2 Therefore.2 ≤ 5 . the higher the costs incurred. In this case.1 − . 6 ∗ = 6 ∗ = ⋯ = 6 ∗.t. 5 . | + |. = . =  − 10. ___________________________________________________________________________ Assumptions made: The desired illumination 6 ∗ is the same for all roads.2 .. ∑ 7 5 .1 . Let 5 be the power of the j th lamp. To eliminate absolute. 5 ≥ 6 . . 2 =  − 10 . . i.  .  7 5 8 8 ∑ 7  5 . 1 . Let .1 − . = 6 ∗ .2 =  . sub |. ∑ 7.1 + .1 − .….. We are interested in choosing the lamp powers 5 so that the illuminations 6 are close to the desired illumination. .1 .2 . ..t. we assume that the ith segment of the road needs to be adequately lit-up and the desired illumination is the minimum requirement.  ≥ 0 3. . Let 6  be the desired illumination of road i. 3 − 30 ≥ −.…. 1 + .

(b) Assume that the optimal cost is finite. >. 58 ≥ @. 7  = G  ≥ 0. .…. then the LP is not feasible. develop a simple method for obtaining the optimal solution directly.and 5 ≥ @ where A = 1. … . If a non zero artificial variable exists at the end. Ans: K = −LM b) Minimize s. + 2. H  s. . < = 1. − +  ≤ −2 2 + 3 ≤ 5  . N 5. Write the dual for each of the following primal problems: (a) Maximize / = −5 + 2 s.t.3. ___________________________________________________________________________ a) Check for feasibility of LP using a 2-phased Simplex Method. ≥ −5 . . a) Minimize s.. ≥ 2 . (a) Derive a simple test for checking the feasibility of this problem.  ≥ 0 / =  +  <C − D + C − D > 2 +  = 5 <2C − 2D + C − D ≤ 5 > <−2C + 2D − C + D ≤ −5 > 3 −  = 6 <3C − 3D − C + D ≤ 6 > <−3C + 3D + C − D ≤ −6 >  . 5 ≥ @. ≥ 0 (b) Maximise s. / = 57 − 5G + 67 − 6G 27 − 2G + 37 − 3G ≥ 1 −27 + 2G − 37 + 3G ≥ −1 7 − G − 7 + G ≥ 1 −7 + G + 7 − G ≥ −1 Ans: K = %.t. . Consider the following LP with a single constraint: Min ∑. . B. ∑. + 5. 5 ≥ @.  unrestricted <every C7EDF @ GF H@>CFIFJ @ C − D > ___________________________________________________________________________ / = −2.2. … . + 3.t. 4. −.t. Construct the Simple Phase 1 tableu.t..

D .b) Substitution of constraint equation into objective equation as it is an equality equation.3. ≥ 0 b)  +  +  + ⋯ .2. n) takes the value of 1.5.3. .Q Max ∑ . B . >) /≤1 d) / ≤  (< = 1.. n) takes the value of zero. 2. then z takes a value of 0. Let O be the utilities derived from the assignment of school/student.S  + ∑S. . … . G .. Where < = 1 − 8. ∑R S   = 1 ………… ∑R S Q = 1 ∑Q S = 1 ………… ∑Q R = 1 ∑Q S = 1 ………… ∑Q R = 1 ∑R S  = 1 ………… ∑R S Q = 1 Ans: A . H . … . . Let  .  .6. (b) If all the  s take the value of zero. _____________________________________________________________________________ a) / ≥  (< = 1...1.R R. i. E . … . F .t.3. Q. 6.e. (c) z takes the value of 1 if all the  s take the value of 1. O − P. then z takes a value of 0.. .  . be n binary variables and let z be some other binary variable. A = 1 − 8.7. ≥ / /≥0 c) / ≥  (< = 1. … ..  s.2.4.8.. O − P. 2.. . (d) If any  (i = 1. >) /≤1  +  +  + ⋯ ..  .3.2.2. >) /≥0 7. write linear constraints so that (a) z takes the value of 1 if at least one of the  s (i = 1. ≥ /  . C . Formulate the logical operator by using integer linear program. ..