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Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt

1.4
1.4.1 (1)

Tourism Products and Tourism Market
Tourism Products and Resources Tourism products in Egypt Because of the rich tourism resources covering wide range of the fields as shown in Figure 1.4.1, Egypt has various potential tourism products. The outlines of the products are described here. Historical/Archeological Tourism: This segment represents the tourism of Egypt traditionally with huge number with high value of archeological resources represented by Pyramids in the Cairo and various temples and tombs in Luxor, which are the specific in Egypt, but no other countries. Therefore, this attracts visitors from all over the world irrespective of distances from the origin areas (long, medium and short haul market). Marine Resort Tourism: This is also one of the traditional products at the beaches along the Mediterranean Sea, but in old-fashioned development. However, new style of the marine resort development has gotten significant success in the southern Sinai region since the beginning of 1990’s. It is recognized that a door has been opened to a new era of the marine resort development in Egypt with a geographical advantage; having a huge market of European countries nearby, and beautiful seawater with various types of coral reefs and unique species of sea animals. Following the development of the southern Sinai, the development is started along the coastal areas of the Red Sea with the unique development system of TDA. It is shown in the Chapter 1.3 of Part II. The product attracts visitors mostly from short and mid haul markets. However, this is rather hard to attract the long haul market, since there are many of competitor destinations with beautiful beaches and marine resorts in any places closer than Red Sea. The marine resort of Red Sea has a disadvantage compare with other marine resort destinations that game fishing cannot be preferable, because the fishes and sea animals is limited in number due to Red Sea can be considered as a biosphere closed at the Bab Al Mandab strait in-between Djibouti and Yemen. Marine resort is one of the most environmentally fragile products without any proper control measures for the activities of developers and visitors. And more, though historical tourism can attract rather up markets of high aged group according to the trend of the world tourism, the marine resort tourism is meet for the all segments of market, but rather down markets. Cruise Tourism: The Nile River cruise between Qena and Aswan, which takes four days or five days, is one of the best products of Egypt, while the cruise in Nasser Lake is yet matured. The cruise ships operated between Cairo and Aswan and Qena and Aswan are 208 ships with 11,088 rooms and 3 ships with 155 rooms respectively in 1997. The Nile River cruise has been attracting all segments of markets. This segment can attract all segments of market irrespectively in distance, age group, sex, etc. It is alarmed the proper counter measures should be taken against pollution of river water by the cruise ships which becomes seriously year-by-year. It is essential to improve the cruising system for the promotion of and maintaining the segment. Eco-tourism: This segment is still pre-matured except small activities along the Nile River and in the Desert and Oasis region, while they have different features of the eco-tourism.
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Part I

Overview of National Tourism Development

Eco-tourism in Nile River: In green areas and islets along the Nile River some resorts have been promoting such eco-tourism activities, however these activities are not attracting visitors but supplemental ones for the visitors staying in the resorts. Safari in desert and oasis tourism: Though the current situations of the eco-tourism in the region seem to be limited to SIT, this has high potential for the future Egypt’s tourism, subject to develop in proper manners which will meet requirements of new markets. The oases will be tourism bases of the eco-tourism. The eco-tourism should be managed by the local people for eco-tour guides, eco-lodges manager and staff, etc. Other potential areas: The following areas have potentials of eco-tourism. • •
Hinterland of Red Sea coast; and Surrounding of Lake Nasser.

City tourism: City tourism is represented by the two largest cities in Egypt: Cairo and Alexandria. Each of which has cultural facilities as well as the town amenities in it. This is supported by the second large tourism market of Arab region. Most of them are independent visitors, there being no language problem. For Cairo city, beautification of the city itself and the tourism areas in the city should be required to give good sense of arrival to the visitors as a largest gateway of the Egypt where majority of visitors are staying in Cairo at least one day. The more development should be required for visitors such as improvement of sidewalk and/or pedestrian paths, waiting places at entrance of cultural facilities, for example Cairo National Museum. The improvement of urban traffic congestion is also required there. MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference and Event) Tourism: Cairo International Conference Center (CICC), an autonomous agency of the Ministry of Tourism has been established and built at the end of 1989 in Cairo to promote this segment. CICC’s activities are contributing to promote this segment. Except CICC MICE tourism is not matured, however, the marine resort is the favorable one for this segment from the world trend, especially for the incentive tours. The incentive tour should find its market in the neighboring counties. Religious Tourism: The assets for this segment are limited to the followings: • • • • • •
St. Catherine Cathedral in Sinai; Coptic Museum, Monastery & Church of St. George, etc. in Old Cairo; Monasteries in Wadi Natrun; Monastery of St. Anthony, Monastery of St. Paul in the northern Red Sea; Mosques in Cairo (Mosque of Mohamed Ali, Ibn Tulun Mosque, Mosque of Amr, etc.); and Abu el Hassan el Shazly Mosque in the Red Sea.

Although this is another traditional tourism, but so far limited to the market of religious pilgrims.
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Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt

(2)

Tourism resources Tourism resources are available based on the rich tourism resources of Egypt, which can be classified into three categories as follows:
Table 1.4.1 Classification of Tourism Resources

A.

Historical Resources

A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 C4

B. C.

Cultural Resources Natural Resources

(Prehistoric-Pharaonic/Greco-Roman) temple, tomb, statue, relief, painting, remains Coptic/Christian Monastery, church, place of historic/religious significance Islamic Mosque, fort Modern monuments Dam, canal, bridge Folklore, folk festival, fork music, handicraft (textile, hardware, Folklore woodwork, jewellery) City life Shopping, dining, events, entertainment, theatre, etc. Marine Beach, diving/snorkeling site Landscapes River, mountain, lake, desert, oasis Spa Hot & cold springs Fauna & Flora Mangrove, migrant birds, vegetation in oases Ancient

Source:

JICA Study Team

Historical Resources Historical resources are classified into four categories. Ancient tourism resources are the most unique and valuable in Egypt, attracting visitors from all over the world. They are located mainly along the Nile River with the Great Pyramids of Giza and the Temples in Luxor as highlights, followed by the Temple of Abu Simbel. Coptic/Christian tourism resources are mainly churches and monasteries which are located in Cairo and the desert areas. Most of them are places of religious life and not suitable for mass tourism. Examples are Mt. Sinai and the Monastery of St. Catherine, which are famous for the story of Moses. Islamic tourism resources are represented by Islamic Cairo, which is a medieval town with a number of original mosques, gates and streets. Modern monuments, the Suez Canal, Aswan Dam and Aswan High Dam are also included in this category. Cultural Resources Cultural resources are classified into two: folklore and city life. Folklore is represented by the Bedouin folklore in Sinai, and the Nubia folklore in Upper Nile, although these are not established attractions. Typical Egyptian souvenirs, such as papyrus, metalwork, perfume bottles, accessories, etc., are found in every tourist place. The attractions of city life are provided in Cairo and Alexandria where there are luxury hotels, restaurants, shops and entertainment, such as clubs, casinos and bars. Natural Resources Natural resources are classified into four categories. Marine resources are the relatively new attraction of Egyptian tourism. The Red Sea and South Sinai has rich marine life, such as coral reefs and fishes, and its clear waters attract a number of divers from Europe. Main resources such as the Nile River in Upper Nile and the desert and oases are categorized as landscapes. Other resources such as hot and cold springs, and fauna and flora are located mainly in oases and wetlands. Although they are not considered main attractions of Egyptian tourism, they add to the natural tourism of the area. The distribution of main tourism resources is shown in Figure 1.4.1.

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Tourism in the sub-region is characterized historical/cultural/business tourism destination with variety of tourism resources such as ancient heritage (Pyramids of Giza. market conditions. Most of Arab visitors in Cairo are repeaters enjoying city life. Coptic/Christian/Islamic heritages. various museums and city life. It consists of four Cairo Sub-region: This Sub-region functions as a gateway of international visitors. and the average length of stay of international visitors was comparatively longer compared with other Sub-regions. Faiyum and Suez Canal. 1-28 . Cairo Region Cairo Region is characterized as historical and urban tourism area.3 million guest arrivals to hotel/accommodations in the Sub-region were counted the largest Sub-region in Egypt. Nile Delta.4. staying much longer than other nationality groups. 1. sub-regions. Cairo. The characteristics of each Tourism Region/Tourism Sub-region are as follows. Saqqara and Dahshur).1 Distribution of Main Tourism Resources in Egypt CAIRO REGION MEDITERRANEAN SEA REGION NILE VALLEY REGION RED SEA REGION DESERT AND OASIS REGION LEGEND Historical Resource Cultural Resource Natural Resource Source: JICA Study Team (3) Characteristics of Tourism Regions The Study Team classified 5 Tourism Regions and 13 Sub-regions by tourism products.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Figure 1. namely.

security anxiety has been obstructing its progress as a main and independent destination for international visitors.317. Those tourism resources are not well utilized for tourism products yet. 1-29 .8 7.015 14. city of Ismailia. such as the ruins of Karanis and Meidum Pyramid. There are various species of water birds around Lake Qarun and some historical resources. such as Tombs of Beni Hassan and Temples of Seti I and Rameses II. Aswan and Abu Simbel. Visitors in this sub-region take sightseeing tours.1 8.000 in 1997. At present. which is the classic and matured area of Egyptian tourism. This Region is divided into two Sub-regions of Middle Nile and Upper Nile. ancient Thebes and Necropolis on the West Bank of the Nile. which is an expanded tourism destination from Cairo both for international and Egyptian visitors.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 1. Suez Canal Sub-region: This Sub-region includes some accessible tourism destinations from Cairo. which are mainly attracting international visitors.1 5. The number of hotel guests was about 84. Nile Valley Region The Nile Valley Region along the Nile River can be characterized as historical tourism area.4. Upper Nile Sub-region: This Sub-region includes classic and representative destinations of Egyptian tourism. and the Aswan High Dam are also main attractions. Middle Nile Sub-region: This Sub-region includes valuable archaeological sites. Faiyum Sub-region: This Sub-region has the largest oasis in Egypt. such as Suez Canal. which are attracting Egyptian and Arab visitors. so that the average length of stay in each destination is shorter than those of other destinations. The landscape of the Nile River and riverine islands.7 16 30 13 41 Nile Delta Sub-region: Nile Delta has some historical resources such as Monasteries of Wadi Natrun and rich scenery of fertile agricultural field of the delta. There are numerous archaeological sites including world heritage sites such as Karnak Temple. such as Luxor. and beach resorts in Ain Sukhna.2 Characteristics of Cairo Sub-region Number of hotel guests in 1997 Arabian European Average length of stay of international visitors in 1994 (days) North American Other countries Arabian European Share of bed nights by nationality in 1997 (percent) Egyptian Other countries Source: Egyptian Tourism in Figures 1997 by MOT 1.

colorful coral reefs and rare fishes. 1-30 .4 Characteristics of South Sinai Sub-region Number of hotel guests in 1997 Arabian European Average length of stay of international visitors in 1994 (days) North American Other countries Arabian European Share of bed nights by nationality in 1997 (percent) Egyptian Other countries Source: Egyptian Tourism in Figures 1997 by MOT 996. colorful coral reefs and rare fishes.3 Characteristics of Upper Nile Sub-region Number of hotel guests in 1997 Average length of stay of international visitors in 1994 (days) Arabian European North American Other countries Arabian European Egyptian Other countries Share of bed nights by nationality in 1997 (percent) Source: 387.8 2.3 4. South Sinai Sub-region: This sub-region consists of the coast of Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez.3 1. such as Al Gouna and Abu Soma.1 5. and the volume is stable throughout the year. huge beach resort developments have been launched at the Red Sea coast. Sinai is another main attraction for international visitors. Other attractions include various kinds of water sports.6 8. namely.8 1. A majority of visitors are European holidaymakers. Mt. mainly attracting Egyptian and Arab visitors. There are beach resorts. which has newly grown as a main tourism destination in Egypt. which has newly grown as a main tourism destination in Egypt. and the desert and mountains of inland Sinai.427 5.9 2.607 Luxor Aswan 2. The coast of Gulf of Aqaba is a marine resort area.6 Luxor Aswan 10 6 35 32 14 20 41 42 Egyptian Tourism in Figures 1997 by MOT Red Sea Region The Red Sea Region consists of two Sub-regions.4. while Hurghada functions as the gateway of this region. The average length of stay is longer compared with other destinations. which was the second largest in Egypt following Cairo. such as Ras Sidr at the coast of Gulf of Suez. as new tourist centers.8 7. The number of hotel guests was around one million in 1997.6 4. In recent years. South Sinai and the Red Sea. The Red Sea is a world famous destination for divers with its clear waters.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 1. Most of them are repeaters on package tour. This Region is a marine resort area.4 1 89 9 1 Red Sea Sub-region: The Red Sea is a world famous destination for divers with its clear waters.4.9 2. mainly for European holidaymakers and divers. Table 1.

There is good accessibility from Cairo by highway and railway.7 4. 1-31 .4. Most of visitors are international visitors.7. Lake Bardawil is a wetland for migrant birds.3 3 65 23 9 Mediterranean Region The Mediterranean Region consists of three Sub-regions of North Sinai.4. there has been rapid development of tourism villages in this region. The volume of visitors is almost same as Luxor. Bahariyya. 393. An overview of each tourism region is shown in Table 1.1 8. the number of visitors has been increasing.6 Characteristics of Alexandria Sub-region Number of tourist arrivals in 1997 Arabian European Average length of stay of international visitors in 1994 (days) North American Other countries Arabian European Share of bed nights by nationality in 1997 (percent) Egyptian Other countries Source: Egyptian Tourism in Figures 1997 by MOT.9 5.7 3. Alexandria and Matruh. Desert and Oasis Region This Region covers the Western Desert including the five main oases of Siwa. This Region can be characterized as adventure tourism/eco-tourism area. but some of its historical sites are less attractive.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 1. 743.4. though the volume is not yet large. which is a major recreational tourism destination for Egyptian and Arab holidaymakers with popular beaches and coastal row of buildings.3 6. which is still immature but considered as a new alternative tourism destination in Egypt. In recent years. North Sinai Sub-region: This Sub-region includes some beaches for Egyptian and Arab visitors.255 13. This region is characterized as coastal resort tourism area.5 Characteristics of Red Sea Sub-region Number of hotel guests in 1997 Arabian European Average length of stay of international visitors in 1994 (days) North American Other countries Arabian European Share of bed nights by nationality in 1997 (percent) Egyptian Other countries Source: Egyptian Tourism in Figures 1997 by MOT.832 4. Kharga. Farafra. Recently. Table 1. and Dakhla.5 5. Alexandria Sub-region: This Sub-region includes Alexandria City.7 16 18 53 13 Matruh Sub-region: This Sub-region provides beach resorts that attract Egyptian and Arab holidaymakers.

Mediterranean Sub-region has not developed as tourist destination for short haul visitors.2 Travel Pattern Figure 1. Safari & Oasis tour to the Western Desert has not developed enough yet. Italy.4 2 shows the travel patterns of Italian and German visitor. • • • • • • They enter into Egypt not only at Cairo Airport but also at Luxor. These figures are prepared by the analyses of tour pamphlets. Germany.4. Figure 1. it has to be paid attention that it doesn’t reflect the needs of visitors. □ second target JICA Study Team 1. the United States and Japan. Sharm el Sheikh Airports.4.4. Aswan.7 Overview of Tourism Regions Modern Monuments Folklore.4. Handicraft Convention Tourism Tourism Sub-region Tourism Region Cairo Nile Valley Red Sea Mediterr anean Desert & Oasis Note: Source: Cairo Nile Delta Faiyum Suez Canal Middle Nile Upper Nile South Sinai Red Sea North Sinai Alexandria Matruh Siwa Western Desert History Culture Nature Cruise ● ● ○ ○ ○ ● ● ○ ● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ● ● ○ ● ○ ● ○ ● ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ● ● ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ● ● ● ● ○ ● ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ Market ■ ■ ■ □ □ ■ ■ □ □ □ ■ ■ ■ ■ □ ■ □ ■ ■ ■ □ □ ● major products. Nile River Cruise between Luxor to Aswan is a major product in the Upper Nile Sub-region.2 to Figure 1. Movements among Tourism Regions are limited. 1-32 European & Others Cultural Facilities Coptic/Christian Fauna & Flora Marine Resort River Resort River Cruise Lake Resort Lake Cruise Landscape Urban Tourism Eco-tourism Egyptian City Life Ancient Islamic Arabic Spa . therefore travel patterns of free individual visitors are not reflected in the figures. which can be said short haul countries. ○ second products. On the other side Lake Nasser Cruise is not a major product until now. Except for the relation between Cairo Sub-region and Upper Nile Sub-region. The access method is limited by only land transport from Cairo Sub-region and Upper Nile Sub-region now. They have the following characteristics. France. Marine resort in South Sinai Sub-region and Red Sea Sub-region is booming. And more. United Kingdom. ■ main target.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 1. But these it can show the characteristics of the travel patterns of each country’s visitors. Hurghada.4 shows the travel patterns of visitors of major origin.

Catherine Nuweiba Cairo Siwa Giza Saqqara Dendera Bahariya Luxor Esna Kharga Edfu Kom Ombo Aswan Hurghada Safaga Legend Sharm el Sheikh Air Transportation (Major route) Air Transportation Land Transportation (Major route) Land Transportation Ship Transportation (Major route) Ship Transportation Abu Simbel Destination with Airport Major tourist attractions Source: JICA Study Team Figure 1.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1.2 Travel Pattern of Short Haul Visitors Alexandria Alamein Wadi el Natrun Suez/Iamailia St. They have the following characteristics. They have a few tour program to South Sinai and Red Sea. and Red Sea Sub-region have not developed as tourist destination for middle haul visitors yet. especially for the visitors from UK. On the other side Lake Nasser Cruise is not a major product until now. • • • • A variety of travel patterns is not shown compared with short haul visitors. Almost travel pattern run only north and south. which can be said mid haul countries. For French visitors Luxor Airport also has a role of a gateway. 1-33 . Nile River Cruise between Luxor to Aswan is a major product in the Upper Nile Sub-region. Cairo Airport has an important role as a gateway for visitors.3 shows the travel pattern of UK and French visitors. As same as short haul countries.4. Mediterranean. and West Desert.4.

4 shows the travel pattern of the US and Japanese visitors. They have the following characteristics. 1-34 . • • • • • Travel pattern is too simple and destinations are limited. They visit Cairo at first and then go to their destinations. Cairo Sub-region and Upper Nile Sub-region have developed as destinations for long haul visitors. which can be said long haul countries. Travel patterns which runs only north and south are seen more clearly than middle haul countries. In Upper Nile Sub-region. Only Cairo Airport is the only gateway for visitors.4. Almost methods of movements to another destinations are by airplane. Otherwise other Sub-regions have not developed at all.4. it will be popular when Japanese Government permit Japanese tour agent to add it in their tour program. Catherine Nuweiba Cairo Dahab Giza Saqqara Abydos Dendera Luxor Esna Edfu Kom Ombo Aswan Hurghada Safaga Kharga Legend Air Transportation (Major route) Air Transportation Land Transportation (Major route) Land Transportation Ship Transportation (Major route) Ship Transportation Abu Simbel Destination with Airport Major tourist attractions Sharm el Sheikh Source: JICA Study Team Figure 1. Though it is not popular for Japanese visitors until now. and South Sinai Sub-region has a little developed.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Figure 1. Nile River Cruise is the popular product for US visitors.3 Travel Pattern of Mid Haul Visitors Alexandria Eilat (Israel) Suez/Iamailia St.

Slow down of 3.9 544.4.2 8.09 2.3 463.4 Travel Pattern of Long Haul Visitors Nuweiba St.5% by the economic situations and tourist arrivals. and the Asian financial crisis.5 8.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1.85 9.0 611.0 7.2 221 269 278 315 324 354 305 436 436 445 8.3 (1) Tourism Market World tourism trend The world tourism statistics by WTO indicates the following trend in recent years: • • • • 5.4.54 3.21 13.44 7. The trend of tourist receipt in the world in the past 10 years heavily fluctuated from 0.4 597.1% to 21.6 6.52 0.4 1.52 2.3 2.5 563.23 14. Middle East region got 6.31 21.8 World Tourism Trend Arrivals (million) Annual increase (%) Receipt (US$ billion) Annual increase (%) Source: WTO 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 426.8% annual increase on the tourist receipt in the same period. On the other hand. Tourist receipt in the world on 1997 and 1998 record the serious stagnation.6 503.0 2.9 5.0 657.6 458.5% between 1994 and 1998 causing high unemployment in major industrial countries.0 625.3 5.4.01 - 1-35 .5 2.1 3. Table 1. Catherine Cairo Dahab Giza Saqqara Sharm el Sheikh Luxor Esna Edfu Kom Ombo Aswan Legend Air Transportation (Major route) Air Transportation Land Transportation (Major route) Land Transportation Ship Transportation (Major route) Ship Transportation Abu Simbel Destination with Airport Major tourist attractions Source: JICA Study Team 1.0% of annual increase in international visitor arrivals worldwide between 1989 and 1993 with remarkable growth resistant to economic fluctuation and other problems.4 and 10.1 517.

and development of some airports. In the 1990s the number of visitors registered extreme highs and lows. Egypt Tourism in Figures.000 5.4. upon recommendation by the International Monetary Fund.0 -10.0 10.0 to 6. especially marine resort tourism. From 1995 to 1997. second was the aggressive tourism promotion policy by the Egyptian government. There were four factors that could explain the increase of tourist numbers.0 30.0 -30.000 4.000 2. The length of stay was in the range of 6. In July 1992. This is why liberalization policies were implemented in the aspects of exchange system.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development (2) Trend and characteristics of tourism market in Egypt Number of visitor arrivals Figure 1. and the fourth was the diversification of tourism destinations. brought down the numbers again. total bed nights grew to 27 million but decreased again in 1998 because of the terrorist attack in Luxor. the number of visitors stayed in the level of 150 thousand. In 1992 the number of bed nights had a high of 22 million after the Gulf War but it dropped to 15 million because of terrorism incidents.5 No.000 3. Figure 1.4% because of the Gulf War. Number of worldwide tourists 1982-1999 by WTO Bed nights and average length of stay Table 1. The growth rate of visitor arrivals in 1991 decreased 17. The third reason was the trickle-down effect of the improvement of tourist services. The first was the peace process in the Middle East. of v isitor to Egypt Terror incident in Lux or Terror incidents in Cairo 50. but it recovered the following year at 31. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism.000 No. accommodation charge.0 0.0 20.0 0 1982 1987 1992 1997 Source: Egyptian Tourism by Ministry of Tourism 1996. But international affairs and terrorism involving Muslim fundamentalists pulled down tourist numbers in the 1990s.4. which killed a tourist.0 40.000 1.0%.4. of International v isitor arrivals (thousand) Number of International Visitors Grow th rate of visitor arrivals in Egy pt Grow th rate (%) Grow th rate of visitor arrivals in the World 6. During the first half of the 1980s.8 1-36 . a terrorist act.9 presents the number of bed nights and average length of stay. and exhibited rapid growth during the latter half of the decade only.5 shows that the number of visitor arrivals increased from 150 thousand in 1982 to 350 thousand in 1998. The number of visitors increased more than 17% from 1995 to 1996 then decreased 14% due to the terrorist attack in Luxor in November 1997.0 The Gulf War -20. deregulation of chartered flights.

3 0.765 6.0 6.4 7.7 4.11 Main Countries of Origin Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Source: First Germany United Kingdom Germany Germany Germany Germany Italy Second United Kingdom Germany Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Italy Italy Israel Third France Libya United Kingdom Israel United Kingdom United Kingdom Germany Fourth Libya Saudi Arabia Israel Italy Israel Israel United Kingdom Fifth Saudi Arabia United States Libya Saudi Arabia France France Saudi Arabia Egypt Tourism in Figures.7 5.1 1995 23.4.12 shows the bed nights by region of origin.5 1996 23. From the point of regional origin. As to country of origin. Visitors from Italy have been rapidly growing in the 1990s and tourist numbers increased more than double from 1992 to 1998.2 7. Europe ranks first with a 60% share in 1997.8 6.6 60.10 and Table 1.9 Bed Nights and Average Length of Stay Year Bed nights (thousand) Average Length of Stay (days) Source: 1992 21.2 7.6 3.6 7. In general.151 5.0 1994 15.8 6.579 6.10 Share of Visitors by Region of Origin Region Middle East Africa Americas Europe Asia & Pacific Others Source: 1992 28.8 0. In 1997. Table 1. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Regions and Countries of Origin Table 1. the shares of Europe decreased drastically. United Kingdom and France. up from 48% in 1993 (there was a decrease in 1998 because of the Luxor incident).6 3.0 51. such as Germany.433 6.4.3 57.8 Egypt Tourism in Figures.4.6 1997 22.8 in 1998.1 1997 26.3 3.4.1 6. Western European countries.7 1998 20.3 56.0 6. while that of Middle East increased. During the same year.1 48.9 5. In 1993.8 7.1 1996 21. the shares of European and Asian visitors dropped.0 0.0 1993 30. Table 1. The shares of visitors from Middle East and Africa have been decreasing slightly.5 60.451 6. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Table 1.836 6.4 7.5 48.9 (Unit: percent) 1998 28.1 1994 31.4 6.0 0. 1994 and 1998 when tourist numbers decreased because of terrorism.7 0.1 7.089 6.4 1. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Table 1. 1-37 .9 7.0 1995 20.1 Egypt Tourism in Figures.11 show the regions and countries where most visitors to Egypt originate.7 4.8 1993 15. while visitors from the Middle East increased. while that of Europe is increasing.6 0. Visitors from the Americas and the Asia & Pacific region have also been growing although not as large as Europe.4.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt until 1997 but went down to 5. claimed the top five.4. the shares of Middle East and Africa are decreasing. visitors from Europe generated 63% of bed nights.

annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Egyptian market Data and information about Egyptian market is limited in Egypt.3 5.5 43.2 3.1 5.0 5.13 gives the average length of stay by region of origin.7 5.4. Nonetheless. Table 1.2 52.3 5.9 4.5 6.6%.3 1997 6.9 6.2 0.1 (Unit: percent) 1998 26.4. Only the publication “Egypt Tourism in Figures” has the number of hotel guests and number of hotel nights in major six tourist destinations.1 1997 21.8 8.1 6.0 1993 33.0 days in 1993 to 4.3 7.9 0.4 63.2 6.7 1996 6. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Table 1.1 1994 37.5 5.13 Average Length of Stay by Region of Origin Region Middle East Africa Americas Europe Asia & Africa Others Source: 1992 7.1 7. The average length of stay has also increased from 2.2 60.6 7.7 1995 7.3 5.7 7.3 4.5 days in 1997.7 5.0 7.8 0.0 50.4 6. Figure 1.0 6.2 4.0 6. Average annual growth rate is 11.4.2 5.3 11.2 6.5 6.8 6.3 0.3 0.5 6.7 47.1 1996 23.0 5. 1-38 .6 5.2 Egypt Tourism in Figures.0 5.0 5.6 7.7 6.1 Egypt Tourism in Figures.4.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 1.9 0. Figures for the Middle East reflect a downward trend.4 58. while no pattern is seen for the other areas.1 7.1 5.0 0. Preferred tourism products by the Egyptian market is beach resort in summer holiday.0 7.12 Share of Bed Nights by Region of Origin Region Middle East Africa Americas Europe Asia & Africa Others Source: 1992 32.6 shows the change of Egyptians’ number of hotel guests and their average length of stay.4 6.6 (Unit: days) 1998 5.5 5. week end or one-day trip Business trips may share rather large portion of the Egyptian tourism.5 1993 6.0 0.1 6.8 7.3 7.3 6. the following trend could be gleaned: • • • • There is a steady growth of Egyptian visitors in Egypt after 1993.9 6.0 6.7 0.4 5.0 5.2 1995 28.5 1994 7.5 6.8 3.0 6.3 8.

4 11.4.7% in 1997.5 17.2 7. it in South Sinai and Red Sea has increased from 17. The shares of South Sinai and the Red Sea increased during the same period.3% in 1997 and 10.6 14.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1.4 8. The share of Cairo remained high level during 1992 to 1997.6 11. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Destination Table 1.0 21. Table 1.7 9.3 6.50 0.9% in 1997.00 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Hotel Guests Egypt Tourism in Figures. especially.00 2.9 4. in fact. On the other hand. It in Luxor and Aswan has decreased from 18.5 13.6 1993 50. the shares of Alexandria. Meanwhile.4.3 11.7% in 1992 to 41. of Hotel Guests (thousand persons) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1992 Source: Length of Stay (days) 5.50 2.6 10.1% to 7.00 0.1 16.5 1994 50.1 8.50 1.5% in 1993 to 31.7 12.7 (Unit: percent) 1997 31.00 1.6 4.7 1996 34.1 9.0 9. Luxor and Aswan have been continuously decreasing.8 17.3 18.14 shows the share of hotel guests in major six destinations. 1-39 .4 9.1 9.4.00 3.3 7.50 3.50 4.8% respectively.14 Share of Hotel Guests in Major Six Destinations Cairo Alexandria Luxor Aswan South Sinai Red Sea Source: 1992 42.00 Length of Stay 4.1 9. the Red Sea garnered one-fourth share of bed nights from 1994 to 1997.8 16.6 Egyptians’ number of hotel guests and their average length of stay No. the share of Luxor dropped more than 10% from 1992 to 1995.8 9.4.5 1995 37.9 19.15 is the share of bed nights by destination. This is why the marine resort of Red Sea is booming while the history/archaeology tourism in the Upper Nile is declining.6% in 1992 to 9. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Table 1. although the share is recovering gradually in 1997.0 Egypt Tourism in Figures.9 24. It in Cairo dropped from 50.2 3.

1 10. In the survey.9 6.7 2.1 5.9 10.9 2. spend much less than group visitors.0 5. Figures of the South Sinai and the Red Sea indicate more than five days stay.0 5.1 27.5 33.0 3.16 shows the average length of stay by destination.1 (Unit: days) 1997 4. purpose of visit.9 2.4.7 2.17 Tourist Expenditure by Region of Origin Region Middle East Europe The Americas Others Average Source: Individuals 94 110 169 138 103 Groups 108 177 173 119 (Unit: US$) Average 94 109 170 148 106 A Research on Estimating the Tourist Expenditure in the Arab Republic of Egypt by CAPMS in 1994 1-40 .0 5. visitors traveling in a group from the same origin spend a little more.3 2.0 17. destination.15 Share of Bed Nights by Destination Cairo Alexandria Luxor Aswan South Sinai Red Sea Source: 1992 27.9 12.4 21.1 2.6 1994 2.2 6.8 2.8 2.5 1993 1. and prices tend to down.4 24.7 8.16 Average Length of Stay by Destination Cairo Alexandria Luxor Aswan South Sinai Red Sea Source: 1992 1. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Table 1. where prices are more competitive worldwide.8 17. The reason seems that most of them is young back packer.0 5.3 4.5 1996 3.0 7.7 5. and evaluation of tourism services in hotels and transportation. other destinations have lesser numbers of days.8 7.4.3 2.9 1993 36. individual visitors from the Americas and other areas. Table 1. The reasons of the drastic drop of South Sinai in 1997 should be clarified and provide proper countermeasures.1 19.0 2.4.4.1 11.0 2.7 1994 35.8 33.9 9. are asked to international visitor.8 5.2 (Unit: percent) 1997 31. etc.2 16. Because most group visitors stay in accommodation with inclusive terms like marine resorts.17 indicates tourist expenditure per night by origin region from “A research on Estimating the Tourist Expenditure in the Arab Republic of Egypt (Tourist Expenditure Survey)” in 1994.3 2.2 13.1 5.4.2 20.0 1.0 17.7 5. This survey is carried out every two years by CAPMS at International Airports in Egypt.6 6.4 1.6 7.2 9. Compared to individual visitors from Europe. On the other hand.8 5.8 27.0 1995 2. and other similar destinations should learn from the reasons for maintain and prolong their length of stay. length of stay.0 5.5 8.3 Egypt Tourism in Figures.5 1995 23.1 3.5 Egypt Tourism in Figures. actual expenditure amount.4 6.4 2. Table 1.1 5.0 2. including Asia.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 1.9 1. annual issues by Ministry of Tourism Expenditure Table 1.3 1996 28.

2 21.7 0.0 1. etc.4 5020.6 6. it is required to develop new products in order to promote the tourism of Egypt. Integration of tourism products As one of the effective diversification methods of the tourism products is to integrate tourism products each of which characteristics is different.2 26. of sampled visitors 11.4 44. A majority of visitors from Europe.9 26. New tourism products Beside the traditional tourism products.850 2. To supplement the characteristic each other 1-41 .0 1.0 26.4.4.5 22. 40s and 50s.4.0%).2 50.18 shows the age structure of visitors by origin region. Visitors from the Middle East who are 30s.4 703.2 39.4. Table 1.3 48.2 13.578 1. those on their second visit have a high percentage share (21.3 2.321 Less than 30 2.8 3030.7 64.5 11. About 70% of visitors from the Middle East have visited Egypt more than three times.8 13.9 2.4 2.5 24.2 22. Individual visitors from Europe and the Americas who are visiting for the fourth time or more have a 22% share.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Age group Table 1.8 0.3 0.5 5.9 12.3 1.5 0. such as eco-tourism in desert areas.8 9.9 4032.4 6010.6 22.1 44.8 12. the Americas and other countries are 50s.19 shows the frequency of visit of individual visitors.1 Frequency of visit 2nd time 3rd time 10. formulate the newly found ruins in the sea of Alexandria as a product.19 Frequency of Visit of Individual Visitors by Region of Origin (Unit: percent) Region Middle East Europe The Americas Others Source: 1st time 8. and have combined shares of 20% to 30%. Though first timers dominate the European market.2 7.2 15.6 4th time & over 68.545 7.2 11.5 18.348 23. Table 1.6 Not stated 0.18 Share of Visitors by Age Group and by Region of Origin (Unit: percent) Region Middle East Europe The Americas Others Total Source: No.2 1.5 A Research on Estimating the Tourist Expenditure in the Arab Republic of Egypt by CAPMS in 1994 Frequency of visit Table 1. More than half of visitors from the Americas and other long-haul visitors are on their first visit.4 (1) Major Issues on Tourism Products Development and Tourism Market Development in Egypt Issues on tourism products in Egypt Traditional tourism products The existing tourism products should be maintained their value and also added new attractions improving facilitation of each tourism resources.4.9 7.5 A Research on Estimating the Tourist Expenditure in the Arab Republic of Egypt by CAPMS in 1994 1.0 52.0 12.6 14.

staying in Cairo or Alexandria. these two products are separated in each sub-region and prepared as optional tours with each other. The other largest markets of Egyptian tourism are the Arab countries. The enhancement of products in Cairo as the national Gateway Travel patterns in 1. History/Archaeology tourism of Upper Nile Region and marine resort tourism in Red Sea Region: this integration is the potential one to have most effectiveness for each together. because there is no language barrier in communications. In other words. Integrated products. The historical tourism takes the form of sightseeing tours. There is a need to look into diversification of customers (not only group visitor but also free independent visitor) in order to achieve the tourism development target. That is because (a) the market of each tourism is deferent. medium and short haul market). information supply for international visitor is limited. It is therefore important to develop an appropriate market promotion plan. And more. Egypt has to compete with its competitor countries in many aspects. Considerable and complete services and provision of necessary information for individual visitors will be needed 1-42 . Eco-tourism in hinterlands of the Red Sea coast and marine resort of red sea Eco-tourism in hinterland of the Nasser lake and Nasser lake cruise Reinforcement of linkage of the destinations each of which has different characteristics is essential to promote the integration of the tourism products improving transportation facilities. The activity patterns and the markets of these tourism are definitely different. Historical tourism attracts visitors from all over the world irrespective of distances from origin areas (long. while the marine tourism attracts visitors mostly from European countries (short and mid haul market). Most of them are independent visitors. which are attractive to international visitors. Tourism products in Egypt. in the marine resort market from now on. the followings are the possible integration in future: • • • • • History/Archaeology tourism of Cairo Tourism Region and marine resort tourism in South Sinai Region: this integration may be being matured. and then go to their destination. the building is not enough space to exhibit these treasures.4. (2) Issues on tourism market in Egypt Its famous historical heritage sites have enabled Egyptian to carry out simple market promotion for a long time. which include both types of tourism destinations. but conditions have changed at the onset of the 1990s with the addition of marine resort tourism to the main tourism products in Egypt.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development could be a new products integrating attractiveness of each. While Nile cruise and Historical/Archeological tourism have been integrated and become the most essential tourism product in Egypt. This is why basic information about each destination should be provided to them in Cairo. are rare. From the point of view. while the marine tourism takes the form of long-term staying.2 shows that Cairo has the important role as the national gateway. and (c) the capacity of Egyptian tourism industry is not satisfactory developed to supply the services for various needs of visitors. Although it has a long history with important historical/archeological treasures. International visitors arriving at Cairo at first. the improvement of Cairo National Museum is needed. (b) the domestic transportation system is not adequate to absorb the integrated tourism product. are represented by historical tourism along the Nile River as well as by marine tourism mainly with diving activities along the Red Sea coast. such as service level and price. They enjoy city tourism. History/Archaeology tourism of Upper Nile Region and eco-tourism in Desert & Oasis Region: this will have another high potential in near future. the capability of the Egyptian tourism industry is not yet matured enough to meet the various requirements from independent international visitors. In most cases.

Sea are different products Recently adventure (desert) • Competitor in marine resort (handled by different agents. • Transportation method should be • Air transportation services. • Ratings of hotels and floating hotels are not carried out properly. Table 1. tour and diving tour are is Tunisia. cruising ships and local restaurant should be improved. • Hurghada is the most agent). which have unstable • No competitor in aspect of international relations. dominant in Egyptian Market. & domestic airlines (Service service standard). • Service standard in domestic improved.20 shows their opinions about the current condition and future prospects for Egyptian tourism.4. Resorts means “Sinai Peninsula”. Countries (Israel. “Red Sea” including Nile cruise are destination for German.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt to increase free independent visitors in the future. Egyptian market. historical tourism. different pamphlet in large-scale getting popular. • Hygiene standard. number JICA Study Team Source: Future prospecting Current Condition 1-43 . standard by Egypt air. Jam in domestic airport terminal. and price decrease in charter • Publicity campaign such as CF. • Marine resort tourism and Oasis • Safari (desert) tourism will be tourism have potential. • Historical tourism products favorite marine resort • For almost customer. especially international freight (airfare. • Hygiene standards in hotel. Jordan and Syria). • Quality and quantity of tourist guide should be improved. • Historical tourism will • Historical tourism in Egypt will be continue to dominate steady product in the future. Table 1. getting popular.4.20 Results of Interview of Travel Agents in Europe and Japan (1/2) Country Products/Customs/Competitors Problems/Constrains Italy Germany United Kingdom • Historical tourism in Nile valley • Egyptian tourism is • Historical tourism is products and marine resort in Red booming now. • Middle-aged people and families • Competitors are Middle East is main target segment. delay and • Domestic transportation. freight would be necessary to and advertisement in newspapers keep steady growth of tourist and magazines are useful. and • Poor infrastructure. The Study Team carried out an interview survey of travel agents in Europe and in Japan last June and August 1999. most favorite products. • Development of supporting • Decreasing terrorist incident infrastructure will be important. airport terminals).

Recently Japanese Government has admitted it). On the other hand. As to historical tourism. Further co-operation between ETA and tour agents would be needed to increase tourist number to Egypt. In marine resort tourism. French people. Mediterranean countries will provide stiff competition to Egypt because more than 50% of visitors to marine resorts in the Red Sea area come from Western Europe. destinations (prices for international tourist. rich middle-aged people remains target segment. Egypt has no competitors because of its unique historical tourism resources. signs and jam) should be improved.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 1. pricing without seasonal demand) • Services in airport terminals (Information. tourism resources. • Marine resort tourism in Red Sea will develop • Improvement of publicity has to be needed in Japan. ETA is emphasizing on marine resort. Tunisia is the most favorite • Historical tourism that includes Nile cruse was place most favorite products for customers before Luxor incident. and marine resort tourism in Red Sea will be possible. Marine resort tourism is a more important product in Italy and Germany than in the United Kingdom and France. • Decrease of tourist number has not recovered yet (Especially Japanese agents cannot prepare for an itinerary with Nile cruise.4. while share of honeymooners and young ladies • Number of young tourist is growing however have decreased after Luxor incident.20 Results of Interview of Travel Agents in Europe and Japan (2/2) Country Products/Customs/Competitors Future prospecting Source: France Japan • Main product is historical tourism and cruse in • Historical tourism is dominant in Egyptian Nile valley market. • No competitor in aspect of historical tourism resources • Service standard of Egypt air (Cancel of • Price is high than other Middle East freight and delay) should be improved. Japanese travel agents recognize that offering a historical tourism product without the Nile cruise is one of the most important reasons for the limited recovery of Japanese tourist numbers after the Luxor incident in 1997. The other companies consider them the future. however it is doubt that French people will go but it will not appeal for Japanese mass market there or not. • Middle-aged group is major target segment • French people prefer FIT to package tour. • International & domestic freight (number of fright & number of seat is limited). New tourism products such as desert tourism and oasis tourism have potentials. • Security assurance is most important to • Nile cruse will be a major tourist product for recover tourist number. • Some tour agents prepare for tour products that mixed historical tourism and marine resort • Competitors are Turkey and Morocco will be in tourism. • Hygiene standard should be improved. • Publication by ETA office to tour agents is not enough. • • • • 1-44 Problems/Constrains . Historical/archeology tourism with the Nile cruise is the most popular products in the top five countries of origin of visitors. which is also a potential market for Mediterranean tourism. • For Marine resort. But Egypt has unique historical as different products. Travel agents in Italy and Germany pointed out that Tunisia is a would-be rival because of its competitive pricing. JICA Study Team Current Condition The opinions on the tourism promotion are summarized below: • • Historical/archeology tourism is a major tourism product for Egypt and will grow steadily in the future. • Oasis and safari (desert) tourism will have potential to be developed. marine tourism does not hold any attraction for most Japanese consumers. since various alternative destinations are • Product mix of historical tourism in Nile valley located in short haul range.

hotels and floating hotels. It was highly evaluated by travel agents in Italy but received low ratings in France and Japan.. etc.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt • • • Service improvements are needed in air transport (both domestic and international flights). The rating of hotels and floating hotels is not carried out appropriately. Some of them still have high rankings even though their facilities are already in poor condition and their service level has gone down. 1-45 . and Publicity activities of each ETA office are different by country. tour guides.

900 28.679 Beds 99.9 1.402 30.260 rooms.925 100.461 22.011 34.9 994 17.6 0 0.153 11.114 6. which has four ranks (from 2 star to 5 star).1 (1) Tourism Facilities Existing Condition of Tourism Facilities Accommodation Classification of accommodation The categories of tourist accommodation are hotel.1 650 22.1 999 10.7 90 1. which in 1997 numbered 72.2 141 0. 2.916 100.6 237 8.389 34.0 16.0 3star 4.0 5.1 2. Table 1.6 3.768 100.0 5.1% in 1997 from 7.1 0 0.102 19.3 47.350 17.5. 3-star and 2-star hotels have large shares. Table 1.7 114 2. Egypt Tourism in Figure 1997 by MOT Accommodations in the Red Sea Region are mostly tourist villages.673 60. more than 50% of hotel rooms were distributed in the Cairo Tourism Region but the share decreased to 30% in 1997.0 9. ** Total hotel rooms in Egypt are 50.4 7. and there are 30% under-classified hotels in the Red Sea Region.5 1.9 2.384 44.0 4star 2.118 11.3 1.0 2star 2.800 31.625 150.1 0 0.744 17.0 7. as indicated in Table 1.318 66.9 2.239 14.0 1. with a total of 10. tourist village and floating hotel. The number of hotel rooms in the Nile Valley also developed three times as much during the same period while the share 1-46 .1 0 0.623 16.086 100.020 100. In this report hotel means the both of tourist villages and hotels.1 27 0.2 849 14. Table 1. In the Mediterranean region.5.7% in 1993.0 9.1 Accommodation in Egypt in 1997 Hotel Tourist Village Floating Hotel Total Source: Number 515 100 214 829 Rooms 50.0 * Under classified means that the star ranking by MOT has not done.259 rooms in 1997.3. Geographical distribution of accommodation In 1982 and 1993. according to the Ministry of Tourism. The share of the Red Sea Tourism Region rapidly grew to 31.686 hotel rooms are excluded in the list.359 46. the same goes for floating hotel.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development 1.555 15.671 34.322 75.0 Under classified* 776 15.3 1.435 18.5 836 16.5.8 3.2 Distribution of Rooms by Hotel Rank in 1997 Tourism Region Cairo (Share) Nile Valley (Share) Mediterranean (Share) Red Sea (Share) Desert & Oasis (Share) Total (Share) Note: Source: 5star 9.573** 100.5. and tourist villages are defined as cottage typed accommodation facilities.0 1star 643 22.2 1.2 1.986 Egypt Tourism in Figures 1997 by MOT Ranks Hotels and tourist villages are ranked according to quality of facilities and services.5.2 shows that 60% of 5-star rooms are located in the Cairo region.2 2.858 100.1 10.549 22.158 42. Hotels are defined as high buildings.0 Total 20.

4 1.5. In 1997. are located in the Cairo Tourism Region.6 3.0 1993 Number Share 20.3 Number of Hotel Rooms in Tourism Regions Tourism Region Cairo Nile Valley Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Desert and Oasis Total Note: Source: 1982 Number Share 10.0 1997 Number Share 22.189 23.639 56. there were 678.3 6. which makes it difficult for international visitors without a guide to fully appreciate the attractions. have an abundance of display but lack printed information although it attracts many of visitors every day. Egyptian Tourism 1982-1996 by MOT.8 639 3.257* 100. 60% of tourist establishments.8 18.3 39. Table 1. while Category C takes care of transportation services.879 17. and support to overseas information centers. a tourist establishment is a restaurant. Similarly.1 9.3 3. cafeteria or place of entertainment. mostly restaurants or cafeterias.032 7.4 Number of Tourist Establishments by Tourism Region in 1997 Tourism Region Cairo Nile Valley Mediterranean Red Sea Desert & Oasis Total Source: Egypt Tourism in Figures 1997 Number 612 65 284 53 0 1014 (3) Public tourism facilities Historical sites and museums There are few amenities. Table 1.314 17. On the other hand the number of accommodation rooms in 1997 in the Table 1. coordination of the different tourism departments in each governorate. visitors stand for long hours under the heat of the sun. Especially in the summer.2 23.3 75. but information about them is limited.864 100.7 118 0. The major functions of tourist information centers are promotion of Egyptian tourism.579 31.1 comes from “Egyptian Tourism in Figure 1997”.4 9.874 25.3 259 0. such as the National Museum.5. 50 and 115 of each category respectively. Governorate Net (2) Travel agent and tourism establishments There are three categories of travel agents according to type of duties performed. to protect visitors from the elements.170 16. Tourist information center The Egyptian Tourism Authority is in charge of operation of tourist information centers located in the principal cities of governorates (27 offices). This is why there is some difference between the two figures.947 13.451 100.0 The number of hotel rooms comes from Governorate Net.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt increased only 8%.0 18. Category B only issues tickets. especially those with low 1-47 .4 3.102 5. such as Nubian Museum and Luxor Museum. As defined by the Ministry of Tourism.598 30. have excellent quality and quantity of exhibits. Egypt Tourism in Figures 1993 by MOT. for example visitors’ center kiosk and shelter. There is also lack of material on historical sites printed in major languages. Category A can issue tickets and handle transportation services. Museums built in recent years.233 51.5. museums of historical significance.

083 17. Berth facility: Berthing facilities satisfying necessary functions such as drink water inlet. The MOT would handle the beautification of tourist areas. Bed Nights and Required Accommodation 2002 Number of visitor arrivals (thousand) Bed nights (thousand) Length of stay (days) Accompany rate Occupancy rate (percent) Required number of hotel rooms Investment costs (superstructure and Infrastructure) (LE million) Source: 2007 9. Table 1.2 (1) Overview of Tourism Facilities Development Plan Accommodation development plans and projects by TDA The Tourism Development Authority and the Ministry of Tourism have set their target tourist numbers.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development performance ratings. solid waste disposal. Other requirements are covered by private sector. Therefore. In the future. which is operated by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs. More close coordination is required among the agencies concerned for tourism development and promotion of Egypt in order to make the tourist information center effectively serve to the visitors. Catherine and Ras Mohanmmed in Sinai Peninsula.000 8.000 rooms. costing LE 181 million. bed nights and required accommodation in The Strategy of the Tourism Sector for the fourth (1997/98-2001/2002). it would have a 50% to 65% share compared to just 30% in 1997.5.800 40.000.200 8 1. It is reported that 390. Other facilities Conference hall: CICC is the only public conference facility.000 129. At the St.5..5 60 101.805 33. Public toilet The public toilets in park facilities and museums are well maintained. Catherine’s area.5 60 140. a visitor’s center. the accommodation capacity in Egypt was estimated at 65.6 1. At the center.600 7 1. etc. 1. which are authentic roles of the center. and 10.623 2012 15.000 more were under construction.5 60 73. (2) Other governmental plans The Strategy of the Tourism Sector also indicated investment projects and costs for the Ministry of Tourism. It is urged to construct new berths and improve the existing berths to avoid more pollution of the river water..405 5. visitors could easily get information about the natural and social environment of St. is located nearby parking facilities. Almost 5 star hotels have such function. fifth (2002/2003-2006/2007) and sixth (2007/2008-2011/2012) five-year development plans. are much short in Nile River for the its cruise. and the necessary investment costs for development will reach LE 76 billion. etc. Egyptian Tourism Authority and Cairo International Conference Center during the three 5-year development plans. the Red Sea Tourism Region is expected to play an important role. In 1995.112 24. construction and improvement of tourist rest houses. but their number is inadequate during peak tourist season.000 rooms would be needed until 2011/12. The ETA 1-48 .972 The Strategy of the Tourism Sector by Ministry of Tourism in 1996 As for distribution of accommodation.400 75.5 Target Number of Visitor Arrivals. the additional accommodation requirement by 2011/12 is 315. sewerage outlet.

all the banks said they continue to finance for tourism sector by project basis. Aswan also recognizes the need to expand its existing berthing facilities in the future. More than three forth companies expect to get turnovers in four years from the beginning of the new investment. The opinion of tourism related companies about business environment/investment environment are summarised as follows. According to GAFI’s data.977 million. 13 contractors. 797 companies in the tourism sector had been established by December 1998. The survey was based on questionnaire distributed to 52 companies and institutions. with 455 companies out of the total of 797 having been established in 1997 and 1998. and 241 in the Red Sea. CICC would be responsible for development and renovation/rehabilitation of conference facilities. Although the banks consider tourism to be a higher risk industry compared to another industry. regulations and complicated public procedure. Improvements related to public sectors are highly ranked. As for other developments. while others fall behind. and 1-49 . 70% of them gather information from Tourism Development Authority when they start/expand business activity. Of these companies. They also indicated that the rate of return on tourism projects is overall what they expect.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt would take charge of development of tourist centers.5. Eastern Europe and Russia ranked fourth. The Red Sea governorate has the highest number of established companies followed by Cairo and Southern Sinai. Companies expect to get turnover of investment in a short time. such as after the Luxor incident in 1997. and 15 tour operators/tour agents).E. 30% of companies/institutes said Western European people are the main target. Subcontractor surveyed two public institutions that promote investment in tourism in Egypt. establishment and improvement of tourist information centers. lack of institutions and laws. with some projects paying back capital ahead of schedule. • • • • On the other hand.3 Business and Investment Environment JICA Study Team conducted a business environment/investment survey through subcontractor. they had to reschedule some of their loans to help their clients overcome this crisis. amounting to LE 299 million until 2012. Investment promotion organisation/agencies (to foreign investment countries) in foreign countries. which will cost LE 120 million in total. 39 companies were established in Luxor and Aswan. Company/institution which aim to visitors from Asia and pacific is only one out of 43 companies/institutes. but that again some clients were more able to recover than others were. This is in line with the information obtained from the banks on the distribution of investment. 70% of companies/institutes agree that information from TDA is the most effective in the information supply institutions/agencies in Egypt. 38. General Authority for investment and free zones (GAFI) and Egyptian Banks follow it. Luxor City plans to seek financial support to develop a new berthing facility along the east side of the bridge. which is located south of Luxor City. which consist of five banks. Almost companies are satisfied with the return of business activity/investment activity. with Upper Egypt a distant fourth contender. Next target is Egyptian and visitors from Middle East. The data obtained from GAFI also shows that investment in tourism has increased markedly over the past two years. GAFI’s role is to promote investment in Egypt. 1. tax administration. difficulty of fund procurement and lack of human resource. all banks subcontractor had interviews have financed and continue to finance for tourism related projects. In times of crisis for the tourism sector. Lastly. and 60% of them plan to expand business activity in Egypt. As for target visitor arrivals. difficulty of labour management and lack of infrastructure. improvement of tourist bureaus abroad. and construction of the headquarters building. TDA is responsible for providing investors with detailed information on investment in all areas of the country. one private and two public institutions for tourism promotion and 44 tourism related companies (16 hotels and resorts. GAFI and TDA. with a total investment cost of L. and is not specialised in the tourism sector. but this covers a wide range of variation. • Followings are serious reasons which prevent vivid business activity/investment activity.

Part I

Overview of National Tourism Development

most companies rely on it for information as input into their investment decisions. It looks that TDA’s promotion method is to prepare for booklets which attract investments to new tourism development area and to distribute it for investors. But investors who have much relation with TDA seem to be able to have informal information.

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Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt

1.6
1.6.1

Transportation
Major Transportation Mode for International Visitor Figure 1.6.1 shows the travel pattern of major international visitors in Italy, Germany, France, United Kingdom, United States and Japan. It is prepared by the analyses of tour pamphlets of each country. It means that travel patterns of individual visitor are not included, and visitors’ actual needs are also not included in the figure. But it can show visitors’ movement methods in Egypt. Air transportation and ship transportation in the Nile River have important role in visitors’ movement. They run north and south of Egypt, while land transportation has limited role of connecting destinations east and west.
Figure 1.6.1 Travel Pattern of International Visitor

Alexandria Alamein Wadi el Natrun Eilat (Israel) Suez/Iamailia St. Catherine Nuweiba

Cairo Dahab Siwa Giza Saqqara Abydos Dendera Bahariya Luxor Esna Kharga Edfu Kom Ombo Aswan Hurghada Safaga Legend Air Transportation (Major route) Air Transportation Land Transportation (Major route) Land Transportation Ship Transportation (Major route) Ship Transportation Abu Simbel Destination with Airport Major tourist attractions Sharm el Sheikh

Source:

JICA Study Team

1.6.2

Air transportation Though there are 18 is classified in 3 kinds of airport (Prime/major international airport, Secondary/other international airport and Domestic airport) by Egyptian Civil Aviation Authority, 14 airports were being operated in 1997 according to its annual statistical report. In 1997, there were around 73,000 international flights, and they carried 8.4 million air passengers from and to Egypt. The counted international air passengers were almost shared by 3.96 million international visitors arrivals (7.92 million passenger demands) in the year. Non-scheduled flights carried 2.64 million passengers, which are one third of passenger demands of total international visitors to Egypt. Scheduled flights carried remaining 5.28 million passenger demands of international visitors to Egypt.

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Part I

Overview of National Tourism Development

Almost of international flights used the 6 major international airports of Cairo, Alexandria, Hurghada, Luxor, Aswan and Sharm el Sheikh. Around 90% of scheduled international flights used Cairo Airport. Non-scheduled international flights mainly used Cairo, Hurghada, Luxor and Sharm el Sheikh international airports. Domestic flights and air passengers were also concentrated to the 6 major international airports and Abu Simbel airport.
Table 1.6.1 Number of Flight by Major Airport in 1997

Airports Cairo Alexandria Hurghada Luxor Aswan Sharm el Sheikh Asyut Taba St. Catherine El Arish Abu Simbel New Valley Matruh Port Side Total Share (%)
Source:

International Scheduled Non-scheduled 44,112 6,983 2,509 522 1,003 6,626 1,028 5,162 14 691 293 3,955 26 2 0 179 0 0 37 242 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 49,022 24,362 35.0 17.4

Domestic 18,469 3,449 7,258 11,311 9,598 5,734 32 197 136 67 5,337 706 290 4,178 66,762 47.6

Total Flight Number Share (%) 69,564 49.6 6,480 4.6 14,887 10.6 17,501 12.5 10,303 7.4 9,982 7.1 60 0.0 376 0.3 136 0.1 346 0.2 5,337 3.8 706 0.5 290 0.2 4,178 3.0 140,146 100.0 100.0

Annual Statistical Report 1997 by Egypt Civil Aviation Authority in 1997 Table 1.6.2 Number of Passengers by Major Airport in 1997

Airport Cairo Alexandria Hurghada Luxor Aswan Sharm el Sheikh Asyut Taba St. Catherine El Arish Abu Simbel New Valley Matruh Port Side Total Share (%)
Source:

International Scheduled Non-scheduled 5,307,410 493,321 225,733 45,192 116,394 841,559 147,323 699,797 810 37,250 42,721 499,042 2,497 151 0 15,936 0 0 2,284 7,314 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,845,172 2,639,562 42.5 19.2

Domestic 1,927,091 48,606 509,780 1,144,610 785,826 439,817 2,433 6,970 1,821 1,143 372,084 11,260 1,927 25,470 5,278,838 38.4

Total Passenger Number Share (%) 7,727,822 56.1 319,531 2.3 1,467,733 10.7 1,991,730 14.5 823,886 6.0 981,580 7.1 5,081 0.0 22,906 0.2 1,821 0.0 10,741 0.1 372,084 2.7 11,260 0.1 1,927 0.0 25,470 0.2 13,763,572 100.0 100.0

Annual Statistical Report 1997 by Egypt Civil Aviation Authority in 1997

The Cairo Airport managed and operated by Cairo Airport Authority, has been the hub airport of Egypt since it opened in 1963. The number of domestic and international passengers who used the airport in 1997 reached 7.73 million, or 56% of the total passengers in Egypt. In addition,

1-52

belonged to local governments. both domestic and international. 6 new airports are planned. The government is also planning to expand and build these airports by BOT scheme.600. Two airport projects announced by BOT: Ras Sudr (Red Sea). Generally road condition in Egypt is good. but also for military purpose.319 km. of which 40% were sub-standard with less than 7.6. In 1992. while 84% was in fair to 1-53 . 12% and 1% were four-lane and six-lane divided highway respectively. and four of them have already been under construction.6. • • • Four airport projects under construction by BOT: Marsa Alam (Red Sea). Almost road transportation need for them is intra-city transportation and inter-city transportation which has not a long distance for international visitors. and has three 3. Currently. It is the largest airport in the Middle East.3 Road Transportation Road transportation is not used for long distance transportation for international group visitors. and Two future airport projects scheduled by BOT: Ras Banas (Red Sea).2 Matruh Alexandria Major Airports in Egypt Port-Said El Arish Alamein Cairo Ras Sudr St. A majority (87%) of inter-city highways were characterized as two-way. Halaib (Red Sea) Figure 1. Ain Sukhna (Red Sea). the Government of Egypt is planning to expand existing airports and build new airports. JICA Study Team 1. two-lane. and the rest were under the jurisdiction of the Road and Bridge Authority (RBA).028 km. of which 1. Bahariya (Western Desert). El Alamein (Mediterranean). In consideration of the increasing number of visitors in the future.5m widths.000 to 4. Catherine Sharm el Sheikh Taba Ain Sukhna Bahariya Farafra Asyut Hurdaga Luxor New Valley Legend International airports Domestic airports Airports (Under construction) Airports (Planned) Aswan Marsa Alam Berenice Abu Simbel Halaib Note: Source: Classification of airports is based on the Annual Statistical Report 1997. The pavement condition of about 16% of the road network was poor. for domestic flights. additional two airports will be built along the Red Sea by BOT scheme. was approximately 93.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt the number of arrival and departure flights. Egypt’s inter-city road network was approximately 14. Farafra (Western Desert). In the future.000meter runways for international flights and four runways. The other two are looking for investors. The airport is not only used for civil aviation. which could accommodate A-300-class airplanes.

1996) 1-54 .Part I Overview of National Tourism Development excellent condition. 1 .3. But for international visitor. The shortage of parking space is one of reasons why such traffic congestions occur. such a situation has to be resolved. 56% was unpaved while 44% was paved.4 Railway Transportation The railway network of Egyptian National Railway (ENR) consists of 43 lines/segments.6. Although it takes much time compared with another transportation mode such as air transportation. it costs very low.6. In Red Sea Region.320 km of four-track and double-track lines respectively.401 Number of Lines and Segments 6 11 26 43 Remark Line No. The ENR lines are classified into three types by train speed and/or passing tonnage as listed Table 1. First class lines are listed in Table 1.4. in which a large scale of accommodation development is planned.6. Alexandria. it is difficult to use the bus network because of limited information. 7 . But traffic congestions seldom occur in large cities such as Cairo.211 4. Some improvements such as developments of parking spaces and bypass road are required.403 787 2.3 Types of ENR Lines Class 1st 2nd 3rd Total Source: Length (km) 1. In accordance with the diversification of tourist products.17 The Master Plan Study for Egyptian National Railways (JICA study.401 km. For international independent visitors. Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula. The condition of the shoulder pavement was poorer than the driveway condition. It has services network where train transportation has not service such as Western Desert. long distance bus network can offer a good transportation method. Table 1. More than 30% of the lines/segments have been developed as double or four-track lines. 1.6. they are seldom caught in a jam because of narrow road width.6 Line No. improvement and upgrading are also needed in accordance with the increase of visitor arrivals. including 19 km and 1. of which only 31% was in good condition. as of October 1996. Total length of lines is approximately 4. In such roads upgrading is needed in accordance with the increase of visitor arrivals. When visitors travel from Cairo to Saqqara and from Luxor to Dendera.

runs limited express train with sleeping cars between Cairo to Aswan.Alexandria Cairo .Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 1. Though airport facilities at Aswan Airport are new and have enough capacity. The expansion of capacities on each transportation facilities and upgrading of transportation service are indispensable measures to realize the national tourism development target in 2012.5 Major Issues on Transportation Network and Services Transportation network is generally identified one of most important tourism infrastructure.Ras El Ten Helwan . which can be called basic tourism infrastructure such as foods. will require around 500 international flights with more than 120. as indicated in The Strategy of the Tourism Sector by MOT. a separation of military use has to be considered in the future. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Source: Name of Line Cairo . Extension of the terminal building at Luxor Airport should be implemented in accordance with the development plan. Sharm el Sheikh Airport Hurghada Airport are needed in the future. The Construction of the third terminal should be implemented in accordance with the development plans. It will generate more than 400 international flights with over 100.000 passengers per day. which is foreign owned company. International visitors will visit more than one Tourism Regions. Aswan Airport.6. In general it is difficult to reserve seat or bed of these trains. accommodation and transportation. Cairo Airport will continue to work as the only gateway for most of international visitors. Luxor Airport.4 List of First Class Lines No. It costs much cheaper than air transportation and passenger can enjoy the scenery seen from train windows although it takes more time than air transportation. and development of Marsa Alam Airport. Enhancement of Sharm el Sheikh Airport and Hurghada Airport. which is planned by MOT. and Cairo to Alexandria are useful for international independent visitors. which will also require a appropriate domestic air transport services and terminal facilities development until target year of 2012. Wagons Lits Egypt. Increases of the capacity of Cairo Airport.El Sad El Ali Benha . • • • 1-55 . coordinating with accommodation development in the surroundings are needed. 1. In order to develop train transportation as transportation mode for international visitors.El Mansoura Abis . Especially more than 65% of total accommodations are distributed in the Red Sea Region. express trains and limited express trains which connect Cairo to Aswan. And more cities in Middle Nile such as Asyut had security problem before.Port Said Tanta . such issues have to be proved. (1) Issues on airport development Developments and expansion of airport facilities have to be implemented to cater a dramatically increasing international tourist. Information about them is limited and reservation system has not developed enough yet.El Marg Length (km) Remarks 209 Including 19 km of 4-track line 898 191 54 10 41 1.000 passenger demands during peak day. Details are described below: • • The target of 15 million international visitor arrivals.6.403 The Master Plan Study for Egyptian National Railways by Japan International Cooperation Agency in 1996 Though train transportation has not developed as transportation mode for international group visitors.

which will create big potentials of railway tourism demand in the future. When international visitors move to destination by tourist bus they have to form a convoy for security. should be solved. Train operation is not so frequent and not clear. 1-56 . railway could not take major transport function for international visitors for the following reasons. Security problem in Middle Nile (Asyut). Social stability and appropriate security measures will be required to realize the national tourism development target.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development (2) Issues on road transportation Road network improvements and developments will be required in inter-city network in order to provide and improve accessibility of destinations and to utilize potential tourism resources. because accommodation development in Red Sea and South Sinai will bring about traffic congestions in city area. And more. the most important gateway in Egypt. developments of bypass road and improvements of junction will be needed there in the future. (3) Issues on railway transportation At present. and Seat reservation system is not appropriately easy for international visitor. Especially the traffic congestion in Cairo. Rail transport service will be improved and upgraded to utilize for international and Egyptian visitors. • • • • Coach train is not so clean and not appropriate for international visitors.

1971 and modified in 1980. replacing the former Environmental Agency established by Presidential Decree No. 4 to strengthen environmental administration. including air. Decree No. protection and development activities in Egypt. laws and regulations Decree No. 631/1982 established an environmental authority. Others Table 1. In accordance with this law. 338/1995) gives the EEAA full authority to implement the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of selected projects.1 Environment Legislative and Institutional Framework related to Environmental Protection The legislative and institutional framework related to environmental protection and environmental impact assessment (EIA) system for tourism development project in Egypt can be briefly summarized as follows.1 is a list of other laws. This is Egypt’s first modern and comprehensive law regulating the environment as a whole. does not refer directly to the environment. the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Authority (EEAA) was established in 1994 as the competent authority in charge of environmental protection in Egypt. 4/1994 and its executive regulation (Decree no. (2) Decrees.7 1. land. This law calls for the establishment of an environmental protection fund and a system of incentives to encourage the protection of the environment.7.7. it obligates the Government to protect the people’s rights to a good living environment and to provide the Egyptian population with welfare services. which was promulgated on September 11. (1) National constitution The Egyptian Constitution. 1-57 . living creatures and human activities. 631/1982 In 1982. water.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. Law No. 4/1994 In 1994. However. This move demonstrated the government’s recognition of the necessity of a cross-sectoral governmental authority in the field of environmental protection. and promoted environmental concerns to the level of national interest. 338/1995 Law No. 631. the Egyptian Government promulgated Public Law No. Presidential Decree No. decrees and regulations related to environment in Egypt.

7. Decrees and Regulations Laws. Management of drinking operations 748/1957 Ministerial Decree No. 4/1994 Decree No. 102 concerning the establishment and management of natural protectorates. a total of 21 natural protectorates exist and 10 protectorates have been proposed nationwide. Table 1. 102/1983 concerning natural reserves Decree No. 93/1962 on the drainage of liquid waste Law No.2 Existing Natural Protectorates and Proposed Natural Protectorates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Existing Natural Protectorates Ras Mohamed National Park NABQ Protectorate Abu Galum Protectorate Taba Protectorate St. 12/1984 Irrigation & water circulation Law No. in 1999 (3) Natural protectorates In 1983. 470/1971 Norms of atmospheric pollution in establishments and industrial subordinated units Presidential Decree No.7.7.1 JICA Study Team 1-58 . 8/1983 Protection of the Nile River & waterways against pollution Decree No. 338/1995 The executive statutes of Law on Environment as enacted by Law No. 48/1982 Re-protection of the River Nile & waterways against pollution Law No.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 1. 5711978 On elimination of pools and swamps and prevention of digging works Source: Information and Decision Support Center. 101/1985 Fund for environmental and tourism development Law No. 27/1978 General resources of water suitable for drinking & human use Law No. 93/1962 Liquid wastes disposal Law No. 53/1966 Protection of birds and wild life (Article 3) Law No. 649/1962 The executive regulations of Law No. Decrees and Regulations Contents Decree No.1 List of Other Environmental Laws. Concerning drainage of liquid wastes 93/1962 Presidential Decree No. 349/1979 Establishment of Egyptian Organization for Wild Life Protection Decree No. the Egyptian Government enacted Law No. At present. 106/1983 Implementing some provisions of Law No. 4/1984 (Article 28) Prohibiting animal hunting Law No. Catherine Protectorate Alahrash Protectorate Zaranik Protectorate Astum el Gamil Protectorate Omayed Protectorate El Maadi Protectorate Hassana Dome National Monument Qarun Protectorate Wadi Alrayan Protectorate Wadi Sannur Cave Wadi Asyuty Protectorate Saluga Ghasal Protectorate Wadi Alaqi Protectorate Elba Protectorate Borollos Protectorate All Islands in Nile River Wadi Degla Protectorate Proposed Natural Protectorates A El Magharra Protectorate B El Cosaiema Protectorates C Shaieb Albanat Protectorate D El Farafra Protectorate E El Dakhara Protectorate F Karkar Protectorate G Donkol Protectorate H El Galf el Kabir Protectorate I Hamata Protectorate Note: Source: Marks before each name shows locations in Figure 1.

and 1-59 . An important aspect of the executive regulations is the new licensing requirement related to the EIA.1 19 Location of Natural Protectorates 8 7 6 9 11 A 12 13 10 B 21 14 4 3 5 2 1 C 15 D E 20 16 F G H 17 I 18 Note: Source: Figures and characters show name of protectorate. in tourist and historical monument areas. 338/1995 have given the EEAA full authority to implement the EIA. tourism projects. Guidelines for Development of Ports.7. EEAA in 1999 (4) Environmental impact assessment system in Egypt Legislative Background Law No. in high population density areas. etc.2. etc. the “Environmental Impact Assessment. the EEAA prepared the “Environmental Guidelines for Development in the Coastal Areas” in 1996. Establishments and projects that are required to conduct the EIA are listed in the guidelines as well. The executive regulations provide a list of specific companies and establishments which has to obtain an environmental approval as part of the licensing procedures from the related administrative authority to carry out a project which might impact on the environment. Under the Executive Director (Vice Chairman) of the EEAA.7. on sea and lake shores.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1. 4/1994 has formulated the official procedures of the EIA system in Egypt. infrastructure projects and other projects which could have an impact on the environment. Law 4/1994 and Decree No. this authority consists of the following two sectors: • Environmental Quality Sector. Also included in this list are all establishments or facilities to be constructed on the banks of the Nile River. The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Authority (EEAA) has prepared guidelines on the EIA procedure. its branches and canals. in protected areas. mines and quarries. Refer to 1. The list includes industrial facilities. power generating facilities. Harbors and Marines”. companies operating in the oil and gas sector. Institutional Framework of the EIA Egyptian Environmental Affairs Authority (EEAA): As mentioned above. As for the coastal area.

there is the Central Directorate of EIA that has all the responsibility for appraisal of EIA in Egypt. Review and evaluation of the EIA of private projects submitted to TDA for approval. and others. 4/1994. 1-60 . and Flood studies and protection works in Gulf of Aqaba (South of Sinai) and the Red Sea Region to help the investors in the development process. the “Bedouin” Center and the Environmental Center. Although relatively well managed. an Environment Department has been organized under the Directorate of Tourist Area Development. Special studies of local and immigrated birds ecology and (spa) tourism to verify tourism products. Environmental Department in TDA: According to Law No. Environmental assessment of conceptual tourism development plans (environmental screening). such as PCDDs (Polychlorinated-dibenzo-para-dioxins). together with an application to the licensing authority. together with EEAA. developers and design professionals at the conceptual stage of each new tourism development in order to influence and provide technical inputs to design and environmental protection measures. light domestic waste. constructed and monitored two major projects in the Gulf of Aqaba. TDA has planned.scale projects. Preparation of environmental guidelines. Ministry of Agriculture. etc. The office or directorate refers potential investors and developers to the Central Directorate of EIA in the EEAA to conduct the EIA study before they obtain the approval for their project. The Ministry of Industry. in cooperation with USAID. Developing urban and tourism work from the socio-environmental point of view.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development • Environmental Management Sector. such as Tourism Development Authority or other authorities. have an environmental affairs related office or department to enforce EIA studies. In the desert. This department advises the proponent of a project in the conduct of EIA study.2 (1) Environmental Condition Solid waste In the tourism areas and historical spots. Open burning of solid waste is often practiced in the desert and other places. Conserving unique cultural and natural resources for development. and this could generate toxic chemical substances. It has also launched the following tourism development program and other related activities: • • • • • • • • • Environmental survey and inventory work for tourism development regions (site analysis). in cooperation with EEAA. which deal with large.7. General Authority of Investment. General Authority for Agricultural Development. 1. In the TDA. ministries and government entities. The EEAA works closely with the Tourism Development Authority (TDA). including residential areas. regulations and management plans for tourism development areas.). Environmental awareness program for investors (conferences. an accumulation of solid waste has been observed in those areas. In the Environmental Management Sector. are scattered by the wind and get hooked on shrubs or accumulate in the hollows of a “Wadi”. such as plastic bags. and submits the EIA report to EEAA for their approval. discussions. all new projects or extensions of existing projects are required to prepare and submit an EIA report. solid waste is primarily collected using handcarts. in cooperation with EEAA. publications.

the Study Team has observed during one of their field trips a campaign for use of unleaded fuel at a gasoline station. they are directly affected by the negative impacts brought about by the emitted gases and vibrations from vehicular traffic. and recyclable waste is segregated.. (2) Fluctuation of ground water level In Luxor and Aswan.and middle-sized buses for tourist transportation and travel are operated in the tourism areas and historical spots. The designed treatment capacity of each plant is about 500 tons/day. Most of the ruins and other historical assets are situated in an open environment. In addition. the rising of ground water level has grown remarkable in recent years. Initial observations indicate that the degree of water turbidity of the Nile River along the tourism areas of Luxor and Aswan is relatively low. Packaging materials are sold to dealers for further processing and recycling. solid wastes from residential areas. A number of private companies have been contracted to collect domestic solid waste. operation of these activities on a large scale is a potential threat to the ecological balance of the surrounding environment. several private individuals collect waste by the use of handcarts. The Government has committed to set up 50 composting plants so far and 30 of them have been constructed in Upper Egypt. No offensive odor is identified from the Nile River along these areas. including NOx. which in turn will raise the level of gas emission. SPM (suspended particulate matter). temperature. This is a potential environmental hazard from the viewpoint of conserving the ruins and historical assets. 4/1994. a positive policy and trend is expected to emerge on the use of unleaded fuel. 1-61 . industrial facilities. and the treated sludge is used as soil conditioner. some solid waste and water hyacinth are observed floating on the river around an anchorage for boats. including agricultural use and golf course maintenance. The Central Government is encouraging the local governorates to set up post-treatment facilities for solid waste. hotels and resorts are managed according to the area where they are generated. (4) Water pollution According to officials in Aswan and Luxor. most of the remaining waste is fed to animals. without any roof or walls. An increase of visitors will result in the increased use of public transportation. However. (3) Air pollution Many large. etc. It might be assumed that the water quality in those areas would have high concentrations of BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) load. most industries are taking some measures to set up solid waste treatment facilities. solar radiation. a trickling filter and oxidation pond comprise the major wastewater treatment plant in these governorates. humidity. Domestic waste is then sorted. As primary collection. and a wastewater treatment plant for their sewage water. Leaded fuel is still used in Egypt. On the one hand. After sorting. taking into account the health of the people and the protection of the environment. Generally. However. in the Red Sea coastal area. etc. Consequently. there is the natural erosion of ruins and assets. and the ecosystem in Luxor and Aswan. In due course. some resort hotels operate their own seawater desalination plant for their water consumption. However. industrial waste and construction debris are disposed of and dumped in development areas and the surrounding desert.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt In addition to the domestic waste. which is caused by wind. SOx. Taxicabs are also available but most of them are old models. To comply with the Environmental Law No. The treated wastewater is then utilized for various purposes. thereby worsening the quality of the surrounding air.

and the dust has scattered all over the world. Several natural communities of mangrove forest are observed in the surrounding areas of Marsa Alam and the southern part of Sinai Peninsula. 1-62 . and traditional concept of land use. the developments of tourism accommodations enable Bedouin people to be employed as guards of hotels. Among them are approximately 13 clans of typical nomads called Bedouin found in the Sinai Peninsula and in Red Sea. Therefore. (6) Social aspect Illegal settlements and minority races have been identified in Egypt. and natural tourism utilizing marine resources at the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. and urban tourism in Cairo and Alexandria. and Bedouin peoples are suffering from water shortage. and inland resources of desert and oasis. Additionally. even if there were no physical settlement found in a proposed area for tourism development. Considering that the Bedouin themselves have the potential as tourism resource. any tourism development plan should include special attention and consideration to mitigate any negative impacts on their lives. For example. and in construction of tourism facilities would easily bring negative impacts on the marine and desert biota if there were no suitable and appropriate countermeasures for preserving them. According to a group of scientists at Duke University and others (New Scientist. among other things.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development (5) Biodata Red Sea is one of the richest coral habitats on earth. • • • Reinforcement of zoning system and management system for the preservation and restoration of historical heritages and for the conservation of historical climate around the heritages. Generally. From the viewpoint of anthropology. Accommodation development in South Sinai caused the down of ground water level. to preserve the world and national heritages. 1st July 1999. land ownership. UK). unique and diverse fauna and flora in the desert area have been reported by a number of publications. historical heritages and local communities and to promote sustainable and harmonized tourism developments. 1. As a matter of fact. the necessary study and survey on the Bedouin should be carried out in accordance with social environmental consideration before the implementation of a specific project. the increase in population of divers and visitors. and to maintain the balance of preservation and utilization of the historical and natural heritages. and they can get money. especially cyanophyceae. The environmental conservation and management system as below should be established in order to sustain the tourism development utilizing these resources. On the other hand. and Reinforcement of EIA enforcement system and its appropriate operation in order to prevent any negative impacts on natural resources. a tourism development project shall be planned and designed to mitigate possible negative impacts on these settlements and minority groups. and it has a very diverse ecosystem. shrub trees and plants have been identified in and around the ‘Wadi’ area of the desert. terrestrial and freshwater environment executed by the environment related agencies /Establishment of conservation and management system for each natural resource. tropical fishes and others. the drought in the Sahara Desert has increased the amount of dust in the air. They have a unique culture. often serving as the vector of some viruses and fungi which can damage corals (Press release). insects. several interesting birds. In addition to the coastal area. Reinforcement of zoning system for the conservation of coastal.3 Major Issues for Sustainable Tourism Development Tourism in Egypt consists of historical tourism utilizing historical and cultural resources along the Nile River.7. lifestyle. lizards. it can be considered that there are several territories among the clans without any physical border lines in the Sinai and other areas of Egypt.

restaurants.8. In accordance with the survey results. Table 1. To analyze the issues on tourism services. 2 (Medium). the results of the Tourism Sample Survey in 1992. the role and function of the private sector has become an important and leading factor since the beginning of the 1990s. 1994 and 1996 were used. although cleanliness of environment remains as a significant issue in general. And domestic flights and taxi services are also ranked to dissatisfactory level. such as hotels. which will be issues for future improvement. tourist villages.1 Evaluation of Tourist Services Year Arrival Immigration and Customs Accommodation Hotel Tourist Village Floating Hotel Youth Hostel Bank Eating Restaurant Seeing Tourist Guide Transport Railway Domestic Flight Rented Vehicle Bus Taxi Reservation Shopping Souvenir Shop Antique Shop Bazaar General Attitude of People Health Care Cleanliness of Environment Note: Source: 1992 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 4 3 3 4 5 2 3 3 3 2 5 5 1994 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 5 1996 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 4 2 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 5 Category Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Medium Satisfactory Medium Unsatisfactory Medium Unsatisfactory Medium Medium Unsatisfactory Medium Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Medium Medium Poor 1 (Satisfactory). CAPMAS and Ministry of Tourism (2) Tourism services and human factors In line with the economic transition and the tourism boom. 3 (Unsatisfactory). souvenir shops and banks.8. in conjunction with the Ministry of Tourism.4.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. The results are similar to the opinion given by the tour agents at the survey in the major market countries of Europe shown in Table 1.1. The survey looked into the factors affecting tourist activities and movement.8. 5 (Poor) Tourism Sample Survey. cafeteria. 1996.1 (1) Tourism Services and Human Resource Development Tourism Services General The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). had conducted a Tourism Sample Survey once every two years. 1994. Tourist establishments considered satisfactory by visitors. the quality of tourism services of Egypt has been gradually improved. 1992.8 1. floating hotels.20. are all in the hands of the private sector in 1-63 . 4 (Unsatisfactory). The evaluation on the tourism service items in Egypt by the visitors is shown in Table 1.

low hygiene standard. short courses. etc. because the education requirement involves a wide variety in terms of both levels and types. First is the exploitative manner of local business people towards international visitors in restaurants (except those in hotels managed by foreigners). mistakes in reservations. taxicabs. refresher courses. 1-64 . It is necessary for Egypt not only to improve the service level but also to reduce it. Nevertheless. tour operators and guides. restaurants. Since it would be impossible to make available to all of them full time education in a formal setting. Second is the inefficiency and shortage of facilities. and garbage.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development alliance with foreign interests like internationally well known hotel management companies. Egyptian people will have to compete with their competitor more. such as university.2 (1) Human Resource Development Employment structure and level of education required From the viewpoint of tourism service improvement. however. such as transportation. education and training should be focused on personnel who provide services directly to the visitors. is practical training with scientific method. shops and bazaars. In addition. In accordance with the development of the marine resort tourism. college. technical training institute.8. there are many institutions providing tourism courses relating to those fields at present. acute shortage of public toilets. together with the required level of education or training. personnel requirement in the tourism industry covers a wide range of fields. The analysis of the tourist sample surveys also showed that the dissatisfaction of visitors could be traced to two factors. bazaars. and so on. marine resort tourism tends to be small profits and quick returns due to the competition with rivals. In addition to it. orientation seminars. Although there are many educational institutions of university and secondary levels in Egypt. Table 1. On the other hand.8. that requires training and development from the viewpoint of tourist services. should be provided and integrated with formal education.2 Employment Structure of Hotels and Tourist Establishments Type of work Management & front office Housekeeping & laundry Food & beverage Kitchen Steward Engineering Others Total Source: JICA Study Team Accommodation establishment 6% 17% 22% 14% 6% 12% 23% 100% Tourist establishment 20% 20% 60% 100% Level of education required 2 years of college or more 2 years of college or more 2 years of college or more 2 years of college or more Not specified 2 years of college or more Not specified The above table does not indicate the type of work in travel agencies. antique shops. banks. such as staffs of hotels. the tourism element under the public sector evaluated as satisfactory by visitors is the immigration and customs services at the airport and information supply services in town as well as care of security on visitors. such as irregular/unreliable operation of railways and domestic flights. the bigger responsibility rests on the former to lead and educate the people about these issues. Improvements in the attitude of local business people and cleanliness of the environment cannot be realized easily because of the cooperation required between the public agency concerned and the citizens. The following table shows the employment structure of hotels and tourist establishments. souvenir shops. The most significant training. The level and type of education/training should be examined according to type of work. clinics. horse cart. There are many other fields related to tourist services. 1.

apprenticeship training with crediting system and so on. Intensive training and rather long-term efforts are required.000.000 tourism and hotel graduates every year.3 Major Issues for Tourism Service Improvement and Human Resource Development Though Egypt is considered as one of the major international tourism destination in the Middle East. Training capacity for mid-management level in target type of work (accommodation and tourist establishment) is not enough. Provide wide range of training and education opportunity for all the level of personnel is quite effective for skill improvement. Technical institutes: There are many technical institutes that offer tourism-related courses. Between 400 to 800 students graduate from vocational school every year.000 in 2001. the hospitality of tour guides is a most welcome trait. The first one accepts enrolment of students who finish secondary school and the study period is four years. The second category of technical institute is similar to the first one. hotel management and tour guide. Expand the education and training capacity other than formal full-time course. 600 work in tourism services and 2. The importance of hospitality could be highlighted in orientation seminars for tour guides by tourism training institutes. 1-65 . Expansion of training capacity in terms of both facilities and qualities of teaching method. and the study period is five years. There are three categories of technical institutes. Especially food and beverage and kitchen are not sufficient in terms of capacity of facilities and teaching staff. The education and training are usually provided at the university level. part time course. The number of students enrolled in this type of school is estimated at around 4. The number of students studying tourism-related courses is estimated at over 17. between 3. It is estimated that enrolment would reach almost 9. banks and passport/customs.100 in hotels. There are approximately 2.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Therefore.8. 1. The number of students enrolled in this kind of institute is about 4. University level The enrolment in the faculty of tourism and hotels has been increasing from approximately 2.000 in 1993 to more than 5. There are approximately 2.000.500 students graduate from technical institutes. this study is targeting specific types of work in accommodation and tourist establishments.000. Improvement of training curriculum and facilities as well as teaching staff to meet with actual ability required by the tourism industry. Tour guides are another important service for historical tourism and eco-tourism.000 students in 1997. Out of this. the tourism services in Egypt is not valuated highly except that of accommodation facilities. except that the study period is two years.700 students who graduate from tourism-related courses at the technical institutes every year. 600 go to the tour guide business. too. In total. Comparing to the required training capacity described in the previous section training and education capacity of tourism related personnel in Egypt is summarized as following: • • • Training capacity of management class and tour guide is sufficient in terms of number of students' graduate. 800 to tourism services and 600 to hotel management. Out of this number.000 and 3. (2) Training capacity in Egypt The training capacity on tourism for related industries at the various levels has been examined from the viewpoint of both level of education and number of students. The third category accepts students who finish preparatory school. such as tourism study. Refresher course. Aside from language skills and knowledge of history and culture. It is a highly professional trade and guides usually work alone.

and hospitality of Egyptians are also not valuated highly. and Expansion of existing training institutes and retraining of employees. cleanliness condition is valuated as poor. taxi. shops and the tour guides are valuated as dissatisfactory. which meet the quantitative increase of foreign visitors. the following issues are also identified in order to improve the quality of tourism services. promotion and improvement of tourism related industry such as souvenir and restaurant industries 1-66 . and transport reservations. and services of domestic air transport. It is targeted that the number of international and Egyptian visitors will increase with an average annual growth rate of over 10% in future. The following issues have been identified in order to expand the training capacity and to improve the quality of personnel to meet future rapid expansion of tourism industry: • • • Improvement of training curriculum and facilities as well as teaching staff of faculty at university for the training of management class and tour guides. car rental. The existing organizations for tourism related education and training have provided the personnel to meet the increase of foreign tourist arrivals with an average annual growth rate of about 7% over the period from 1991 to 1998.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Especially. Improvement and expansion of capacity of the practical training for middle management class of accommodation and tourist establishment. • • • • • Conduct of regular follow-up survey for a continuous approval and ranking of accommodation facilities including hotels and cruise ships by MOT Tourism administration such as retraining system corresponded to the approval system of tour guide in each language Enlightenment of the people to be hospitable in conjunction with the promotion of international tourism Improvement of domestic transportation services including that of domestic air transportation in reservation and operation Development. The services of restaurants. It is required to improve the quality of tourism services in conjunction with the capacity expansion. bus. Especially. Besides human resource development described above. expansion of capacity of the practical training for middle management class personnel is urgently necessary. railways.

and Tourism service improvement: Development of human resource and tourism related industries. Sustainable tourism development: Introduction of pollution prevention countermeasures. based on the previous chapters including the review of existing development plans and analysis of the existing conditions concerned with the tourism sector. Provision of accessibility to destinations and development of transportation facilities for tourism circuits: Expansion of international and domestic transportation capacity/Diversification and reinforcement of inter-regional transportation services. tourism infrastructure development. international tourism market and tourism resources distribution. diversification. tourism facility development. Improvement of tourism administration and enhancement of promotion activities to establish the new international tourism market and upgrading the present major markets in Egypt.9 Major Development Issues The Study Team identified the following five development issues in order to promote the tourism development and to achieve the tourism development target. • • • • • • Expansion of international/Egyptian tourism market and extension of length of stays: Development. environmental management and protection measures. and integration of tourism products. Development of harmonized and matured tourism destinations: Appropriate demarcation and co-ordination of roles of TDA.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. such as tourism administration and promotion activities. other related agencies. natural and social environment. and tourism service and human resource development. and the private sector. 1-67 .

the share seemed to go up from 0.40 1.490 0.553 0.2 (1) Scenarios of International Visitor Arrivals Alternative growth scenarios The JICA Study Team introduces three alternative scenarios to forecast international visitor arrivals at Egypt such as.2% to 9.495 0.55% to 0.5 1518.5 3895.484 0.648 0. Annual growth rates in Egypt went up and down.9 4796.10 3. 2. million) rate (%) (%) arrivals (Egypt.40 6.4 1311. 0. mostly rely on them. thousand) 1423. Scenario-2: Ambitious Growth Scenario and Scenario-3: Intermediate Growth Scenario.8% in 1993 to 38.730%.00 21.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 2.90 -14.5 563.30 2.495 0.6 458.40 24.9 2507.40 9.1 Number of International visitor arrivals in Egypt and in the World Year 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Average Source: Annual growth Annual growth Share of Egypt International visitor International visitor rate (%) arrivals (World.50 6.1 517.556 0.90 7. Since the latter half of 1990s.80 44.80 -21.478 0. from -21. and the share of Egypt.6 291. demand forecasts of international visitor arrivals are treated as development scenarios.387 0.00 8.20 -2.474 0. Three alternative development scenarios are presented herein and a favorable scenario is selected.1%.8 2582 3133.730 0.9 3961.514 0.1 World Market Share of Egypt Table 2.30 1.70 -12.73%. And the optimum scenario is determined and accommodation target is set.4 2600.50 2.90 0. The shares of international visitor arrivals of Egypt are from about 0.70 27.539 2. 2. In this section.00 7.3 395 426.00 3.1 2214.10 3.463 0.90 9.1.6 318. Tourism 2020 Vision by WTO in 1997 287.1.1 Development Framework and Priority Areas Development Scenario and Framework It is necessary to provide a clear development scenario in order to determine a phased development plan for accommodation and infrastructure.567 0. such as accommodation and infrastructure development.4 3453.80 38.10 3.00 2.587 0. Table 2.5 2503.9 1560.1 shows number of international visitor arrivals in Egypt and in the world.637 0. Scenario-1: Market Share Scenario. 2-1 .90 9.20 4. their annual growth rate.653 0.6 503.3 463.9 544.60 36.70 -13.46% to 0.63% until the first half of 1990s.3 1795 1969.9 339 362.2 327.3 1497.499 0.9% although they in the world stayed from 1. It was brought about the increase of short haul visitor such as Italy and Germany mainly. In 1999 the share was the highest figure.30 5.20 4.1.80 3.90 5.4 597 611 625 657.5 5.20 8. considering that tourism development efforts.1.5 1.09 Tourism in Figures annual issues by MOT.3 3206.

2 Target number of International visitor arrivals in the Market Share Scenario Scenario International tourism in the world International visitor arrivals (x 1.0 0. According to the estimation by the Study Team.97%.1. It will reach to 8. it will reach 17 million in 2012.648 2002 758. Table 2. It means that approximately 50% of the share should be expanded from the past highest one.9 0.06% should be achieved. Figure 2.000) World market share of Egypt (percent) Note: Source: 1997* 611.4 0. The increase in Market Share Scenario is almost linear in accordance with the growth of international visitor arrivals in the world.000 1.1.799. Table 2. with an annual average growth rate of 10.139. Egypt and 21st Century by the Cabinet of Government of Egypt in 1997. Table 2.700 6. On the other hand.648 2002 758. which may be the lowest and the highest targets respectively. Table 2.110 1. the increase in Ambitious Scenario will increase in a geometric 2-2 .1.000 6. The share of international visitor arrivals at Egypt against the world tourism should increase gradually and reach to 1.700 5.000) World market share of Egypt (percent) Note: Source: 1997* 611.709.4 shows international visitor arrivals and the market share of Egypt in Intermediate Scenario. the end year of the 6th five years development plan.467 average annual growth rate (%) 4. which is the highest share recorded in 1999 against the world tourism shown by WTO.06 * International visitor arrivals in 1997 is actual result.07% in the period.24 5. It means Egypt has to expand its market share more than double in 12 years.309.000 3.2 0.961.9 1.3 shows international visitor arrivals in Egypt and the market share of Egypt under Ambitious Growth Scenario.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Scenario-1: Market Share Scenario This scenario sets a target that the share of international visitor arrivals at Egypt should keep 7.000 3.1.535.24 10. It will reach about 12.2 shows the estimations of international visitor arrivals at Egypt and the world tourism.400.648% in 1997 to 1.730 0. The Strategy of the Tourism Sector by Ministry of Tourism in 1996 Scenario-3: Intermediate Growth Scenario This scenario assumes that the market share of Egypt against the world tourism should position in-between the Market Growth Scenario and Ambitious Growth Scenario. The market share of international visitor arrivals of Egypt should increase from 0.30%.1.844 2007 2012 932. Table 2.5 million in 2012 with annual growth ratio of 7.341.139.07 International visitor arrivals in 1997 are actual result.730 average annual growth rate (%) 4.3 million in 2012 according to the estimation with annual growth rate of 19.1. in which 17 million of international visitor arrivals are targeted in 2017.467% in 2012.1 8.0% and the average annual growth rate in the period from 1997 to 2012 of 5. ** Figures of International visitor arrivals in the world are estimated by JICA Study Team JICA Study Team Scenario-2: Ambitious Growth Scenario This scenario is based on the target of “Egypt and 21st Century” as the Strategy of the Tourism Sector prepared by the Egyptian government.5 16.000 1.3 Target Number of International Visitor Arrivals under Ambitious Scenario Scenario International tourism in the world International visitor arrivals (x 1. The past share should be a clear target to be achieved.099% in 2012.961.1 shows the performances of three alternative scenarios.730 2007 2012 932.4 0.000 10.

24 7.000 8. since 5.961.000 14.000) 18.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt progression.512.1.4 0. JICA Study team Figure 2.000 2.139. The market share is also required a tough figure to achieve to expand more than 2 times of the past highest share in 2012.97% against 7. It can be said that Scenario-2 is the target too heavy to achieve it. Table 2.07% of the growth rate is required and it should increase approximately 35% from the past one.000 0 Ambitious Scenario Intermediate Scenario Market Share Scenario 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: JICA Study Team (2) Selection of favorable scenario The JICA Study Team determined a favorable scenario from the three scenarios explained above. The Scenario-3 is the selected as the favorable one.969.000) World market share of Egypt (percent) Note: Source: 1997* 611.5 0.2 0.787 2007 2012 932.40% in spite of many and big fluctuations caused by the various reasons as shown in Figure 1.000 1.000 10. For the market share.099 average annual growth rate (%) 4. The figure is used for the evaluation of each scenario as a major criterion.1.97 International visitor arrivals in 1997 are actual result.572.4 Target Number of International Visitor Arrivals under Intermediate Scenario Scenario International tourism in the world International visitor arrivals (x 1.000 6. In the period between 1982 and 1999 the average annual growth rate of international visitor arrival at Egypt was 7.1 Three Alternative Scenarios of International Visitor Arrivals Int’l visitor arrivals ( x 1.5.648 2002 758. It can be said that Scenario-1 is the easy target to achieve/to have to achieve it.4.000 8. The curve of Intermediate Scenario lies on the just middle between the other two scenarios.000 16. it is also necessary to achieve the figure as a target with efforts by the all agencies concerned even it is the highest.700 5.6 12.000 4.000 3.1.06% of the average annual growth is required against the past rate of 7.1.40% as shown in Table 2. since 10.04% 0f the past and the market share should be expanded to approximately 50% of the past share.000 12. 2012 2-3 . Scenario-3 is considered in the possible range to achieve. since the growth rate of 7.920 1.

961. international visitor arrivals will be 14 million in 2012 with 8.512. In the Optimum Scenario.000) 18.8 average annual growth rate (%) 4.1.5 2007 2012 932. but with much efforts paid by the all agencies concerned.000 2.2 and Table 2.844 5.5.4 14. and the historical tourism products.4 0.2 1997* 611. New tourism developments such as marine resort tourism in South Sinai and Red Sea are booming for short haul and middle haul countries.0 1.027.0 0.1.000 16. and Egyptian economy developed with satisfactory due to structural adjustment policy in 1990s.000 12.030 8. Table 2. • • • • Egypt has world-class tourism resources.700 6. Security for tourists is assured recently in accordance with weakening activity of Islamic Fundamentalist in Middle Nile.4 0.1.000 Intermediate Scenario Optimum Scenario 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: JICA Study Team 2-4 2012 0 .000 9.000 10.2 1.000 3.099 1.000 1.400.0 1.5 International Visitor Arrivals under Optimum Scenario Scenario International tourism in the world Optimum/recommendable Scenario International visitor arrivals (x 1.97 Optimum Scenario and Intermediate Scenario Int’l visitor arrivals ( x 1.000.000) World market share of Egypt (percent) Scenario-3: Intermediate growth scenario International visitor arrivals (x 1.000 14.969.78 7.648 3.648 0 2002 758.000) World market share of Egypt (percent) Difference between Optimum and Scenario-3 Source: JICA Study Team Figure 2.229 12.000 4.24 8.139.487.5 0.600.000 8.000 6.1.6 0. it is recommended to set higher level of target in consideration of the following conditions in Egypt.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development (3) Introduction of Optimum Growth Scenario Although JICA Study team selected Intermediate Growth Scenario as most favorable scenario.787 430. Economic recovery in eastern European countries and Russia enable to create new market for Egypt.572.920 1.8% of annual growth rate as set in Figure 2.961. It will lead historical tourism in the world from now on.

Aswan. and the only data sources for Egyptian tourist demand forecast are hotel guests in major 6 destinations in Egypt Tourism in Figures by MOT.775.252.076.9 3.7 Target Figures for National Accommodation Framework Hotel Guest Average length of stay Guests per room Occupancy rate Source: 1997 6.0 1. the target average length of stay for international 2-5 .0 22.6 shows bed nights of international visitors. Table 2.7* 1. and total bed nights will be about 135 million with the annual growth rate of 10. and Share in total bed nights are actual figures. the share of Egyptian’s bed nights in major 6 destinations was about 12%. In 2012 Egyptian’s bed nights at hotels will increase to about 23 million with annual growth ratio of 13.8 30.4 2007 71.5%. the JICA Study Team 2.4 50.5 26.100 from US$1. Alexandria. The result is shown in third line. Luxor. This is why the share of Egyptian’s bed night at hotels in total bed nights will not increased rapidly.1.3 Development of Egyptian tourism market In Egypt.1.0 9.2%.8 60 2002 7. The number of Egyptian tourists would then increase with improvement in the standard of living.966. It is projected in Egypt and the 21st Century that by 2017 GDP per capita will reach US$4.313. and they don’t stay at hotel as long as international visitors. In 1998 the number of hotel guests was about 800 thousand.1.591.7.8 60 2007 7. On the other hand almost Egyptian stays not hotel and tourist village but villa and their relation’s house generally. JICA Study Team assumes that it will increase to 17%. Egyptian’s bed nights at hotels in major six destinations.6 Sources: * Bed nights of international visitors.754.0 1.1 13.170. in 2012.9 2012 112. In 1997.4 Examination of Accommodation Development Framework The national accommodation development framework was examined from total bed nights showed in Table 2. ** Major six destinations mean Cairo.4 135.8 60 2012 8.250 in 1997.261. Second line in Table 2. This figure is expected to increase according to the economic development in Egypt.1.5 1.2 80. which is 5% up. Red Sea and South Sinai.5 1.7 10.2 10.1.578.5 1.7 (Unit: thousand) Annual average growth rate 10.5 4. and total bed nights are seen the fourth line.1.5. All figures are set according to targets by MOT and assumptions by the Study Team.1.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 2.5 1. which is introduced by international tourist arrivals time average length of stay showed in Table 2.6 8.477.8 11.227. and calculated Egyptian’s bed nights at hotels.5 1. or 13% of total hotel guests in major 6 destinations.3 17.6 Egyptian’s Bed Nights at Hotels 1997* Bed nights of international visitors Share in total bed nights (percent) Egyptian’s bed nights at hotels in major six destinations** Total bed nights at hotels in Egypt Note: 2002 45. Egypt Tourism in Figures by MOT.8 60 International visitor International visitor Egyptian Both Source Egypt and 21st Century The Strategy of Tourism Sector Assumption by the Study team The Strategy of Tourism Sector JICA Study Team According to the Egypt and 21st Century. information about Egyptian tourism is limited. Table 2. The following numbers have been set as targets for accommodation development framework at the beginning.

which is target accommodation development in 2012. national development plans. which are based on the rapid development trends and the accumulation of on-going projects in the region.000 rooms of increment accommodation development target for 2002 are strategically distributed into Red Sea Region.1.000 2007 71. mid and short haul markets in the world. it would be difficult to continue with hotel operation. increased Egyptian visitor will reactivate accommodation development. Considering the target by MOT and interviews of hotel managers by the Study Team. capability and availability of water resources and etc.7 in 1997 to 8. which will be caused by rapid and massive marine tourism development in Red Sea.591. which is 20%. Although the number of international visitors could conform to the national target. The difference of accompany rate between international visitors and Egyptians is shown in Table 2.9 shows accommodation distribution by Tourism Region/Tourism Sub-region in the Study.067. After 2007. Accommodation development in the region will be slow down in order to balancing the demand and supply.4 50.7 400. accommodation development plans.000 rooms. However. The Study Team prepare for the assumption that it will increase 6.6 days in 2017. scale and type of tourism development in the region should take care a fragile eco-system of oasis. In Cairo Region.313.7 8.754.277.1.3 22. 2-6 .4 150.000 2.6 76.2 80.000 2002 45. 75% of 74.966.775.8 30. If occupancy rate were less than 60%. The half of 400. However.8.477. it would be difficult for Egyptians because they usually stay with family in hotels.5 Distribution of Accommodation Accommodation distribution was determined from information such as current accommodation development. which cause land speculation and over accommodation supply in the latter half of 1990s. Table 2.170. and qualities until 2012 to maintain the roles of international gateway. Tourists and Rooms Required Target International visitors Bed nights at hotels Egyptian (thousand) Total Number of Rooms Source: JICA Study Team 1997 26.8 Target Numbers of National Tourist Nights.1.0 4. is strategically distributed to Red Sea as international marine resort destination.0 in 2012 from actual result in 1990s and target figure in 2012.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development tourists would gradually reach 8. In Desert & Oasis Region. the share of accommodation rooms will decrease from 30% to 20%. In Nail Valley Region.578. capital and metropolitan functions of Egypt.1.261. Cairo Region should keep the appropriate accommodation share. a 60% occupancy rate is a suitable target.8 3.000 2012 112. Table 2. which is based on the assigned strategic locomotive functions of Red Sea for rapid tourism and economic development in Egypt. trend of accommodation development and land development was rapid in the past. In Mediterranean Region. and tourism development potentials in each Tourism Region.9 240. and niche market development. accommodation will be steadily developed by increasing demand of historical tourists on long. tourism products will debut to soft adventure and eco-tourism markets in the world after 2002.252.4 135.

0 150 100.0 10 13.3 28 18.3 130 54.000 rooms 75.000 rooms Red Sea Region 200.6 80 53.8 65 16.2 15 10.3 38 15.8 0 0.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 2.1.3 24 30.0 25 10.0 240 100.3 National Tourism Development Framework (Accommodation distribution) 2012 Target Mediterranean Sea Region 55.2 200 50.000 rooms Source: JICA Study Team 2-7 .4 55 13.1.0 26 17.0 1 0.000 rooms 23.8 75 18.7 45 18.8 19 25.8 5 1.000 rooms 65.000 rooms 19.000 room Desert & Oasis Region 5.9 Distribution of Accommodation by Tourism Region/Tourism Sub-region Tourism Regions/ Tourism Sub-regions Cairo Nile Valley Red Sea Mediterranean Desert & Oasis Total Source: (Unit: thousand rooms) 1997 2002 2007 2012 Number Share Number Share Number Share Number Share 23 30.0 JICA Study Team Figure 2.7 2 0.3 76 100.0 400 100.000 rooms Nile Valley Region 24.000 rooms Cairo Region 1997 10.

2. Based on the estimated number of additional rooms of accommodation. increase of foreign exchange earnings.4% are expenditure by international and domestic tourists respectively. The impacts of tourism sector in the national economy can usually be examined in the following contexts of economic impact: • • • • Increase of employment opportunities. of which 93.1 Additional Employment of Tourism Sector until 2012 Additional number of accommodation until 2012 (thousand rooms) Additional direct employment (thousand persons) Additional indirect employment (thousand persons) Total additional employment until 2012 (thousand persons) New employment in total sector until 2012 (thousand persons) Share of tourism (%) Note: Source: In 2012 Assumptions 325 488 1.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development 2. handicraft manufacturing and construction. Total expenditure will amount to LE 52.2.2. Direct economic benefits of tourism include generation of employment. On the other hand.1 under some assumptions.14 million workers is estimated in the tourism sector. 2-8 . 8. and Increase of government revenues. Table 2. Until 2012.25 million new jobs are required in order to absorb the increasing labor force until 2012 in whole Egypt (Egypt & the 21st Century). Tourism sector will provide 14% of the total new jobs required. the target year of master plan. In addition to the above. such as construction of hotels and infrastructure development.1 Employment Tourism is a labor-intensive industry and the employment generated by tourism varies widely among sectors.250 550 thousand per year 2) 14 1) Based on the estimation in “The Strategy of the Tourism Sector” by Ministry of Tourism.2 Socioeconomic Impacts The impact of tourism on the national economy is significant. new job creation is estimated for direct and indirect employment until 2012 in Table 2.2. fisheries. Tourism also provides indirect economic impacts on the other economic sectors. It creates direct employment in accommodation establishments and indirect employment in tourism-related industries. guides and transportation. such as restaurants.2.0 employment per room 1) 1. Furthermore. which supply the goods and services for tourism sector.2.6% and 6. the improvement of transportation and other infrastructure facilities and services encourage the economic and cultural development of the community in the regional area. the impacts to tourism are assumed for the target year of 2012 as follows: 2.900 million in 2012. shops and bazaars. 2) Based on the estimate in “Egypt and the 21st Century” JICA Study Team 2. employment is also stimulated by tourist expenditures such as manufacturing or primary sector that supply goods and services to tourism sector. Based on the optimum development scenario of tourist arrivals until 2012. income generation and contribution to government revenues.2 Foreign Exchange Earnings Tourist expenditure of foreign and domestic tourists in 2012 is estimated as shown in Table 2. employment for 1. Foreign exchange earnings. tour operators.5 employment per room 1) 650 2.138 8. such as agriculture. and investment-related employment. Contribution to GDP.

2. an “Input-Output Table” is a most effective tool.500 million) LE 3. Table 2.410 million Foreign currency earnings from international tourists (US$ 3.3 Contribution to Gross Domestic Product The basic input for estimating the economic impact is tourist expenditure.2.560 million (LE 49. This figure is about 4.2 Tourist Nights and Expenditure in 2012 Number of tourist nights (million nights) International tourist Domestic tourist Total Source: JICA Study Team 112 23 135 Average expenditure per night US$ 130 (LE 442) LE 170 Total expenditure US$ 14. 2-9 .4 billion as shown in Table 2.2. the contribution of tourist expenditure to the GDP in 2012 is estimated at LE 33. Table 2.2.3 shows the estimated tourist expenditure by item in 2012.148 7. Using an Input-Output Table of 1991/92.4.910 million LE 53. 2.477 2.410 Share (%) 33 11 18 19 14 5 100 Remarks Accommodation.614 10.875 9. It will be increase about four times in 15 years.6 billion in 1997) will amount to US$ 15 billion in 2012.2.671 53. food & beverage Excluding international transport Share of each expenditure item is referred to the results of Tourism Survey in 1994 JICA Study Team For the evaluation and quantification of tourism effects and its links with the rest of the economic activities in the national economy.625 5. though there remains the argument about the changes in the coefficients of each sector in the future.3 Tourist Expenditure Structure in 2012 Expenditure items Hotel expenses Food & beverage outside hotel Shopping Entertainment Transportation & sightseeing Others Total Note: Source: LE million 17.5% of the country’s GDP of LE 750 billion in 2012.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 2.

tax exemption incentives are given for 5 to 10 years. EGOTH.339 0. Local tax is also imposed on the expenditure of tourists in hotels (2% for accommodation and food & beverage expenditure). and customs duties. 1991/92.371 (Average) 10.190 7. under Law No. Government receives revenues in the forms of income taxes on tourism enterprises and workers in the tourism sector. MISR Co. Annual interest is 5% for the deferred part of the price.4 Contribution of Tourism to GDP in 2012 Sectors in I/O table Whole sale & retailing Restaurants & hotels Transportation Entertainment & culture services Total Note Source: Value Total output Coefficient of added 2) Intermediate (LE billion) input 1) (LE billion) 9.099 0. 2-10 . For hotels and tourism projects. sales tax on tourism expenditures. personal income and taxes on dividends. which amounted to LE 160 million in 1996. TDA.00 per 1m2 Land rent Service and activity income. Egyptian Hotel Co.6 0. the investment projects in Egypt including hotels and tourist transportation are granted tax holidays for corporate profit. TDA received LE 24 million as current activity income from those incomes and LE 15 million was transferred to the state government as surplus. some authorities and government-owned companies also receive income from tourism activities. In the 1998/99 fiscal year.2.1% of investment costs) and Review Expense of Executive (0.5 33.556 0. Besides TDA. such as Allocation Expense (2 % of the gross value of land). receives income from owning and participating in the management of many historical hotels.8 53.. and import duties on goods and services. as well as the state government.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 2..5 7. Contract Expense (5% of the gross value of land). etc.7 8. 8.2.4 Increase of Government Revenues The contribution to state government revenues is another economic impact of tourism. The income of TDA consists of the following incomes from the Integrated and Limited Projects in TDA areas: • • • • Land sale: US$ 1. They are EGOTH.8 23.. Preliminary Review Expense (0.5 12.Coefficient of intermediate input) JICA Study Team 2.4 6. Under the Ministry of Public Enterprises. many companies are receiving tourism incomes. for example. Duty Free Shop Co. 2) Value added = Total output x (1. derives income from tourism in the form of current income by tourism projects.25% of investment cost) Interest income: 20% of the land price is paid in advance and the rest is paid in 7 equal installments after a 3-year grace period.4 0. Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Entrance fees for museums and historical sites are collected by the Supreme Council of Antiquities.4 Expenditure items Shopping Hotel expenses and food/beverage Transportation & sights seeing Entertainment and others 1) Input/Output Table. However.

2 (1) Analysis of Development Potentials Analysis of existing conditions (STEP 1) Existing conditions of Tourism Regions are evaluated by the following five criteria by Tourism Region as shown in Table 2.1: • • • • • Tourism resources: Geographic condition and characteristics of tourism resources. and water resources. Accessibility: International and local airports. natural and historical environments.1 Study Procedure Designation of five tourism regions Inventory of existing conditions STEP 1 Analysis of existing conditions by Tourism Region/Tourism Sub-region Inventory of development conditions STEP 2 Analysis of development conditions by Tourism Region/Tourism Subregion STEP 3 Evaluation of tourism development potentials by Tourism Sub-region STEP 4 Selection of priority areas for regional tourism master plan Source: JICA Study Team 2. Tourism market: Origin of international tourists and distribution of hotel classes.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 2.3. Development maturity: International tourist inflow and number of tourist accommodations.1 Selection of Priority Areas Selection Procedure The priority areas for the study will be selected based on existing conditions of Egyptian tourism on the national level and the tourism development plans of MOT. and Consideration: Population problem. “Tourism Development Plans.” The procedure of selection is shown below: STEP 1:Analysis of existing conditions by tourism region STEP 2:Analysis of development conditions by tourism region STEP 3:Evaluating potentials of tourism development by tourism region STEP 4:Selection of priority areas for the study Figure 2.3.2. minority.3 2.3. which are described in the section1.3. 2-11 .

and Capacity of water resources and tourism development. Awareness of minority groups such as Bedouins.5% in Cairo and the Nile Valley regions respectively. European tourists share 76% of the total tourist arrivals. Accessibility: Every region except the Desert and Oasis regions has international and domestic airports within the region. the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean have a lot of historical resources dating back from ancient Egypt. The Mediterranean region received domestic tourists and had 53% of total tourist arrivals. coming second was Cairo region at 1.317 thousand. while urban amenities concentrate in Cairo and Alexandria. Number of rooms increased by almost forty times from 1982 to 1997 at the Red Sea and only doubled for the same period in Cairo. 3-star hotels show the highest share in the Mediterranean region. Cairo and the Nile Valley receive middle and long stay tourists from all over the world. the Nile Valley and Mediterranean regions.740 thousand. 2-12 . In the Red Sea. there are three local airports serving scheduled flights. the increase of tourist accommodation is extremely high in the Red Sea among the five regions. Development maturity: In 1997. the Red Sea region received the highest number of tourist arrivals at 1. Over the past fifteen years. The Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea regions are rich in marine resources.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Tourism resources: The regions of Cairo. 3) Tourism market: Origin of tourists varies among regions. Considerations: The following should be taken into consideration for the selection of priority area: • • • • Contribution of tourism to population diversification from the Nile Valley to the remote areas. Considering the classification of hotels. On the other hand. In the Desert and Oasis regions. Environmental conservation of marine resources in the Red Sea as well as historical resources in Cairo. 5-star hotels have a share of 48% and 33.

9 12.8 No data 48.0 - 0. Modern Cruise (Luxor + Aswan) Red Sea Coastal Zone Coptic Marine (South Sinai.9 17.7 Mediterranean Sea Costal Zone Alexandria Marine (Alexandria) No data Desert & Oasis Desert Zone Folklore Desert/Oasis (B) Maturity 1.1 13.3 21.4 15.0 0.7 53.0 0.9 1.5 8.8 76.5 Hurghada Sharm el Sheikh Taba St.6 31.5 18. and Annual Statistical Report 1997 by ECAA (E) Considerations 2-13 .3 13.2 14.0 2.8 14. of Guest nights Length of Stay Share of Hotel Rooms in 1997 (%) Share of Origin of Tourists (%) Egyptian Arab European Others (c) Market Share of hotel Class in 1997(%) 5star 4star 3star 2star 1star Under Classification Major Airport International Domestic (A) Products Nile Delta and Cities Ancient-Islamic Cairo (Cairo) Analysis of Existing Conditions by Tourism Region Nile Valley River Zone Ancient. Red Sea) 1.0 3. of Guests No.3.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 2.8 36.0 25.5 17.0 (D) Accessibility - Port Said El Arish Matruh New Valley Considerations Population Over population Over Population Limited Population Limited Population Bedouins Minority Habitat Natural Environment Preservation Preservation Preservation Need Need Historical Need Nile River Oasis Environment Nile River Nile River Water Source Desalination Source: Egypt Tourism in Figures 1983 and 1997 by MOT.8 37.0 80.8 9.0 26.2 31.2 3.0 8.2 31.0 393 1.740 8.5 11.990 5.7 710 3.8 Cairo Luxor Aswan Abu Simbel Asyut 33.1 0.0 32.571 5.1 13.1 Cairo Geographical Condition Tourism Products Historical Cultural/Urban Nature International Hotel Guests to Major Destinations in 1997 No.3 0.317 8.2 19.8 15.232 1.1 30.6 43.4 17.9 19. Governorate Net.5 1.0 4.0 7.1 18.0 13. Catherine Alexandria 12.210 4.0 22.7 10.

Herwan 7. El Arish 8. Giza Pyramid 4.000 Source: New Valley SA (a) Designation of Tourism Development Area by MOT in 1997. El Ain Sukhna 11. Matruh Matruh 17.892 3. Red Sea North Sinai 14. Ras El Hekma 10.878 787 18. Luxor and El Goma 3.Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 2. Nile Valley 5. Faiyum (b) (c) (h) (i) Nile Valley Nile Delta Faiyum Suez Canal Middle Nile 16.653 200.680 55. Siwa 1.000 Red Sea Hurghada (A) Ras Banas (P) Ras el Hekma Alexandria (M) 12. JICA Study Team 2-14 . Central Nile Banks 9. Aswan Upper Nile TA Menya (P) Luxor (A) Aswan (A) Abu Simbel (P) Taba (P) Sharm el Sheikh Ras Sudr (A) Ain Sukhna (A) Marsa Alam (C) Ras Banas (S) Halaib (S) 273 1.2 Analysis of Development Conditions by Tourism Region (2) Infrastructure Development (d) (e) Cairo (M) Giza (M) (f) (3) Accommodation Development (g) 11.3.(c) Alternative Tourism Special Strategy for Tourism Development by MOT in 1996.675 985 3. Sidi Abel Rahman & Siwa 22.000 Desert Oasis Note: Alamein (C) Baharya (C) Farafra C) 259 5. Hurghada TA TA TA TA TA TA TA 10.779 7. Rashid 18.087 65.000 12.907 Mediteranean Sea 13.515 44. (b) Priority Zones of Tourism Development by TDA in 1997. El Montazah Alexandria 20.830 622 24. (A) means announcement and (S) means scheduled. (A) means Active Tourist Centers and (P) means Promising Tourist Centers In row (f). Ras Sidr 21.000 944 (1) Potential Area set by MOT Tourism Regions Tourism Sub-region s Cairo Cairo (a) 2.724 75. Ras Mohamed 19. Gulf of Aqaba South Sinai Red Sea 15. (C) means construction. (M) means Main Tourist Centers.395 300 TA TA TA SA Siwa (P) 3. Cairo Nile Banks 1.521 92.717 18. (d) Land Use Map of Egypt in 1997 In row (e). Kharn El Khariri 6.

followed by Upper Nile. The additional international airports in Marsa Alam. Tendency of tourism accommodation development Current accommodation establishments concentrate in Cairo including Giza. which have been set forth by government.3. including tourism infrastructure and accommodation development.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt (2) Analysis of development conditions (STEP 2) Table 2. the tourism potential areas. Giza and Alexandria as “Major Touristic Centers” and Luxor. by Tourism Region and Sub-region.2. Sharm El Sheik and Hurghada as “Active Touristic Centers. As a result.5. Tendency of tourism development and infrastructure development In the 1996 “Alternative Spatial Strategy for Tourism Development. the potentiality of each tourism Sub-region was evaluated by point system as shown in Table 2. which amount to 19. Thereafter. Upper Nile.1. Aswan. which have been designated in the latest development plans of MOT. The Ministry of Tourism is targeting the establishment of 315 thousand rooms of accommodation in long-term perspective in the Strategy of the Tourism Sector. South Sinai and Matruh.3.3. the Red Sea and South Sinai sub-regions. 201 thousand has been allocated to the target in the Red Sea. four Sub-region are selected as priority areas as follows: • • • • Red Sea South Sinai Upper Nile Cairo (40 points) (38 points) (29 points) (19 points) Table 2.2 shows the future development conditions. will provide good accessibility. The Nile Valley.5 and 10. (3) Evaluation of tourism potential (STEP 3) Based on the previous analysis of existing conditions of each tourism region and the qualitative evaluation of development conditions. 12. In the meantime. MOT has set target numbers of rooms in those sub-regions between 22 thousand and 26 thousand. In Table 2. Luxor. Out of 315 thousand. 18.” MOT identified Cairo.5 thousand rooms respectively. Designation of tourism development areas by MOT In 1978 the Ministry of Tourism selected the priority development areas for the first time in the nation-wide tourism development.3.3. Aswan.3 Results of Evaluation Tourism Sub-region Red Sea South Sinai Upper Nile Cairo Source: JICA Study Team Existing conditions 15 15 15 13 Planning conditions 25 23 14 6 Total points 40 38 29 19 Order 1 2 3 4 2-15 . are identified. the Red Sea is a most promising area under TDA Development. Sharm El Sheik and Hurghada have been designated as international gateways for tourism development now. which is under construction by BOT scheme. the Red Sea Regions and Matruh Sub-region of Mediterranean region show high development potential in those plans.” Seven airports such as Cairo. priority areas have been designated several times by MOT. These combined numbers account for about 80% of the total rooms in Egypt.

Part I Overview of National Tourism Development Table 2.4 Tourism Regions Sub-regions Comparison Chart of Potentiality by Tourism Sub-region Cairo Nile Valley Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Desert and Oasis Nile Delta Fayum Suez Canal South Sinai North Sinai Middle Nile Evaluation criteria (A) Products: Type of tourism Geographical condition Tourism Products (B) Maturity International Hotel Guests Share of Hotel Rooms (C) Market Origin of tourists (Hotel class (D) Accessibility Airport facilities (E) References Historical and cultural tourism 4 ◎ ○ 6 ◎ ◎ 3 ◎ 0 △ △ 0 △ △ 0 △ Historical tourism 0 △ △ 1 ○ △ 1 ○ 6 ◎ ◎ 6 ◎ ◎ 3 ◎ Marine resort 6 ◎ ◎ 6 ◎ ◎ 3 ◎ 6 ◎ ◎ 6 ◎ ◎ 3 ◎ 0 △ △ 2 ○ ○ 1 ○ Marine resort 1 ○ △ 2 ○ ○ 3 ◎ 1 △ ○ 2 ○ ○ 1 ○ Safari and Oasis resort 0 △ △ 0 △ △ 0 △ 0 △ △ 0 △ △ 1 ○ Existing conditions Critical issues Population Minority Natural environment Historical environment Source of water (1) Potential Area Set by MOT Tourism development area Priority zones Suggested development areas Concession areas (2) Infrastructure development Certification of Tourist Center Airport Development (3) Accommodation development Ongoing projects by TDA Accommodation until 2012 (1) Points of existing conditions (2) Points of development conditions (3) Total points (4) Order (5) Overall evaluation Note: Source: ◎ △ △ ◎ ○ 1 ○ △ △ △ 4 ◎ ○ 1 △ ○ 13 6 19 4 ● ◎ △ △ ○ ○ 2 ○ △ △ ○ 0 △ △ 1 △ ○ 0 3 3 11 ◎ △ △ ◎ ○ 1 ○ △ △ △ 1 ○ △ 1 △ ○ 2 3 5 10 ◎ △ △ ◎ ○ 7 ○ ◎ ◎ ◎ 4 ◎ ○ 4 △ ○ 15 14 29 3 ● ○ ○ ◎ ○ ◎ 10 ○ ◎ ◎ ◎ 6 ◎ ◎ 7 ◎ ◎ 15 23 38 2 ● ○ ○ ◎ ○ ◎ 10 ○ ◎ ◎ ◎ 6 ◎ ◎ 9 ◎ ◎ 15 25 40 1 ● ○ △ ○ △ △ 4 ○ △ △ ◎ 1 ○ △ 1 △ ○ 3 6 9 7 ○ △ ○ ○ △ 1 ○ △ △ △ 3 ◎ △ 1 △ ○ 6 5 11 6 ○ △ ○ △ △ 7 ○ △ ◎ ◎ 0 △ △ 2 △ ○ 4 9 13 5 △ △ ○ ○ △ 4 ○ △ △ ◎ 4 ○ ◎ 0 △ △ 0 8 8 8 ○ △ ○ △ △ 3 △ △ △ ◎ 3 △ ◎ 0 △ △ 1 6 7 9 Evaluation Development conditions ◎: High 3 point.3. △: Low 0 point JICA Study Team 2-16 New Valley Alexandria Upper Nile Red Sea Matruh Cairo Siwa . ○: Moderate 1 point.

are both coastal resort types. which are ranked 1st and 2nd.3 Selected Priority Areas The Red Sea Sub-region and Upper Nile Sub-region are selected as priority areas because of the following reasons: • The Red Sea Sub-region and South Sinai Sub-region. A simultaneous development of both regions is expected to have multiple effects on Egyptian tourism. Utilities and Urban Communities. On the other hand.2 Selected Priority Areas and Tourism Development Areas Delta Canal Alexandria N o r th of Upper Egypt Greater Cairo Selected Priority Areas Governorate in the priority areas 1 Gena 2 Luxor City 3 Aswan 4 Red Sea 2 Asyut 3 4 Upper Egypt Source: JICA Study Team 2-17 . Tourism resource of the Upper Nile Sub-region. • • In this report. is unique in the tourism world and continues to be indispensable to Egyptian tourism development.3. Figure 2.3. Ministry of Housing. the Study Team refers to the “Upper Nile Sub-region” and the “Red Sea Sub-region” as “Upper Nile” and “the Red Sea.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 2.” It is as same as Economic Region defined by General Organization for Physical Planning.” and the integrated area as “Upper Egypt. Coastal development has advanced in the South Sinai Sub-region. representing Egyptian tourism. development of the Red Sea Sub-region is rapidly increasing at a high growth rate at present and there is an urgent need to formulate a regional tourism master plan. The Upper Nile Sub-region adjoins the Red Sea Sub-Region and they are included in one economic region of Upper Egypt in the development master plan of Egypt until year 2017.

1% of total land area) and its 1999 population of 165 thousand is scattered over six cities from north to south.272 Source: Statistical Yearbook 1992-1997 by CAPMS 1-1 .383km2 and 763km2 respectively.2 Governorate/City Population (thousand) Urban population (%) 21% 100% 43% 89% 43% Female population (%) 50% 49% 50% 43% 49% Qena 2.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. the share of female population is 43%.8 million. Upper Nile can supply agricultural products and labor for the Red Sea's tourism industries as well as for its own tourism needs. Inhabited land in Red Sea Governorate is extremely small (0.135/1989) was issued and gave Luxor separate status as an autonomous administration. Table 1. The pattern of population distribution indicates a particular feature. On the other hand. extending 1.1 Land Use in Qena.080 km along the Red Sea. Luxor City was part of Qena Governorate until 1989. Luxor.000 71 0. Luxor.383 Luxor 91 91 100. and the total population of Upper Nile (Qena.. It consists of 6 cities.3 Governorate net by IDSC Population in Qena.1% 71 0 0 0. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1996 Table 1. and 19 villages. 11 local village units.610 15. It can be considered that more than 20 thousand male workers are living alone in Red Sea Governorate. Red Sea Governorate is one of the coastal.1.775 Red Sea 156 Whole Egypt 59.1. i.265 1. Due to its location.441 Luxor City 360 Aswan 974 Sub total 3. Luxor and Aswan) amounts to 3. the governorate is strategically important to national security.0% 6 20 1 64 Aswan 34.1 1. 1.7% 92 112 23 1. frontier governorates in Egypt. which has booming tourism-related industries. when Presidential Decree (No.1.608 940 2.1 Existing Condition Socio-economy Geographic and Demographic Information Qena Governorate and Aswan Governorate have large agricultural lands amounting to 1. and investment in tourism projects is being encouraged. Economy of the city depends largely on the tourism sector.e. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1996 Total area (km2) Inhabited area (km2) Residential Utilities Swamps and Others Agricultural Source: Qena 10.7% 78 52 46 763 Red Sea 130.

Unemployment of Aswan shows an extremely high rate at 21%. as shown in Table 1.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1. agriculture is the major economic sector contributing to about 25-30% of their GRDP. CAPMAS. Average number of household members is large in Qena. Most of the oil.7% 1.8% 3.031 and LE 5.703 4.2% 0.4 shows the total number of households and family structure in the study area and Egypt in 1996. while in Qena. Final Results.3% in Qena (including Luxor).2 Economic Activities In Qena Governorate and Aswan Governorate. LE 2. Particularly. Major crops are sugar cane.1.4 Total Number of Households and Family Structure in 1996 Number of households (thousand) Average number of household members Source: Qena 2. 1-2 . agriculture shares 42% of total employment. wheat. Aswan and the Red Sea respectively. Regarding the employment structure.461) but that of the Red Sea is higher.1.482 in Qena.6 Egypt 12.548.8%. gold.1.6 Aswan 201 4. share of service sector is high in Aswan and Red Sea accounting for more than 50%. Housing and Establishments. etc. April 1999 1. banana. Red Sea Governorate owes its economy to natural and mineral resources. Household Conditions. 1999 Table 1.9% Ras Gharib 30 96% Hurghada 63 100% Safaga 29 88% Quseir 27 80% Marsa Alrm 4 49% Bir Shalateen 12 49% Total 165 89% Source: Information department of the Red Sea Governorate. Table 1.3 Population of Cities in Red Sea Governorate in 1999 Cities in Red Sea Governorate Population (thousand) Urban population (%) Natural growth rate of population 2. tomato. Agricultural land is currently only 80 feddans and 11.850 feddans areas are planned for reclamation.9% and 55.1.5.8 Red Sea 29 4.7 1996 Census of Population.703 5.2% 2.0% 1. Aswan and Red Sea Governorate respectively in 1993/94. Aswan and Red Sea are almost same as the country’s average. iron.8% 2. Qena shares 44% of sugar cane area in Egypt. The figures of Qena and Aswan are lower than the national average (LE 3. marble and precious stones in Egypt are products of the Red Sea Governorate. Tourism sector shares 2. GRDP per capita in 1996 is LE 1.1 Luxor 78 4. while those in Luxor.1. 2.

1. Insurance & Soc.482 Whole Egypt 15.1 Qena including Luxor 4.2% 6. El Sayed Mohammed.8% 0.5% 5.6% 25.3% 18.0% 0.8% 3.7 shows the number of illegal settlements and their population in Upper Egypt.6 Kilani.0% Kilani.207 31.1.9% 1.7 Number of Illegal Settlements and their Population in Upper Egypt in 1996 1-3 .Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 1.1% 38. Storage & Communications -Trade -Finance.5% 53.5% 6.6% 100. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1996 Employment (thousand) Share of total population Employment Agriculture Industry (including manufacturing) Services Unemployment Ratio GRDP per Capita (LE) Source: Qena including Luxor 567 20% 42 % 20 % 38 % 10.1.5% 2.1.4% 100.9% 2.4% 8.6% 2.3% 1. National Institute of Planning 1998 Composition of GRDP in Qena.7% 1.9% 5. El Sayed Mohammed.5% 6.7% 100.6% 5.2% 22.5% 5.0% Aswan 1. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1993/94 Sector GRDP (LE) millions Share of sector (%) Agriculture Industry & Mining Electricity Housing & Construction Service -Transportation.1% 63.974 25.9% 17.0% 55.6% 6. Estimation of Regional Income in Egypt.3% 0.1% 9.1.2% 3.1.3 (1) Social Condition Illegal Settlements Table 1. National Institute of Planning 1998 Share of Employment by Sector and GRDP per Capita in Qena.5 GRDP by Sector in Qena. Table 1.3% 1.340 27% 31 % 22 % 47 % 9.3% 0.031 Red Sea 56 36% 20 % 19 % 61 % 6.0% Red Sea 592 8.548 (Qena only) Aswan 268 28% 29 % 21 % 50 % 20.9% 0. Estimation of Regional Income in Egypt.7% 2. Insurance -Tourism -Public Utilities -Public & Private Services Total Source: Figure 1. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1993/94 Housing & Construction 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Qena including Luxor Aswan Red Sea Agriculture Industry & Mining Service Tourism Source: Table 1.0% 18.461 Labor Surveys 1996 by CAPMAS 1.

particularly north and south of Sinai. However. They have a special dialect. north of Aswan City. This tribe speaks its own dialect in addition to Arabic language. through population censuses. Luxor City The population of Luxor City is all urban population and nomads do not exist. but have their special dances such as Arajid. Arab and old Egypt traditions. and moved to an area north of Kom Ombo City after the establishment of the High Dam and the formation of Nasser Lake.8% rural in 1998).000 (1993) 57 493. El Fajeka is another Nubian tribe.162 Red Sea 26 (1993) 50. Matrouh.616 Qena. Red Sea Governorate There are few sub-groups of the Bedouin population who live in Red Sea area and have their distinctive way of life. and moved to the area east of Kom Ombo City after the establishment of the High Dam. and speak Arabic. They had lived north of old Nubia (south of Aswan City). which is different from Nubian dialects. Their folkloric music and songs are similar to those of El Kunouz. June 1999 Red Sea: Human Resources Development Report 1996 by The National Institute of Planning (2) Minority Races and Communities Until 1960. • • • • It should be noted that despite their relatively low economic standards.550 Aswan 40 412. special dress and ceremonies of marriage and birth. The two distinctive subgroups in Red Sea area are Basharia and Ababdah tribes who live in the area extending from east of Aswan to Shalatin and 1-4 . They speak Arabic language only. They had lived south of old Nubia to wards close to Sudanese borders. hospitality and respect. They are mainly of southern Egyptian origin and migrants from other regions of the country who came to work in Luxor City. the following five of these sub-groups live in Aswan: • El Kunouz is Nubian tribe. the Red Sea and the Western Desert. it was identified that a majority of them have already settled in permanent communities and are no longer living a nomadic life Qena Governorate The population of Qena Governorate predominantly lives in rural areas (78. the “Bedouin” in Egypt were considered nomads. in addition to the Arabic language. At present. El Gaafrah tribe lives in small cities and villages along the banks of the Nile River. Aswan Governorate There are several sub-groups of the Egyptian population which have distinctive sub-cultures within the Egyptian culture rooted in Islamic. This tribe is of Arab origin and came to Aswan during the Islamic invasion of Egypt.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Qena Total number of illegal settlements (Areas) Total population in illegal settlements (persons) Source: Luxor 3 12. Arab tribe had lived in the middle of old Nubia between El Kunouz and El Fajika tribes. Luxor and Aswan: CAPMAS 1996 Census and the Annual Statistics Yearbook. and currently lives in the area east of Kom Ombo. They constitute a homogenous group sharing the same tradition and cultural traits with the rest of southern Egypt’s population. including a special dialect (in addition to the main language). and uses their dialect in singing. They also have their own dialect. They are willing to participate in efforts directed to development of their communities. which is accompanied by drums and tanboura music. these subgroups share norms of generosity. They lived in frontier governorates. Bashariya and Abaddah tribes live in the area east of Aswan and in Red Sea Mountains. which is different from that of El Kunouz.

Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Halayeb at the southeast corner of Red Sea Governorate close to the Sudanese borders.60% 0.432 502 1.593 23.64% 1. utilities and Urban Communities In the meantime.1.172 419 5. 1-5 . oil fields.8.1. which is estimated at 1. Table 1. mines and fisheries in the area. Ministry of Housing.525 83. Red Sea Governorate shows a very high growth rate at 4.82% 1.4 Population Projection The Ministry of Housing. while it is low in Aswan Governorate.727 Population in 2017 (thousand) 3.8%.1. As shown in Table 1. by General Organization for Physical Planning.975 Average annual growth rate 1.441 361 974 156 3.66% Development Master Plan in Egypt until 2012. regarding Luxor City and Red Sea Governorate. 1. These tribes live on camel and sheep rising and some work in indigenous jobs in tourist villages.932 59. the regional development plans have individually been formulated afterward with a special focus on tourism development. Utilities and Urban Communities has estimated the future population framework for 2017.89% 4.8 Population Projection for 2017 Governorate/City Qena Luxor City Aswan Red Sea Total Whole Egypt Source: Population in 1996 (thousand) 2.702 Increase 1996-2017 (thousand) 991 141 198 263 1.66% per year. June 1998. the growth rates of Qena Governorate and Luxor City are the same level as the average growth rate of the population of the country. On the contrary.

It is lowest in Qena Governorate. the average annual sectoral growth rate of the 3rd Five-Year plan (1992/99-1996/97) and the 4th. Share of the investment budget is comparatively high in Red Sea Governorate and Luxor City. LE 562 million.5 Local Government Budget Table 1. LE 363 million and LE 118 million respectively. fees and charges. In the 1998/99 fiscal year. 331 Qena Governorate 562 6% 80% 9% 5% 562 5% 95% 12% 223 Aswan Governorate 363 5% 81% 6% 7% 363 7% 93% 12% 366 Red Sea Governorate 118 7% 39% 40% 13% 118 13% 87% 14% 693 Source: 1) Share of budget to GRDP is calculated by projected GRDP in 1998/99. and capital revenue. 2) Expenditure per person per year is calculated by population projection in 1998/99. The sources of revenue of governorates consist of tax.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan 1. transfers from the state government. Luxor City and Qena. Share of local fee revenues is high in Red Sea Governorate and it increased from 30% in 1994/95 to 40% in 1998/99.1. the revenues of Luxor City and Qena.1. Five-Year Plan (1997/98-2001/2002). 5%. GRDP projections in 1998/99 are based on 1993/94 data given in Table 1.4. Governorates 1-6 .1. Population in 1998/99 is projected based on 1996 population and future population is estimated by General Organization for Physical Planning. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates are LE 123 million. Figure 1. Table 1. In Red Sea Governorate it is the highest at LE 693 per person per year.1. In the meantime. 7% and 13% of their total expenditure to investment expenditure respectively. amounting to LE 223. which is one third that of Red Sea Governorate.1. Amount of expenditure budget per person varies among the governorates.A.9 shows the budget of local governments in the priority area for the 1998/99 fiscal year.2 illustrates the change of budget amounts and composition of revenue of the four local governments from 1994/95 to 1998/99. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates have allocated 11%.9 Local Government Budgets in 1998/99 Fiscal Year Luxor City Total Revenues (LE million) Tax Transfers Local Fees Capital Revenues Total Expenditures (LE million) Investment Recurrent Expenditures Share of budget revenue to GRDP 1) Expenditures per person per year (LE) 2) Note: 123 11% 63% 15% 11% 123 11% 89% N.

0 0.1.2 Revenues of Local Governments (1994/95-1998/99) Budget Revenue of Luxor City 150.0 200.0 0.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1.0 milion LE 200.0 400.0 500.0 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Budget Revenue of Asuwan Governorate Budget Revenue of Red Sea Governorate 150.0 Capital rev enues milion LE 100.0 50.0 0.0 1994/95 400.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 50.0 300.0 100.0 300.0 1994/95 Source: 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Information from each governorate 1-7 .0 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Local fees Transfers Tax Budget Revenue of Qena Governorate 600.

Part II

Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan

1.1.6

Existing Plans of City Development in Upper Nile and the Red Sea Formulation of master plans of cities in Upper Nile has been planned recently by several agencies such as Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities (MHUUC) with UNDP such as Luxor and Aswan cities, local governorates, and the Ministry of Planning. This is in line with the National Project for Developing Southern Egypt, aimed at redressing the grave imbalance in the distribution of investments and returns of development among Egypt's governorates. TDA has helped cities in Upper Nile not only at advisory level but also financial level to develop tourism facilities such as berthing facilities for the Nile cruise boats. On the other hand, Red Sea Governorate is currently reviewing master plans for seven cities, which were planned by MHUUC in 1999. Development master plans for four cities within the Upper Egypt Region (Hurghada, Safaga, Quseir and Marsa Alam) should be well coordinated with the development plan of TDA Tourist Centers to set up the future population distribution and regional structure and to distribute regional urban functions to each city.

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Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt

1.2
1.2.1

Tourism Products and Tourism Market
Tourism Product in Upper Egypt Travel patterns in 1.4.2 of Part I show that the Upper Nile and the Red Sea are the major destinations for international visitors. The outline of products is summarized as follows. Historical/Archeological Tourism: In the Upper Nile, historical assets traditionally represent tourism products. It is not only lead tourism in Egypt but also lead Historical/Archeological tourism in the world. Major resources are located not only major cities like Luxor, Aswan, Abu Simbel, but also, small towns like Dendera , Esna, Edfu and Kom Ombo. The highlights are Karnak Temple, Luxor Temple, Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Philae in Aswan and Abu Simbel. Many historical sites are located along the Nile; some are prepared and opened to visitors and some are left unexcavated. Karnak Temple, West Thebe, El Kab and Gebel El Silsila have much potential as new tourism products. Some efforts to add value to these products are being done recently. The examples are sound and light show at Karnak Temple, Philae, and construction of museums such as Luxor Museum and Nubia Museum. But in almost historical sites don’t have enough information system both of the suggested route and explanation of sites. Approach methods and approach to historical sites have also problems. Approach methods to historical sites such as Dendera, Esna, Edfu Kom Ombo are almost limited Cruise Ship, and it is difficult for international visitors to go there by bus or railway. The reason of it is limited information in foreign languages and limited operations and cleanness. Cruise Tourism: The Nile River cruise between Qena and Aswan, which takes four days or five days, is one of the best products of Egypt, while the cruise in Nasser Lake is yet matured. The cruise ships operated between Cairo and Aswan and Qena and Aswan are 214 ships with 11,167 rooms and 3 ships with 155 rooms respectively in 1997. The Nile River cruise has been attracting all segments of markets. This segment can attract all segments of market irrespectively in distance, age group, sex, etc. It is alarmed the proper counter measures should be taken against pollution of river water by the cruise ships which becomes seriously year-by-year. It is essential to improve the cruising system for the promotion of and maintaining the segment. In the Red Sea, Quseir has a town which has a history of trading port until the opening of Suez Canal in 19th Century. It has 16th Century fort and traditional buildings. An old building is renovated as accommodation by a Swedish donation. Excavations of archeological sites in Islamic period are done by British University, and construction of a museum is planned by municipality government. Marine Resort Tourism: Tourism products in the Red Sea are represented by marine resort tourism. Tourism development in Hurghada started in the begging of 1970s. In recent years, huge beach resort developments have been launched from the center of Hurgada to surrounding of the city. For example, Al Gouna and Abu Soma have been developed as new tourist centers. And more, new accommodation development has started near Safaga, Qusir Marsa Alam and TDA Tourist Centers. As a result, not only the numbers of divers but also holidaymakers on package tours from European countries have increased rapidly after 1995, and the tourist activities are getting diversified into marine activities, such as diving, snorkeling, fishing, water-skiing, yacht, etc. On the other hand, an atomospare of downtown Hurghada is getting worse because of

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Part II

Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan

uncontrolled urban developments and disordered land reclamations. Luxury hotel is moving to from downtown to the surroundings. Diving Tourism: The Red Sea has been a world famous destination for divers with its clear waters, colorful coral reefs and rare fishes for more than 10 years. Hurghada has been a center of diving activities in Egypt. The main diving spots are concentrated around Hurghada and divers prefer these spots because of the easier accessibility. Therefore, some of the diving spots such as Gota Abu Ramada and Small Giftun have high density of divers (about 20 boats per day at Gota Abu Ramada). The diving spots distributed at the middle and southern part of the Red Sea coast, around Quseir and Marsa Alam are more isolated and untouched. These are accessible by long-distance cruises, which take one or two weeks, from Hurghada or Sharm el Sheikh. In addition, it is possible to access them through dive centers, which have been recently developed around Quseir or Marsa Alam. According to the marine survey conducted by the Study Team, some diving spots around Hurghada are damaged because of diving and snorkeling activities including anchoring. Damage due to the same reasons are expected at the southern Red Sea coast, where large scale tourism developments are making progress rapidly and since the Marsa Alam new airport is under construction. It is required to educate diving instructors and diving centers to manage diving activities appropriately. It is also identified that many diving centers recognize that the natural conditions, such as crown of thorns, also cause damage. It is required to monitor and research the marine environment for effective environmental management in the Red Sea. Other tourism resources: From the evaluation of tourism resources, the following utilization of tourism resources are expected: • • • • •
Lake Nasser as cruise tourism; Nile River and Lake Nasser as eco-tourism; Lifestyle and customs of Nubian and Bedouins people as rural tourism; Hinterland of the Red Sea coast as safari tourism; and MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference and Events) tourism in the Red Sea.

1.2.2

Tourism Market in the Upper Egypt Table 1.2.1 shows the number of hotel guests, their composition by generating areas and the tourist shares of the major six destinations, namely, Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria, South Sinai and Red Sea. The number of hotel guests suddenly dropped to half in 1993 and in 1994. It increased from 1995 to 1997 but it in 1997 was just 70% of the 1992 level. The collective share of the six destinations also decreased from 18.6% in 1992 to 9.3% in 1997. As for composition of hotel guests, the number of hotel guests from European countries decreased sharply the last six years. It was 423 thousand in 1992 but only 129 thousand in 1997. Therefore, the share of European hotel guests decreased from 78.0% to 33.4%. On the other hand, the shares of other regions of origin increased, although they could not compensate for the loss of European persons.

1-10

of Hotel guests Share of 6major governorates Composition of hotel guests Egyptian Arab Europe Americas Africa Asia & Pacific Source: 1992 294. Meanwhile.2 31.5 0.0 56.4 6.0 41.565 9.6 0.2 1995 110. Otherwise the shares of the other regions of origin have been increasing.8 Egypt Tourism in Figures annual issues.3 17.1 4. The share of European hotel guests dropped to 30% from 1992 to 1997.3 7. However.7 0.3 14.8 20. However.4 24.0 23.4 24.1 1993 264.5 1.5 1995 230.6% in 1992 to 24.0 2.747 8. MOT The number of hotel guests in the Red Sea has increased satisfactorily from 280 thousand in 1992 to 996 thousand in 1997.3 Egyptian Tourism in Figure annual issues.6 33.8 21.0% in 1997.6 68.1 19.607 9.5 78. Shares of the major six destinations also increased from 9.1 Tourism Market of Luxor Year No.513 18.2 1994 189.6 6.3 (Unit: percent) 1997 322. Table 1. the share of Egyptian has been decreasing.0 1994 87.0 7.5 69. MOT In Aswan and Luxor. the number of hotel guests decreased in 1993.3 10. though the number of hotel guests increased from 84 thousand in 1992 to 135 thousand in 1997.466 3.6 1.5 24.8 5.5 11.0 38.2 6.6 16. Shares of the other regions have stayed almost at 0% levels.8 0.9 8.2 Tourism Market of Aswan Year No.3 11.526 10.5 3.4 1.3 0.0 25.6 15.1 18.8 4.5 13.365 7.200 11.3 2. About 85% of hotel guests consisted of European in 1997.7 36.1 11.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 1.7 17.5 21.8 7.3 (Unit: percent) 1997 387. of the Red Sea has exceeded the total shares of Luxor and Aswan.9 37. The shares of hotel guests from Egypt and the Americas have exceeded 20% and have an important role for Aswan especially.958 4.6 4. and it in 1997 even exceeded the level of 1992.2 9. the 1997 shares of the six major destinations have not recovered to their 1992 levels as yet.0 4.6 1. The share of hotel guests.697 10.9 13.2 19.7 1.6 20.8 27. of hotel guests (persons) Share of 6 major destinations Composition of hotel guests Egyptian Arab Europe Americas Africa Asia & Pacific Source: 1992 542.5 7.5 1996 355.5 13.2 32.4 15.1 1993 141.7 34.6 5.2 1996 171.9 20. 1994 and 1995.8 11. 1-11 .3 0. as well as bed nights.0 14.2.7 3.4 7. it increased in 1996 and 1997.977 6.886 4.3% in 1997. The share of European increased from 56% in 1992 to 84.2.

coral reefs in some diving spots have shown damage and the calm atmosphere in South Sinai has been lost.911 9. On the other hand.7 1993 1994 254. of visitor Share of 6 major visitors Composition of tourists Egyptian Arab Europe Americas Africa Asia & Pacific International Source: 1992 280.5 3. it is expected that Mediterranean countries will provide stiff competition for Egypt because more than 50% of tourists to marine resorts in the Red Sea come from Western Europe. such as highly skilled divers and tourists.8 5. Pollution has started in beach sites near Hurghada and some hotels have started to move to the south Red Sea coast.4 1. When considering marine resort development in the Red Sea and South Sinai.3 0.6 0.0 13.1 0.5 7. Marine resort tourism products are more important in Italy and Germany than in the United Kingdom and France. the Study Team carried out interview surveys to travel agents in some European countries. • • 1-12 .5 32.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1.6 11. To obtain information about the advantages and disadvantages of Egyptian tourism products.3 Market Development in Upper Egypt Although Egypt’s famous historical heritage sites have enabled its tourism to carry out simple market promotions for a long time. If there is no environmental management policy. Japanese travel agents recognize that historical tourism product without the Nile cruise is one of the most important reasons why recovery of Japanese tourist numbers has been limited after the Luxor accident in 1997. and in Japan in June and August 1999. which is also a potential market for Mediterranean countries.6 0. MOT 1. the situation has changed since the beginning of the 1990s when marine resort tourism began to grow as the other main tourism products in Egypt. Upper Nile will continue representing major tourism destinations worldwide. development in South Sinai should be carried out first.6 0.2.2. For example.4 56. As for historical tourism. Information from these surveys and opinions from the Study Team were used to draw up recommendations for market promotion strategies. the whole stretch of the Red Sea coast would be polluted after “consumption” of natural environment.0 - 1996 777.2 - (Unit: percent) 1997 996.8 - 1995 629.8 4.660 21. The following opinions were given by the travel agents and the Study Team regarding tourism products. marine tourism in the Red Sea does not attract most Japanese consumers.774 11. market segments and competitors: • • • • • Historical tourism is a major tourism product for Egypt in each country surveyed and will grow steadily in the future.3 75. some people.0 0. which are major markets for Egypt.145 19. who like undeveloped atmosphere may set their sights to the southern Red Sea coast in the near future. Therefore. Marine resort in South Sinai is more popular for European tourists.8 6. Egypt has no competitors because of its unique historical tourism resources.3 84. Travel agents in Italy and Germany pointed out Tunisia as a would-be rival because of price competition.6 24.7 18.2 50.1 0. Historical tourism products with the Nile cruise are most popular products in all five countries surveyed. and In marine resort tourism.9 0. especially for Italians.3 Tourism Market of the Red Sea Year No.5 - Egypt Tourism in Figures annual issues.7 13.427 24. But some environmental problems have started in South Sinai because too many tourists visit there.8 84. Therefore.0 2.

3.5 0 0 0 14.3. UNDP.1 shows the present condition of accommodation facilities and their distribution in Upper Nile.0 Figure with * mark includes the number of cruise ships in Cairo Tourism Region (Number in 1998 was 10. Table 1.3 58. 60% of accommodation consisted of cruise ships in the Nile River. In 1997.669 2.088* 155 11.243 18.2 shows major plans of this region although there is lack of detailed information about them.8 59.3 1. 1999 Toshka Tourism Development Plan 1998 by TDA Aswan New City Development Plan by Ministry of Housing Utilities and Urban Communities (MoHURNC ). About 25% of accommodation rooms were in Luxor City and 15% in Aswan City.675) JICA Study Team Upper Nile has several plans in relation with tourism sector development. as listed below.739 161 2. 1999 1-13 .6 0.7 14.739 0 0 0 2.6 24. 1996 Comprehensive Development of the City of Luxor Project by Ministry of Housing Utilities and Urban Communities. • • • • • National Plan for Development South Egypt to 2017 by Ministry of Planning.1 Tourism Accommodation Accommodation Facility in the Upper Nile Table 1.4 100. 1997 Other development plans by Local Governorates.3.6 0 0.1 Accommodation Rooms in Upper Nile in 1997 Governorate Qena Location Qena City Armanat/Esna Qena Total Luxor City El Toad Luxor Total Aswan City New Aswan City Edfu Kom Ombo Aswan-Nile Total Toshka/Abu Simbel Aswan-Nasser Total Nile River (Luxor-Aswan) Lake Nasser Cruise Ship Total No. Table 1.3.928 Luxor Aswan (Nile River) (Lake Nasser) Cruise Ship Upper Nile Total Note: Source: Share in total (%) 0. of rooms 116 0 116 4.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1.5 0.669 0 4.7 0 24.900 11.9 15.

Development Scheme of Tourist Centers The allocated lands for TDA tourism development are called Tourist Sectors.3.000 7. Development of Tourist Centers TDA has authority to acquire and sell tourism development lands and retain the income and to charge fees for assessing and monitoring projects.200 9. the investors in one Tourist Center are required to form one mother company and formulate a development plan for the Tourist Center.799 1999/TDA 35. Development Scheme of South Egypt Plan 2017 target. which consist of clusters of tourist centers.000 14. which consists of Tourist Centers. TDA’s tourism development lands are allocated mainly along the coastlines of Gulf of Aqaba. of rooms 500 125 625 6.600 9. the investor is required to formulate a development plan for the Tourist Center. as shown in Figure 1. 2017 target.040 23. In the case of type A. El Zoraykat Island project Under study by MoHURNC-UNDP Aswan Governorate has a plan to develop a tourist area. One Tourist Center comprises several projects that are developed by investors. Infrastructure projects implemented by TDA TDA finances infrastructure development for tourism.2.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1. For type B. 1.2 (1) Accommodation Facility in the Red Sea Concept of Tourist Sector and TDA Tourist Center TDA areas for tourism development at the Red Sea coast are allocated between existing cities. Toshka Tourism Development Plan/TDA 2017 target.240 Reference.200 9. A project lot 50ha or larger is developed according to the integrated development procedure.3. One Tourist Center includes several projects.264 The development plans mentioned in the reference. An individual project lot 50 ha or larger is developed according to the integrated development procedure and a lot smaller than 50 ha is developed according to the limited development procedure. as shown in Figure 1. Each area is called a Tourist Sector.1. Mediterranean. The projects are implemented by local agencies. data source 2017 target.3. There are two types of development schemes for the Tourist Center. which are carried out by investors. Development Scheme of South Egypt Plan Cairo/Luxor/Aswan Grand Total Under construction.040 5. Hotel Capacity in Republic Egypt 3. and Toshka around Lake Nasser. Red Sea.2 Existing Development Plans and Programs in Upper Nile Location Quena City Qena Armant/Esna QenaTotal Luxor City Luxor El Toad LuxorTotal Aswan Aswan City Edfu (Nile) New Aswan City Sub-total Toshka (Lake Nasser) Cruise ship Sub-total Aswan Total Cruise ship Source: Governorate No. Type A consists of one integrated development project and type B consists of some integrated and limited development projects. such as beautification of pedestrian network along the Nile. Luxor City Development Plan/MoHURNC-UNDP 2017 target. Development Scheme of South Egypt Plan 2017 target. Aswan New City Development Plan/MoHURNC 2017 target.3. a lot less than 50 ha is developed according to the limited development procedure.600 1. 1-14 .

3. The flow of Limited Development Projects is shown in Figure 1.3. resorts. facilitates the required infrastructure and utilities that are indispensable for the superstructure projects.1 Tourist Sector and TDA Tourist Center Tourist Sector (TDA Area) City Area Tourist Sector (TDA Area) Tourist Center City Area Source: JICA Study Team 1-15 .000 square meters. For such investor. a small staff is maintained though. IDCs are also responsible for preparing EIAs required by the EEAA.3. or utility-facilitated land.3. In case an investor of limited tourism project puts up more than one firm in the tourism developing area. the investor (private company) is required to provide the infrastructure and utilities at his cost in the limited tourism project. The land can be purchased or leased directly from the TDA. including hotels. commercial or recreational facilities. in which land requirements vary between 50. the investor buys the land and creates a self-sufficient tourism area. Limited Development Projects: For specific projects. Figure 1. Its Board of Directors is to be represented by significant investors. developers. The investor is also responsible for preparing EIAs required by the EEAA. an IDC is formed at TDA’s recommendation and supervision. to individual investors provided that TDA gets 50% of the sale price after the costs of the infrastructure and utilities are deducted.3. and at his cost. the formation of an Infrastructure Development Company (IDC) is made at TDA’s recommendation and supervision. and resort or tourism facilities managers.000 and 500. The flow of Integrated Development Projects is shown in Figure 1.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Development Procedure of Individual Project Lot Integrated Development Projects: For the integrated development projects. IDCs can sell small plots of infrastructure.

3 Situation of Tourist Centers in the Red Sea Sector North Hurghada Sector Center Gemsa El Gouna South Magawish Sahl Hashish Hurghada.3.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Figure 1. TDA.2 for types A & B development.3. JICA Study Team Type of Development B A B A B A B B B B B B B B B B B B A B B B Mother Company Not formed Not formed Established Not formed Not formed Established Not formed Established Not formed Not formed Established Not formed Established Not formed Not formed Not formed Not formed Not formed 1-16 .2 Types of Tourist Center Development Integrated development project Integrated development project L imi te d d e ve lo p me n t project Source: JICA Study Team Table 1.3.Safaga Sector Abu Makhadiq Abu Soma North Safaga Safaga-Quseir Sector Safaga – Quseir Bir Asal Sharm El Bahari Marsa Wazir Ras Trombi (Om Ghieg) Quseir-Marsa Alam Sector El Gezera El Hamra Marsa Shoni/Morren El Naba El Sagier Marsa Shagara Ras Dori Sharm Fokiery Sharm El Loly Marsa Alam-Ras Benas Sector Ras Honkorab Hamata Wadi Lahemi Note: Source: Refer to Figure 1.

Modification of M/P based on approval Company 8.3 Development Processes of Tourism Centers Integrated 8 1 TDA 2 3 Investor/ 4 Developer TDA 5 Investor/ Developer 6 Development Com pany 7 Prepare EIA Land allocation Environmental Monitoring & Management of Natural areas Proceed 4. Preliminary study of the project Beginni Project 1. Change of land allocation EIA First Stage Second Stage Third Stage Forth Stage Limited 1 2 3 Investor/ 4 Developer 5 Investor/ Developer 8 Investor/ Developer Investor/ Developer Land allocation Environmental Monitoring & Management of Natural areas 6 Development Company 7 Prepare EIA TDA TDA Investor/ Developer Investor/ Developer 9 Modified M/P Proceed with Design & Engineering Project Impleme ntation Beginni ng of O&M Investor / Develo per Investor/ Develop er First Stage Second Stage Third Stage Forth Stage 8. Preliminary study of the project 2. Assess & preliminary approval approval 6. Application of preliminary (M/P) reservation for the project 5. Assess of the preliminary study & 3. Show preliminary plan done by TDA to individual investor/developer 4.4 shows the status of accommodation rooms by TDA scheme. Formation of the New Company 7.3. Application of preliminary Approval reservation for the project 3. Preparation of EIA Source: JICA Study Team (2) Current accommodation development by TDA scheme Table 1.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1. Show preliminary plan done by TDA with Modified ng of (M/P) Implemen Design & to individual investor/developer 9 M/P O&M tation Engineering 5. Modification of M/P based on EIA 1. The total number of hotel rooms. which is assigned or contracted by TDA. 1-17 . Change of Land Allocation 9. Preparation of EIA 9. Assess of the Preliminary Study & 2. is around 109 thousand and tourist housing is around four thousand. Formation of the New 7.3. Assess & preliminary 6.

323 16 487 8. the accumulation of accommodation facilities is small. and still a remarkable number of constructions are occurring not only along the coastline.639 6.110 245 519 0 72 0 4.922 503 3.800 2.486 599 3.775 819 150 1.5.138 468 742 5.300 700 1.008 2.Marsa Ras Trombi (Om Ghieg) Alam El Gezera El Hamra Marsa Shoni/Morren El Naba El Sagier Marsa Shagara Ras Dori Sharm Fokiery Marsa Alam-Ras Sharm El Loly Benas Ras Honkorab Hamata Wadi Lahemi Total Source: TDA and JICA Study Team TDA contract/assignment Tourist Area (ha) Hotel housing 0 0 0 2. Table 1.448 0 0 0 0 18.863 512 (Unit: rooms) Under construction Tourist Hotel housing 0 0 1. In Quseir and Marsa Alam City.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1.300 18.200 100 8.897 260 4.099 116 946 4.454 108.294 28 769 9.331 270 461 7.543 In operation Tourist Hotel housing 0 0 1.652 0 2.029 0 1.349 11. but also on the hinterland.390 0 251 3. a huge number of accommodation rooms were constructed rapidly.3.651 0 964 6.592 1. 1-18 .176 283 3.000 0 616 4. In recent years.772 0 0 0 0 409 5.5 Accommodation Development in City Areas City Hurghada Safaga Quseir Marsa Alam Total Source: Number of rooms in operation 14.730 270 136 853 0 322 1.574 3.300 Ministry of Tourism Hurghada City has grown as a tourism city especially for divers since ten years ago.400 Number of rooms Under construction 6.200 6.000 800 1.147 47 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 0 21.4 Current Situation of Accommodation Development in the TDA Area in October 1999 Sector North Hurghada Center Gemsa El Gouna South Magawish Sa`l Hashish Hurghada– Abu Makhadiq Safaga Abu Soma North Safaga Safaga-Quseir Safaga-Quseir Bir Asal Sharm El Bahari Marsa Wazir Quseir.430 0 699 6.962 204 0 0 538 0 620 25 300 0 178 0 300 0 90 0 0 0 0 0 214 0 0 0 0 0 383 0 30 0 72 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.293 (3) Tourism development in city areas The number of accommodation rooms in operation and under construction in city areas is shown in Table 1. The coastal lands and tourism areas in these cities are going to be developed.3.300 2.450 256 814 6.987 63 1.078 64 736 0 0 0 0 0 532 0 13 7 2 0 1.3.287 797 700 10.331 2.

Their constraints for business activity are ranked as follows: 1st: regulations and complicated public procedure for business activity and investment. Cairo and Southern Sinai are the areas that recover the fastest and suffer the least in any crisis. and that it is doing well and has adjusted to the crisis. which makes it difficult to use as collateral for financing a project. The banks all agreed that there is little physical space left for building new hotels and resorts in Luxor and that no new licenses are being issued for boats for Nile cruises. (2) Red Sea Tourism related companies have the following opinions about business environment/investment environment in the Red Sea: • About 40% (18 out of 44) of the surveyed companies have business in the Red Sea. However. The companies reported that it takes a long time to register land.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. which is only 1% of total investment cost. problems of land acquisition and registration are due to the fact that all the land is owned by the government. low prices make projects less profitable and more vulnerable. while another boat they had financed is having trouble adjusting after the Luxor crisis.3. The investment cost of LE 13. • • • According to GAFI’s data. and is sold under special contracts to developers. current investment in Upper Egypt consists mostly of renovating or expanding existing facilities. 10 companies think it is too early to start business in the Red Sea. poor public security. the city has run out of suitable building sites now. There are also no strict zoning laws that give the area a uniform appearance in terms of building height. because it suffers crisis such as the Luxor incident in 1997 and it takes long time to recover from them. lack of infrastructure. Investment cost is LE 383 million. the banks made it clear that they are not unwilling to finance investments in Upper Egypt. because there is not enough of a price differential. However. Egyptian government is conducting a master plan study for Luxor City.3 (1) Business Environment and Investment Opportunity Upper Nile Tourism related companies and banks have the following opinions about business environment/investment environment in Upper Nile: • About 70% (30 out of 44) of the surveyed companies have business in Upper Nile. For example there is no public beach in Hurghada. and tour operators in Upper Egypt. the Red Sea has the largest investment portfolio in two banks interviewed. 241 companies out of 797 were established in the Red Sea until December 1998. Five companies said they do not have enough information to start business/investment activity. 2nd: lack of infrastructure. which has a new development concept of city area expansion. It also makes it very difficult for the four star hotels to compete. The four other banks did not finance cruise boats. Three companies replied that the Red Sea does not have a potential for tourism development. 4 th: difficulty of land acquisition. Hotel owners compete on price in package tours bringing the price for five star hotels to low levels. 1-19 .868 million was 35% of total investment cost. color. 5th: difficulty of procurement of materials and inputs and 6th: insufficient economic and business information. lack of institutions and laws for business activity/investment. Investment activities are concentrated in Luxor. • • • According to data from GAFI. Finances by banks for tourism projects cover hotels. 39 companies out of 797 were established in Luxor and Aswan until December 1998. Another problem is lack of cooperation and coordination between investors in the Red Sea. etc. However. One of the banks pointed out that lack of adequate urban planning is a major problem in the Red Sea. they also said that the process has become faster over the past year. and difficulty of procurement of materials and inputs. Therefore. In the Red Sea. About 50% (26 out of 44) of the companies started their business or want to start a business in the Red Sea. difficulty of land acquisition. One bank did specify that they are partners in a Nile cruise boat. The issue of public security ranks quite low for investors in general. As for operation of banks. and seems to be of special concern only to investors in Upper Egypt. 3 rd: lack of reliable business partner. Upper Egypt is also considered to be one of the highest risk investments. Since the cost of building and operating five star hotels is very high. which implies that hotels and resorts must have their own private beaches. But this information is not spread to investors as yet. it is simply that they do not receive many financing requests for this area. style. Other areas in Upper Egypt do not have so much demand. Nile cruise boats. Their constraints for business activity are ranked as follows: Regulations and complicated public procedure for business activity and investment.

And the development of the second runway and new terminal building is planned.610. Mersa Alam Airport. of which about 5.1 (1) Transportation and Infrastructure Airports Upper Nile Airports are located in Luxor. It had the third largest number of flights in 1997. Furthermore.630. Most of the tourists stay only three or four hours there and fly back to Luxor or Aswan. which used Aswan Airport.000 passengers. The Egyptian Civil Aviation Authority has already studied the redevelopment and expansion of the runway. The space in front of the terminal building is causing congestion of passengers and vehicles because the airport does not have a parking space for buses and taxies. Majority of passengers using the Abu Simbel Airport are tourists visiting the Abu Simbel Temple. The project is divided into four phases. The airport is being constructed and will be operated by an investor of TDA Tourist Center with a 40-year concession. The total number of flights using Abu Simbel Airport was about 5.630 non-scheduled flights. which was about 17.300 with 750. Aswan.4 1. They expect to be implemented by BOT scheme. This airport has a runway that can accommodate A-300-class-airplanes. is under construction by BOT scheme. However.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan 1. which is located 60 km north of Mersa Alam. Both Luxor Airport and Aswan Airport have runways that can accommodate A-300-class-airplanes. The Hurghada International Airport is not only used by civil aviation but also by military operation.300 with 892. The construction of the first phase will be completed in 2002. Expansion of terminal building is underway. The domestic flights were about 9.340 in 1997.000 passengers. The number of international flights was approximately 6.200 with 147. taxiway and terminal building in Luxor and other airports to meet future air transportation demands. It was scheduled for implementation by BOT scheme. It consisted of 1. the terminal building of Luxor Airport is too small and too old to handle the volume of arriving and departing passengers. the third 1-20 .4. The total number of domestic and international flights at Luxor Airport in 1997 was about 17.000 passengers. and Abu Simbel. the second phase in 2005. which were the second largest next to Cairo International Airport.030 were non-scheduled and scheduled flights respectively. This airport is only for domestic use now. (2) Red Sea Hurghada International Airport is the only airport in the Red Sea. which was the second largest in Egypt. was approximately 10. The number of domestic flights using Luxor Airport was about 11. The number of international flights was 7. Most of them visit the temple as part of an optional tour from Luxor and Aswan so that they fly to Abu Simbel via Luxor or Aswan. The newly built terminal building of the Aswan Airport has the capacity to control passengers smoothly. which have important roles for tourism.000 passengers.500 with one million passengers.000 scheduled flights and 6.000 passengers. The international flights were 705 with 38. Many charter flights from Europe are directly arriving there. which are a big help because of the poor condition of domestic flights for European tourists. The parking space in front of the terminal building is also large enough.170 and 1.600 with 712. Not only domestic flights but also international flights are using Luxor Airports and Aswan Airport. the parking space in front of the terminal building is inadequate. The terminal building of the Abu Simbel Airport is small but newly constructed. The total number of domestic and international flights.

Safaga and Mersa Alam.4. (2) Red Sea National Road No.Aswan Qena .5x2 1.2 Regional Road No.5x2 0-1. There is a need to improve this road from the viewpoints of regional development and tourism development.5x2 1.2 Roads Eight major roads exist in Upper Egypt. 2. 1-21 .00 3. A regional road from Qena to Aswan lies along the East Bank of the Nile River. is well developed with divided four lanes at Hurghada. however. (1) Upper Nile National Road No.5x2 10. Current conditions of National Road Nos.1 Existing Major Roads in Upper Egypt Route No. However. 44 starts at the Suez and runs to the border of Sudan along the coastline of the Red Sea.000 6.500 Ditto Urban Development Planning Report for Red Sea.00 10.000 6.Edfu Edfu . and also has good pavement condition. it is a poorly developed narrow road with some unpaved parts. which is one of the main national roads in Egypt. 44. 3.Quseir Edfu -Marsa Alam Aswan Shalatain Hurghada Marsa Alam Marsa Alam Shalatayn Length (km) 294 188 104 161 183 230 300 281 230 Lane Side Walk Total Width Capacity (m) of Road (m) (car/day) Width (m) No.00 10. 77 and 88 are good with enough traffic capacity. However.00 10. the road narrows and curves sharply.53 Secondary Road National Road No.000 coast 6.Safaga Qift .99 Secondary Road National Road No. Housing & New Communities Traffic condition on the roads except secondary roads is not so bad at present.00 9. This airport is planned to have a runway that is 3000 m long and an apron that can accommodate three airplanes.00 8.0 3. National Road No. development condition of secondary roads is poor with narrow widths and sharp curves.5x2 1.0x2 1.500 Remarks Upper Nile (East Bank) Upper Nile (West Bank) Upper Nile (West Bank) Linking two regions Ditto 6.00 9.5x2 1.88 Regional Road No.0x2 1.00 2 2 1-2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. The part of the road. 1.75 3. lies along the east bank of the Nile River from Cairo to Aswan.5x2 1.4. Regional roads. Its pavement is also in good condition.75 3. This road is two-way. because it is the only main road connecting Cairo to Upper Nile. but it is expected to worsen in the near future in accordance with the tourism development in Upper Egypt. This road has been developed to serve the regional people as well as tourists visiting historical monuments located at the West Bank of the river. This road is the only main highway there and has a very important role not only for national defense but also for the development of the Red Sea.00 3. Table 1. 53 and 99.44 National Road No.50 3.500 Ditto 6. In Quseir.2.44 Source: Section Qena . two lanes with enough width. which passes through city areas. May 1999 by Ministry of Construction.500 Ditto Red Sea 10.00 3.00 2-3.50 9. The road is two-way.50 9.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt phase in 2008. two lanes with enough width to allow large tourist buses to pass each other. 77 National Road No. are also in good condition.500 10. This road has an important role not only for regional people but also for tourists. and the fourth phase in 2010. such as Nos.Aswan Qena .

4. Most tourist vehicles are parked on roads along the river because there are no parking spaces near the berthing places of cruise ships.g. 1. High-voltage cable. Tourists are not allowed to pass through these roads because of security reasons at present. This railway is an important transport mode connecting Cairo to Upper Nile as well as to National Road No. and likewise spoil the scenery of the Nile. This causes not only traffic jam but also possible traffic accidents to tourists. These roads will have more important roles for tourism product diversification in the regional tourism development. (5) Parking space and rest areas Development of parking spaces for tourist buses and taxis is one of the most important issues.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan The road running along the coastline passes across a lot of wadis (valleys).Kena Quseir .2.3 (1) Railway Upper Nile A standard gauge track from Cairo to Aswan runs along the Nile River. • • • National Road 77 National Road 88 Safaga . Cruise ships are moored at the centers of cities. markings. have not been provided any drainage facilities. Rest facilities with parking and toilets should be provided at sufficient intervals along roads. The road is two-way. A double-track line runs between Luxor and Aswan after the completion of track works in 1996. have no roadside rest areas for drivers and passengers. Conditions of the other two roads are comparatively good except for the mountainous sections. which connects Upper Nile to the Red Sea at present. railway and water conveyance pipes are running along the road. And more night trains are being operated from Cairo to Aswan now. Some parts of the road crossing wadis. e. Drainage facilities (box or pipe culvert) are provided at wide wadis and high embankments to prevent erosion by rainwater. two lanes with wide shoulders and good pavement condition. flat and straight alignment with monotonous landscape. Furthermore. a roadside rest area exists in the mountainous area between Qena and Safaga. (3) Eastern Desert Three roads running through the Eastern Desert connect Upper Nile to the Red Sea. 1-22 . and tourists visit tourist spots by vehicles. 2nd and 3rd class coach are being operated on the line. and streetlights have not been set sufficiently along roads. (4) Safety facilities Road signs. But the number of users remains low. however. Some sections of roads have quite monotonous environment. But open spaces in front of these stations have not been thoroughly developed as yet.. especially the road sections used by tourists. Presently. These two roads. however. roadside rest facilities are not sufficient.Edfu National Road 77 is a major route.Quift Regional Road 99 Marsa Alam . Trains with 1st. Both Luxor Station and Aswan Station were recently renovated. Parking spaces and sidewalks are still inadequate.

thus the project has not been implemented yet. According to this plan. which will have a 28-ship capacity. there are 208 cruise ships being operated in the Nile River and 3 cruise ships in Lake Nasser. But a transfer facility is not developed near the berthing space so that tour buses have to park on street. including space for 28 ships mentioned above. Luxor The berth and moorage of cruise ships at Luxor is located in the center of the city and the East Bank of the Nile River. some space in front of the new moorage. is planned for commercial facilities and hotels. passengers have to get on and off by passing through these moored cruise ships. streets become over-crowded. Regularly run passenger trains will be one of the modes of transportation between Upper Nile and the Red Sea and will contribute much to tourism product diversification of the regional tourism development. Protection of bank and promenade in front of the moorage is almost finished. Thus cruise ships have not only played a role of tourist attraction but also play a role of supplementing insufficient number of hotel rooms in Upper Nile. Recently rails have been changed to new ones and embankment protection works have been done recently. UNDP is preparing the future city plan in consideration of this moorage construction. This practice is not safe for passengers. The Egyptian National Railway is studying the operation of regular-scheduled passenger trains. this project cannot find a private investor. However cruising from Cairo to Luxor has been suspended since the Luxor accident in 1997. As a result. Rails have also been changed to new ones and protection works of embankment has also been done. Development of moorage with capacity for 14 ships is planned with the support of International Finance Corporation. Cruise ships basically sail at night and stay at tourism sites such as Luxor and Aswan during the daytime. Aswan The current condition of berthing facilities in Aswan is same as Luxor’s. and the existing moorage is planned for parking and open space. when many ships arrive at the moorage. In fact.4.4 (1) Water Transportation and Cruising Upper Nile The Nile River has been an important waterway for transportation in Egypt for a long time. Trains with passenger coaches had been operated before but recently this route has been used only for freight trains from Upper Nile to Safaga and Quseir. The Egyptian National Railway operates and maintains this railway as well as other lines. (3) Red Sea The railway from the Eastern Desert diverges from Safaga and runs parallel to National Road No. 1-23 . Cairo University has formulated the master plan for development of berth facilities on the Nile River between Aswan and Cairo and is conducting a design study financed by TDA. the Nile cruise from Cairo to Aswan is now a popular tourist product among international tourists. However. In such case. at the upper and lower side of the bridge over the river in the southern part of Luxor. This practice is not safe for tourists. 44 up to Quseir.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt (2) Eastern Desert A railway connecting Upper Egypt and the Red Sea through Eastern Desert started operations in 1987. Five to six cruise ships are moored closely in parallel order due to limited berth facilities. As of 1997. Private firms are currently constructing berthing facilities. 1.

two water purification plants provide potable water for Luxor City. The water rate in Luxor City is described in Table 1. and to support increased population. cruise tours from Aswan High Dam is now provided. Formation of a comprehensive plan for water resource management including ground water should be implemented for more efficient utilization of water resources in the future.15 0. there is moorage for only one ship in front of Abu Simbel Temple. new moorage will be constructed in Dandara (for 11 ships). avoiding flood in the urbanized area. Esna (for 4 ships). (2) Red Sea Hurghada and Safaga have ports where ferryboats can dock.4. An express ship. Seasonal floods from the Nile River provide fertile soil and irrigation for agriculture along the riverside area until the middle of the 19th Century.2 Water Rates in Luxor City Category of Consumer Residential Commercial Establishment Hotel and Restaurant Source: JICA Study Team Volume(m3) 1 – 30 More than 30 Per m3 Per m3 Water Rate (LE/m3) 0. Currently. Others Aside from Luxor and Aswan. 1. In addition. The government of Egypt has been planning to increase water resources to redistribute from the concentrated population along the Nile Valley to remote areas such as New Valley and the Red Sea.5 (1) Water Supply Water resource Most water demand for social and economic activities in Egypt depend on the water resources of the Nile River. Luxor At present. is being operated three times a week. and Edfu (for 8 ships) by investment of private sector with the assistance of IFC.4. To cope with future water shortage by urban expansion and population increase.2.4. However.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Abu Simbel In Abu Simbel. the Supreme Council of Luxor is planning to expand and develop water purification plants. water use rights for Egypt is controlled by the above agreement. a ferry route connecting Safaga to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia is also operated. Development of the remote areas will require a large volume of water resource from the Nile River. to increase agricultural products. (2) Upper Nile Water resource for potable water of urban and rural areas in Upper Nile come from surface water of the Nile River and from ground water. Table 1. Kom Ombo (for 8 ships). The water resource of the Nile River affords the opportunity to expand agricultural land.18 50 80 Remark 35% of water rate charged for sewerage treatment Ditto Ditto 1-24 . which connects Hurghada to Sharm El Sheikh in only 90 minutes. Utilization of water resource of Lake Nasser is demarcated by the water use rights agreement with Sudan. The agreed discharging water volume from Aswan High Dam is 55 billion m3 in a year. Aswan Dam was constructed to stabilize and utilize the rich water resources.

Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Aswan In Aswan.900m3/day of purified water.000m3/day of water for the city. which will cover 50% of 370. and groundwater in wadis are used as water resources in the Red Sea. (3) Red Sea The river water of the Nile and desalination plants. The second water pipeline from Qena to Quseir is providing 12. A new water purification plant.4. the network of potable water supply serves 98% of the governorate. The water transmission pipeline starts from Koraymet.000 persons x 50% x 0. The water supply networks and tapping facilities for berthing facilities are located in Aswan and Luxor.000m3/day of water to Safaga and 6. is being operated.2m3/person/day= 37. And the desalination plant in Hurghada is also providing 1. The third water transmission pipeline from Edfu to Marsa Alam is planned to cope with the increase of water demand by the regional tourism development. The present condition of sewage works is as follows: Table 1. 370. and southwest of the city. The Marsa Alam desalination plant.3 Present Condition of Sewerage Treatment Plants in Luxor Status Developed Under Construction Plan (within 2 years) Total Source: JICA Study Team Capacity (m3/day) 13. It will be expanded to 3. Sewage of cruise boats and cruise ships are disposed and discharged to the river by their own disposal system. To cope with the future demand by the regional tourism development and urban expansion.000 11. The municipality is also promoting septic-tank disposal systems for those outside the sewage work coverage area.000m3/day in the future in accordance with redevelopment of the new city. Desalinated water is chlorinated and contains 80 ppm mineral.000m3/day to Quseir. which was financed by USAID.4. southwest.000 Disposal Method Oxidation Ditto Ditto The demand for sewage work is estimated at 200 liters/person/day.000 citizens. within 2 years. On historical sites in Luxor City. has been constructed in Kom Ombo. Most of the sewage from hotels are collected and disposed by the present system. Those toilets 1-25 .000m3/day of water to Hurghada. running through Zafarana and Ras Gharib. The plant has a service center function in which water charges are collected.000 13. This water pipeline used to provide water to Hurghada City. some portable toilets are provided for tourists. considering construction schedules of their projects and construction cost of water supply facilities. which is set at 80% of water supply volume per person per day.000m3/day Major hotels are located within the above sewage work coverage. the municipality is planning three additional sewage works development. Developers of TDA Tourist Centers have to provide infrastructures by themselves.6 (1) Sewage Disposal Upper Nile Luxor The Supreme Council of Luxor is developing a sewage disposal system. Seawater is the only source of drinking water for them. providing 39.000 37. 1. which can generate 600m3/day. which are northwest. The desalination plant in Soma Bay Tourist Center generates 3.

1. and electric power is now being supplied to these cities. In the Red Sea.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan are comparatively well maintained. In Safaga. workers are given operation. an open dumpsite lies at the desert along National Road No. developers of the center are operating daily solid waste collection and disposal. open dumpsites are developed and operated by city councils. When garbage in the site is incinerated. In the developed Tourism Centers in the Red Sea.000m3/day has started operations in Hurghada. In the training center for sewage disposal in the city center. 1-26 . They are located outside the city area and are filled with smoke just like the one in Qena. 1. This gives a bad image to passengers who see this dumpsite as they travel this road. 77. A private company has a contract with the city council of Hurghada to collect garbage. The other three cities in the Red Sea collect their own garbage. A wastewater treatment system by septic tank is used outside the service area. Sewage disposal system has been developed in the two centers of Aswan and Edfu. It is based on introduction of new machines.4. maintenance and management training. All of the Tourist Centers do not utilize the national grid system.4.4. Its capacity will be expanded to 12. In the east of Qena. smoke fills the area. Aswan Aswan Governorate comprises 5 administrative centers. Table 1.9 Telecommunication Network Current condition of telecommunication network in Egypt has rapidly improved in the past few years. The government of Aswan has a plan to develop sewage disposal facilities for the other 3 centers. 1.000m3/day in the near future. and rapid increase of mobile phone users.7 Solid Waste Disposal In Upper Nile and the Red Sea. This will cause pollution problems in the future. Each city in the Red Sea has its own power station. Traffic of domestic and international telecommunication is dramatically increasing so that more improvement is needed from now on. (2) Red Sea A sewage treatment plant with a capacity of 20. TDA Tourism Centers must have their own sewage disposal systems. Quseir and Marsa Alam.4. local governments or subcontracted private companies are operating a solid waste disposal.4 Power Stations in the Red Sea City Hurghada Quseir Marsa Alam Source: JICA Study Team Power station Thermoelectric power plant (not activated) Wind power plant (testing) Thermoelectric power plant (activated) Thermoelectric power plant (activated) TDA Tourist Centers develop their own power generation and supply system. septic tank system is also used.8 Electric Power Supply A 220-kv transmission line connects from Aswan to Harghada by way of Safaga. Some Tourism Centers in the Red Sea develop their own optical fiber network to Hurghada to maintain good condition of communication. development of new stations.

the rocks are hindering direct groundwater flow through the Nubian sandstone aquifer (El-Shazly & El-Hady. The Red Sea mountain range forms the watershed (divide) which parts the drainage eastward to the Red Sea and westward to the Nile River.1 mm/day) Rainfall is minimum (0. The basement rocks. amphibolite.5. February. Red Sea Maximum of 40-41oC at Ras Benas (south) and 32-34oC at North of Hurghada and Quseir. which is widely extending in the study area.8 -4.1. old and younger granite.8oC during the Maximum of 43.1 mm/day) to Minimum rainfall is in October and to none during the year.5 1.6 in n/d winter winter General Authority for Meteorology. 1-27 . Some record shows source of irrigation/drinking water source of irrigation/drinking water 68. gneiss. Minimum of 8-10oC at south and 9-10oC at Hurghada and 16-18oC at Quseir with January and February as the coldest months of the year Rainfall is minimum (0.5.1 Environment Meteorological Conditions The meteorological condition in the study area is summarized in Table 1.5.2oC during the months of July-August and part of months July and August and part of September and minimum of 6.1 mm in the south and 62 mm in north as highest rainfall and other uses is the river Nile.8. Most basement consist of a complex of the Precambrian. Eastern desert and Red Sea mountain chains (Red Sea) Geology of eastern desert and the Red Sea mountain chains is a rocky plateau dissected by a number of drainage systems with a main channel and numerous tributaries. diorite. are exposed on the surface at different places. and 40-50% from June-August in the north.2 (1) Geology and Topology Geology The geological formation of Upper Egypt can be divided into two main geological characteristics.9 .5 -10. The main none during the year.5. July and August are the warmest months of the year. The average elevation of the wadis range between 350 m and 546 m above sea level.1 Meteorological Conditions in Upper Egypt Source: Winds Relative Humidity Rain Falls Temperature Qena and Luxor Aswan Maximum of 42. The main November. The area has a rugged surface with high mountain peaks rising to 1. which are mainly represented by Aswan granite. Such sandstone of the Cretaceous Age essentially constitutes a main complex of aquifer.8oC during the months of January during the months of January and through March.8 in summer and between 3. The Nile valley basin (Qena.350 m above sea level (not including the Red Sea mountain). Thickness of the Nubian sandstone varies from several meters to 303 m. Most principal wadis have their heads in the Red Sea Mountains and extend across the whole stretch of the eastern desert until they debouch into the Nile Valley.5 m/sec in Ranged between 4. Thus.0 m/s in summer and between 2. Ranged between 1. and other uses is the river Nile Ranged between 47-55% during Ranged between 34-43% during Ranged between 50-60% from winter (December-February) and winter (December-February) and November-December in the south 27-40% during summer 17-27% during summer. The rocks are dominated by geosynclinal metasediments (schist-mudstone-graywacke series). Table 1.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. Cairo Egypt 1.4 . 1977).1oC September and minimum of 8. Luxor and Aswan) The geological formation of the Nile Valley of Upper Egypt is called the Nubian sandstone formation and is composed of an alteration of sandstone and clays which have water absorption power. and granodiorite complex.5.

Earthquakes with a magnitude of 5. Natash.7 on the Richter scale observed in 1981 when water level of the Nasser Lake was at about 176 m. another desert extends whose configuration is rather flat or gently undulating and almost featureless except at the Kurkur and Dungul Oases and the Sinn El-Kaddab escarpment. the processes of erosion have carved the rock land into a separate plateau. Sand creep is obvious on the western desert side of Nasser Lake area and moves in successive rows in a NW/SE direction. The eastern part lies within the watershed of Wadi El-Kharit and its tributary Wadi El-Natash and is called Atmour Nugra. In the Paleolithic era. it could be said that the sandstone outcrops give the plain a rather rugged appearance. natural hazards in Aswan region are of the following three types: • • • (4) Flash floods pass through wadis in Eastern Desert (Allaqi. (2) Topology It can be said that the Nile River is the most prominent physical feature as far as population and settlements of Egypt are concerned. High above the valley. The plateau is situated approximately 100 m above the valley of the Nubian sandstone.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Alluvial deposits cover the beds of the wadis. or even in part Pliocene. On the western side. The sediment at the edge of the plain is sandier. 1974). Shait. Edfu-Esna-Gebelein: In the east of the Nile. The valley opens quite abruptly into the Kom Ombo plateau. There are also a number of 1-28 . partly of shale and sandstone of the Nubian sandstone series. East of Kom Ombo Plain: A hill complex forms the eastern limit of the Kom Ombo plain. Agag. the Kom Ombo plain was a swamp in which sedimentation of silt had occurred. The physical characteristics of deposits vary in different wadis as well as within one wadi. At about 500 km west from the Nile of Aswan region. a wadi plain extends eastward and is divided into a rather small western part and a larger eastern part by an outcrop of the Nubian sandstone. (3) Natural Hazards According to Shata (1988). with coarse sandy or gravelly substrata. Erosion and Landscape of the Study Area In accordance with the survey results of the “High Dam Soil Survey Project”(UNDP. The western plain lies a little higher than the alluvial deposits. In the eastern plain. Both parts of the plain are in part alluvial and sandy or loamy to a variable extent. Configuration of the valley is steep with rock debris slopes that lead up to a rock plateau. As a result. and the alluvium contains silt or less loam and is less suitable for agricultural development. the soil characteristics of the study area from Aswan to Qena can be divided into 5 sectors as follows: Aswan-Kom Ombo: The Nile Valley in Aswan is narrow and has practically no alluvial soil along the river. the relief is more pronounced. marking early Pleistocene. Kharit and Abbad) and Western Desert (Kalabsha and Kurkur). according to the surrounding rocks and topography of the wadi. The desert extending on the eastern side to the Red Sea mountain chain is dissected by a number of large and small wadis. FAO and Egypt. These deposits show a notable variation in texture through the soil profile that is typical successive layers of the wadi-fill deposits. Soil Condition. sand fills the Toshka spillway. the mountain massif of Oweinat rises. Beyond them. capped by the lower Eocene limestone which are exposed on both banks of the river further north. The hills are terrace remnants. erosion levels of the Nile. two or three terrace levels can be distinguished.

although the different rubble terraces are still present. the Nubian sandstone gives places to Cretaceous limestone. all of the Nubian sandstone series. sometimes loamy deposits. el Sarrag. The harder lower Eocene limestone still survives as a capping at some of the highest points. el Domi and el Shoki. Abbad. The marked differences in elevation. which the Nile Valley makes at Qena. Close to the deeply incised gullies little of the limestone remains and there are hollows. an important tributary system formerly entered the valley and the ancient gulf must have been very wide at this point. or consists mainly of the youngest terrace deposits. the rubble terrace landscape extends a long way up into the Wadi Qena. Close to the rock escarpments and just in front of tributary gullies these deposits may be gravelly or stony and near the edge of the cultivated land. the land falls away and one may get the impression of a rather level hinterland. As these have a notably steeper slope than the rubble terraces. for the soft Cretaceous limestone. of whatever stage. At present the rock land lies about 12 to 18 km beyond the edge of cultivation and wide stretches of the oldest rubble interspersed with outwash plains and wadi beds. This steep rough country looks like a landscape of the moon. The debris slope or stony pediment presents a remarkable feature. Four rubble terrace stages can be recognized and between them and the foothills there is a debris slope or stony pediment that. have disappeared. between the cultivated area and higher terraces or the rock land. The smooth slope usually shows a loamy surface soil over compact shale. for all their variations in elevation. the high rock land plateau retreats to a distance of 10-14 km from the cultivated land of the valley. On both sides of the valley between Edfu and Esna the desert fringe generally presents either a smooth slope. there are only a few outcrops of the Nubian Sandstone. The marine clays of the Pliocene Inland Sea occur under the gravel cover of all the rubble terraces. Gebel Bakhmanyia above the Nile valley just to the east of Gebelein. marks the approximate level of the Pleistocene inland sea. are dominant. Soft Cretaceous limestone forms a precipitous escarpment. fan and outwash gravel. around the V-shaped mouth of a tributary gully system. both between different rubble terraces and between the plain and the surrounding rock land. the surface. leaving only an insignificant desert fringe of rubble terraces. or intercalated sandstone. In the plain itself. or almost reaches. Below Gebelein. On the east side. North of Qena. and contains some phosphate mines. the appearance of the valley definitely changes. far below the level of the terraces. This landscape begins a little to the east of the Lakeittah Wells. first. which is much less resistant to erosion than the gravelly rubble and the stony debris of the pediment has led to an inversion of relief. including Wadis Sillim. hardly show up. the rock land on the west bank lies further from the river. Qena-Nag’ hammadi: After the big westward bend. the rubble terrace landscape gradually merges eastward into a wide plain of predominantly sandy. the landscape is quite different. they bury the part of the terrace which lies closest to the rock land. and wide wadi plain deposit. Where Wadi Matulah joins the valley opposite Qift. which form a more mountainous terrain traversed by a main road. beyond which point the rubble terrace deposits occupy the entire fringe area. so that the clayey subsoil reaches. developed in a strongly denuded Nubian sandstone country. As seen from the river the rubble terrace landscape. when these were formerly hills. On the west. or removed by man. as far south as Esna. at an altitude of about 148 m. Second. between Luxor and Hegaza as the original rubble cover has been eroded in places. the high rock land closes in. North of Edfu.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt rather wide and very gravelly tributary valleys. which no longer follows the Nile Valley. The older gravelly terraces continue as far as Esna. shale clay. but closes in again from Luxor to Qena to leave only small areas of rubble terrace land in the desert fringe. of at most a few degrees. Gebelein-Qena Below Esna. The rubble terraces emerge half 1-29 . el Hawa. on the east bank.

the river Nile in Aswan region formed the following three separate water bodies: • • • Nasser Lake.500 farmers have planted 25. (Soilman. There are no pollution-generating activities on the lake except one factory for fish preparation and freezing. (1) Water Flow Water is being recharged from the Nile to the aquifer (Mitwally 1953 and Sheta 1962). As a consequence of constructing the high dam. Agricultural development is limited along the shoreline of the lake. The most important factor. 1987) (2) Nasser Lake and River Nile It can be said that the Nasser Lake and the river Nile represent the hydrology of Egypt. Libya and Chad. Boundary of the formation covers Egypt. .37 m above mean sea level. relatively flat and consisting of fine textured sands. there is an annual cycle of water level change related to the seasonal flood pattern of the river Nile.000 million m3.9 km. The saved volume of water discharged from the Nubian aquifer was estimated at 257 million m3/annum in total and the extraction average could be 800 million m3/km2/annum. 5. In the Nasser Lake.3 Hydrology and Groundwater The Nubian sandstone formation is a main and important water-bearing formation in the area.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan way up this outwash slope. Changes in the shoreline morphology are expected to occur at a faster rate during the filling stage of the reservoir than later on when the reservoir has reached its maximum holding capacity which already had happened during the 1998 flood. Evaporation and mean annual discharge through floodgates and turbines result in an annual variation in water level of about 5m. and Nile River (down stream of the Aswan Dam).5. Sudan. 1973).5 million m3/annum. 7 km down stream). is the sedimentation of a huge amount of silt carried by the river during the flood. seepage the level of 180 m was expected at 73. Aswan reservoir (lying between the High Dam and the Aswan Dam. The shoreline morphology is primarily dependent on both erosion and sedimentation. There are 85 major Khors of which 48 are on the eastern shore and 37 on the western. The entire reservoir has a gross capacity of 157. the mean monthly level of the Nasser Lake dropped to 157. The Nasser Lake is located 7 km south of the Aswan Dam. The great variation in its geographic distribution could be attributed to the variation that occurred during its deposition (El Ramly. The lake as whole is mostly surrounded by rocky terrain.000 Feddans. At Nasser Lake. Geoistrazivanja (1965) estimated a seepage of 6 million m3 /annum with the average permeability of 3 x 10-3cm/sec. Total shoreline length of these Khors is 969. Some of the arms of the lake called Khors are over 50 km. The riverbed of the high dam is 99 m above sea level. together with a long-term pattern of net rise and fall of the mean lake level. Limited number of residential areas around the lake. which affects shoreline morphology. During the drought years in the mid 980s. while below their escarpments there extends a long slope of outwash material. 1. The Nasser Lake has the following environmental features: • • • • • 1-30 It is one of the cleanest artificial lakes based on periodic analyses of its water and soil. which represent 2% of the total shoreline of the lake.

26 1965 113. Cairo University.5.27 1965 115. Masters Thesis.00 9. Table 1.85 1991 160.50 187.21 1991 165.67 1969 160.00 1965 104.52 1979 127.15 1991 134.00 1991 141.0 (mg/l) 3.00 11.90 1966 162. Table 1.90 6. Most of the data were taken from 1965 and 1991.00 4.77 1991 168.50 80.00 4. and There is no any disposal activity from industries and agriculture or sewage into the lake.00 1965 111. 1-31 . 1.24 1983 171.09 1965 168.48 1965 104.06 1969 149.00 1965 113.21 1965 109.18 1965 117.75 1965 118.89 1974 Latest Ground water level Level (m) Year 120.80 5.0(mg/l) 410 (col/100 ml) Institute of River Nile Research.5.0 (mg/l) 12.00 10. rising of the ground water level in each governorate has grown remarkable in recent years.00 1991 159.81 1965 115.40 1991 158.00 3.5.40 33.13 1974 176.3 Hydrogeological Data of Shallow Boreholes Distance from the Lake (km) 2.00 8.2 shows an analytical data of river water quality from Aswan to Esna in1993/94.00 30.5.6 (mg/l) 13.23 1973 150.86 1971 158. Table 1.3 shows the groundwater fluctuation in shallow boreholes around the Nasser Lake.4.5.50 5. WRPW (3) Groundwater According to officials of Luxor and Aswan.6 (mg/l) 8. as shown in Table 1.54 1991 129. As for the water quality of the Nile River.00 9. Source: Concentration 6. 1994 and Faculty Engineering.27 1965 168.5.00 7.2 Quality of Nile River Water from Aswan to Esna (1993/94) Parameter DO BOD COD Cl TSS F.4 (1) Flora & Fauna Flora The flora of the Egyptian ecosystem is profiled.15 Source: Direction East West West East East West West West East West East West West East South West South South Initial Ground water level Level (m) Year 120.00 1965 118.85 1965 104.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt • • Total number of cruise ships is 6l.09 1981 Ground water of Upper Egypt. Table 1.77 1965 119.38 1991 141.00 107.03 1974 112.23 1991 125. Coli.

Luxor. specially cyanophyceae. 928/1986 No.5.775 Protection Decree /Year No. Bird Flora Type of unique ecosystem Fauna Wild life Marine Geology Natural Reservation and Culture Interest Areas of Egypt. soil fauna and others is attached as Appendix.A. and Zone of vegetation in the eastern side of the Aswan area.5. Table 1.5.6. tropical fishes and so on. 928/1986 EEAA Natural Reservations Guide for Egypt. following data and information are shown in the Appendix.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1. among other sites.5.148 2.500 13 275 8. as shown in Table 1.5.6 Attractions of National Parks and Natural Reservations Natural Protectorate Elba Saloga & Gazal El Alaki Valley River Nile Islands Source: Year Established 1986 1986 1989 N. 450/1986 No.5. EEAA The flora of Aswan.4 Profile of Flora in Egypt Flora Virus Bacteria Fungi Algae Flowering Plant Non-flowering Plant Source: Number of Species 44 238 1. 1. and attractions of ecosystems and others identified in each natural protectorate is summarized. south of the Sinai Peninsula.5. the Egyptian Government has established a total of 21 natural protectorates (National Parks and Natural Reservations) in accordance with the Law 102/1983 to protect natural resources and endangered bio-diversity. Based on those studies.072 369 Environmental Quality Report of 1996. 945/1989 No.5 List of National Parks and Natural Reservations in Upper Egypt Name of Park or Reservation Elba Saloga & Gazall El Alaki Valley River Nile Island Source: Governorate Red Sea Aswan Aswan River Nile Total Area (km2) 36. A list of National Parks and Natural Reservations in Upper Nile is given in Table 1. Qena and the Red Sea have been studied by Aswan Faculty of Science as well as other institutions since 1978. List of indigenous flora species in Upper Egypt and their uses. 1994 Table 1. • • • List of flora species in Upper Egypt.5 National Parks and Natural Reservation In Upper Egypt. birds. Several natural communities of mangrove forest that need to be protected are observed in the surrounding area of Marsa Alam. EEAA. 1995 1-32 . (2) Fauna A list of fauna in Upper Egypt including mammals.260 1. and has a very diverse ecosystem. (3) Coastal Area The Red Sea is one of the richest coral habitats on earth.

5 billion m3 of water.6 140.05% is occupied by human/commercial activities.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1.5. It supplies about 97% of the water requirements of Egypt. EEAA Sources of water pollution The sources of water pollution in Upper Egypt are summarized as shown in Table 1. housing and agricultural areas (smoke from open burning of solid wastes) and so on.61 1. Table 1. In Aswan. the Nile supplies 55. In the Red Sea area.5% Other use 1. Table 1. In addition to the river. According to the Nile Water Agreement.5% Environmental Quality Report of 1996. Therefore. SOx. Table 1. October 3. an increase in human activities and travelers will lead to increase in total quantity of air pollutants.2 3. Red Sea Governorate covers 130. EEAA).5. including NOx.2% Industry use 9.5. and easily make the surrounding air quality bad for human health. There are additional 3. Data on O3 concentration in those areas shows less than the maximum limit recommended by WHO (World Health Organization) which suggests that the maximum concentration of O3 should be in the range of 150-200 ug/m3 for every exposure hour.81 45.8 shows the water consumption ratio by sector in Egypt.5. chemical plants in Aswan).5 EEAA data report to the JICA Study Team.000 km2 of which only 0.5 141. it is estimated that almost 70% will be lost to the drainage channel and to the underground water reservoir.9 billion m3 of agricultural drainage water and 600 million m3 of domestic water which are recycled for irrigation. power generation stations. less information regarding air pollution is available at present.8% Residential use 5.23 62.6 (1) Pollution Air Quality It is considered that the other sources of air pollution are mostly from industrial establishments (sugar mills and textile mills in Qena. Table 1. As a matter of course.2% Industry 32.2 O3 (ìU g/m3) Minimum Maximum 3.7 Air Quality as of August 1999 Monitoring Position Qena (Kom Ombo) Luxor Aswan Source: SO2 (ìU g/m3) Minimum Maximum 15. 4. the present situation of air pollution caused by usual human activities might not be so serious.5.1% Sewage 9.5. 130 tons/year of NOx had been generated from a fertilizer company. However. Of the water used for irrigation.7% Environmental Quality Report of 1996.79 6.4 4.7 billion m3 of groundwater and 19 million m3 of water treated by desalination plants add to the water supply. (Source: Environmental Quality Report of 1996.1 133. (2) Water Pollution Water supply and its consumption The river Nile is the main source of water in Egypt.7 shows data on SO2 and O3 obtained from monitoring stations. 1999.9. SPM. Table 1.5.8 Water Consumption Ratio by Sector Sector Source: Irrigation use 83.9 Sources of Water Pollution in Upper Egypt Source Source: Drainage 58.10 145. benzene (C6H6). EEAA 1-33 . etc.

From the stations various data on coastal water quality are obtained as shown in Table 1.52 1. A pit. The sewage system of the city of Luxor does not cover all its residential areas.05 0. In Aswan. some resort hotels own a seawater desalination plant and a wastewater treatment plant. The EEAA newly established coastal water quality monitoring stations in the area.00 7.28 3.5. published 1997 by EEAA).2 111. All parameters represent the average of data of 13 monitoring stations located along the Red Sea coast. in cooperation with Danish International Development Authority (DANIDA).56 1. The present situation of industrial wastewater in the study is summarized as follows: Upper Nile (Qena. pesticides. Industrial Wastewater Industrial wastewater is a critical source of pollutants in Upper Egypt and the Gulf of Suez (i.30 4.04 2.4 0.15 0. 1-34 .92 2. sugar mills.48 7.56 2.06 4.89 0. Those not covered have been encouraged to use septic tanks. Industrial wastewater increases the salinity of the river Nile from 130mg/l at Aswan to 250mg/l near Cairo (Source.74 0.4 121.50 9. textile mills. wastewater in those areas is treated by trickling filter and oxidation pond. However. For instance.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Drainage channels: From Aswan to near Cairo there are 67 drainage channels pouring into the river Nile directly or indirectly with a total of 4 million m3 per year from agricultural activities and some sewage sources (treated or semi-treated). It is considered that agriculture drainage water is contaminated by several kinds of pollutants. Sewage Upper Nile (Qena. industrial wastewater is discharged by sugar mills and chemical plants.56 6. etc.16 0.96 8. October 3.5. In Aswan.00 0. Environmental Quality Report of 1996.11 34. Red Sea: In the Red Sea coastal area.00 4.82 38.34 2.06 0.63 0. To comply with the environmental law No.17 21.50 0. the sources of industrial wastewater are the aluminum complex. They use the treated sewage for agricultural purpose including golf course maintenance.17 0.50 11. 1999.00 0.10 Eutrophication in the Red Sea Coastal Surface Water (as of June 1999) Chlorophyll (g/l) TSM (mg/l) Transparency (m) Total Nitrogen (mm/l) Nitrate (mm/l) Nitrite (mm/l) NH4 (mm/l) Total Phosphorus (mm/l) Silicate (mm/l) DO saturation (%) Parameters Gulf of Suez Red Sea proper Gulf of Aqaba Source: DO (mg/l) Min Max Min Max Min Max 6.04 14. is often used to collect sewage. In Qena only 15% of the residential areas are covered by sewage disposal system.14 0. an aluminum industrial complex has set up precipitation tanks for suspended materials and a sugar manufacturer has set up facilities for recycling of organic wastewater.62 3.04 0.52 1.66 7.4 106. Luxor has no such sources of industrial wastewater. Luxor and Aswan): According to officials in Aswan and Luxor.01 0.50 17.88 2.e.96 17. and the treated processed sludge is used as soil conditioner.64 0. In Qena.38 6. which is prone to leaching. and some food manufacturers. 4. Luxor and Aswan): It has been detected that around 190 million m3 of industrial wastewater is disposed into the drainage channels in Upper Egypt every year. Red Sea: The north part of the Red Sea is remarkably active in oil and shipping activities. only 40% of the governorate is covered by a sewage disposal system.40 0.00 0.44 0.22 8. Table 1. plastics plants.05 6.31 0.3 131.04 0. which contribute significantly to contamination of ground water.10.98 0.50 21.84 7.84 EEAA Report to the JICA Study Team.8 119.92 103. such as nutrients. The treated sewage is discharged to the river Nile.49 9. Sewage of cruise boats is also disposed to the river Nile.78 0. north of the Red Sea coast).60 0.08 5.77 3. However.75 0. industrial companies have to set up suitable wastewater treatment facilities.

11 Sources of Water Pollutants in Upper Egypt Area Residential Leaching Pit Luxor None Untreated and Semi-treated Sewage Sugar mills.12 shows the average generated amount of municipal solid waste in the study area. In tourism areas.11.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt increasing these activities or engaging in large-scale operations poses a potential threat to the ecological balance of the surroundings. private waste collectors and NGO. domestic solid waste is being collected door to door through governmental. In Luxor. Table 1. it is calculated that 40-60% of the municipal solid waste in the study areas is combustible. and desalination plants (3) Noise and Vibration Several monitoring stations have been newly setup in the study area to monitor parameters of noise and vibration.402 feddans Low. Leaching Pit Sugar industry.5. Most of the non-organic solid wastes and other construction wastes are buried in the desert. however. the solid wastes are well collected. Red Sea: The Red Sea has been divided into 7 sectors and 22 tourist centers along the coastal sea. As a matter of fact. accumulations of waste have been seen in the residential area. Textile mills. Segregation and separate collection are not implemented in this area. Based on the above. There is a composting plant in Hurghada but its treatment capacity is not enough. Generation Amount Table 1. Most of the landfill sites are located in the east side of the Nile River. and composting factories to produce organic fertilizers and so on. Only drainage from 1. related facilities. However. Upper Nile: In Qena. The situation in Luxor and Aswan are almost similar to Qena.5. The governorate is encouraging investors to set-up factories to convert agricultural solid waste into animal feeds. the sources of water pollution in the study area can be briefly summarized as shown in Table 1. drainage from 174 Floating boats and hotels feddans (4. The solid wastes generated from these centers are collected and disposed daily by each owner of the tourist center. there is no large industry that can cause pollution. Floating boats and hotels Only drainage from 617 feddans None Hotels. Open burning of solid waste is observed in the area. Based on the data shown in the table.200 m2 each) Floating boats and hotels Medium.5. These stations are still under calibration process. 1-35 . Only 15% of the area is Aluminum complex served by sewage Qena disposal system. Chemical Only 40% of the area is fertilizer covered by sewage Aswan disposal system Leaching Pit Petroleum in Gulf of Suez Harghada and Red Sea and shipping surrounding tourism area Source: JICA Study Team Industrial Agricultural Drainage Others Low. (4) Solid Waste Solid waste management Present condition of the solid waste management in each study area can be summarized as follows. the related laws for conservation of the marine natural resources and the environment prohibit the discharge of wastewater to the Red Sea. a large volume of waste is transported to a city composting plant.

3 Solid Waste Survey.6 0.12 Average Generation of Municipal Solid Waste in Upper Egypt 1996 Combustible (ton) Non-combustible (ton) Total (ton) Source: Qena 512 332 845 Luxor 121 89 200 Aswan 236 159 395 Red Sea 30 14 44 Information offices of each governorate The daily unit amount of solid waste per capita in the study area is given in Table 1.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1.6 0.13. Table 1.25 0 0.13 Unit Amount of Solid Waste in Upper Egypt Governorate Qena Luxor Aswan Red Sea Source: Urban (kg/capita/day) 0.5.25 0.4 Rural (kg/capita/day) 0.5. EEAA 1999 1-36 .5.6 0.

Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan .

608 940 2. 11 local village units.1. 1. Luxor and Aswan) amounts to 3.1 1.1% of total land area) and its 1999 population of 165 thousand is scattered over six cities from north to south.3 Governorate net by IDSC Population in Qena.265 1.080 km along the Red Sea. the share of female population is 43%.775 Red Sea 156 Whole Egypt 59. Luxor. It can be considered that more than 20 thousand male workers are living alone in Red Sea Governorate.000 71 0.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt 1. the governorate is strategically important to national security.441 Luxor City 360 Aswan 974 Sub total 3.272 Source: Statistical Yearbook 1992-1997 by CAPMS 1-1 . i. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1996 Total area (km2) Inhabited area (km2) Residential Utilities Swamps and Others Agricultural Source: Qena 10.0% 6 20 1 64 Aswan 34. Luxor City was part of Qena Governorate until 1989.1% 71 0 0 0. It consists of 6 cities. which has booming tourism-related industries. Upper Nile can supply agricultural products and labor for the Red Sea's tourism industries as well as for its own tourism needs. The pattern of population distribution indicates a particular feature.135/1989) was issued and gave Luxor separate status as an autonomous administration. when Presidential Decree (No.1. extending 1. Table 1.1.610 15. Luxor. and the total population of Upper Nile (Qena. frontier governorates in Egypt. Red Sea Governorate is one of the coastal.8 million.. Due to its location.7% 78 52 46 763 Red Sea 130. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1996 Table 1. and 19 villages.1 Existing Condition Socio-economy Geographic and Demographic Information Qena Governorate and Aswan Governorate have large agricultural lands amounting to 1.1 Land Use in Qena. and investment in tourism projects is being encouraged.383 Luxor 91 91 100.2 Governorate/City Population (thousand) Urban population (%) 21% 100% 43% 89% 43% Female population (%) 50% 49% 50% 43% 49% Qena 2. On the other hand. Inhabited land in Red Sea Governorate is extremely small (0.7% 92 112 23 1.e.383km2 and 763km2 respectively. Economy of the city depends largely on the tourism sector.

agriculture is the major economic sector contributing to about 25-30% of their GRDP.2% 2. wheat.7% 1.031 and LE 5.3% in Qena (including Luxor).2 Economic Activities In Qena Governorate and Aswan Governorate.1 Luxor 78 4. while those in Luxor. tomato.4 Total Number of Households and Family Structure in 1996 Number of households (thousand) Average number of household members Source: Qena 2. gold.548. Aswan and Red Sea are almost same as the country’s average. Aswan and Red Sea Governorate respectively in 1993/94. Red Sea Governorate owes its economy to natural and mineral resources.4 shows the total number of households and family structure in the study area and Egypt in 1996. share of service sector is high in Aswan and Red Sea accounting for more than 50%. Unemployment of Aswan shows an extremely high rate at 21%. while in Qena. banana. agriculture shares 42% of total employment. Most of the oil.6 Egypt 12.7 1996 Census of Population. CAPMAS.1.8 Red Sea 29 4. Table 1. Household Conditions.3 Population of Cities in Red Sea Governorate in 1999 Cities in Red Sea Governorate Population (thousand) Urban population (%) Natural growth rate of population 2. Agricultural land is currently only 80 feddans and 11. etc.850 feddans areas are planned for reclamation.703 5. 2. Qena shares 44% of sugar cane area in Egypt.1. 1-2 . April 1999 1.8% 3.482 in Qena.461) but that of the Red Sea is higher.9% Ras Gharib 30 96% Hurghada 63 100% Safaga 29 88% Quseir 27 80% Marsa Alrm 4 49% Bir Shalateen 12 49% Total 165 89% Source: Information department of the Red Sea Governorate. iron.1. Final Results. marble and precious stones in Egypt are products of the Red Sea Governorate.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Table 1. Regarding the employment structure.1.5.1. Aswan and the Red Sea respectively.2% 0. 1999 Table 1. LE 2.8% 2. Major crops are sugar cane. as shown in Table 1.703 4. Housing and Establishments. Average number of household members is large in Qena.0% 1.6 Aswan 201 4.8%. GRDP per capita in 1996 is LE 1. Particularly. The figures of Qena and Aswan are lower than the national average (LE 3. Tourism sector shares 2.9% and 55.

3% 1.0% Aswan 1.6% 5.5 GRDP by Sector in Qena.2% 22. Insurance -Tourism -Public Utilities -Public & Private Services Total Source: Figure 1.9% 17.9% 1.7 Number of Illegal Settlements and their Population in Upper Egypt in 1996 1-3 .1.2% 3.461 Labor Surveys 1996 by CAPMAS 1. Insurance & Soc. El Sayed Mohammed. National Institute of Planning 1998 Share of Employment by Sector and GRDP per Capita in Qena.9% 5. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1993/94 Housing & Construction 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Qena including Luxor Aswan Red Sea Agriculture Industry & Mining Service Tourism Source: Table 1.1.0% 55.9% 2.1% 38.7% 100.6 Kilani.8% 3.5% 53.1. Estimation of Regional Income in Egypt.6% 6.3 (1) Social Condition Illegal Settlements Table 1. Table 1.3% 18. El Sayed Mohammed.8% 0.3% 0.1.7 shows the number of illegal settlements and their population in Upper Egypt.340 27% 31 % 22 % 47 % 9.3% 1.1% 63. Storage & Communications -Trade -Finance.0% Kilani. National Institute of Planning 1998 Composition of GRDP in Qena.1 Qena including Luxor 4.6% 100.5% 5.0% 18.4% 8.7% 1. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1993/94 Sector GRDP (LE) millions Share of sector (%) Agriculture Industry & Mining Electricity Housing & Construction Service -Transportation.9% 0.5% 6.2% 6. Estimation of Regional Income in Egypt.3% 0.1.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Table 1.6% 2.5% 6.6% 25.4% 100.482 Whole Egypt 15.548 (Qena only) Aswan 268 28% 29 % 21 % 50 % 20.5% 2.0% Red Sea 592 8.0% 0.207 31.7% 2.031 Red Sea 56 36% 20 % 19 % 61 % 6. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates in 1996 Employment (thousand) Share of total population Employment Agriculture Industry (including manufacturing) Services Unemployment Ratio GRDP per Capita (LE) Source: Qena including Luxor 567 20% 42 % 20 % 38 % 10.1% 9.974 25.1.5% 5.

000 (1993) 57 493. Luxor and Aswan: CAPMAS 1996 Census and the Annual Statistics Yearbook. At present. They had lived south of old Nubia to wards close to Sudanese borders. but have their special dances such as Arajid. They lived in frontier governorates. They speak Arabic language only. Arab and old Egypt traditions. and speak Arabic. north of Aswan City. and moved to the area east of Kom Ombo City after the establishment of the High Dam. Red Sea Governorate There are few sub-groups of the Bedouin population who live in Red Sea area and have their distinctive way of life. which is accompanied by drums and tanboura music. Luxor City The population of Luxor City is all urban population and nomads do not exist. This tribe speaks its own dialect in addition to Arabic language.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan Qena Total number of illegal settlements (Areas) Total population in illegal settlements (persons) Source: Luxor 3 12. the following five of these sub-groups live in Aswan: • El Kunouz is Nubian tribe. The two distinctive subgroups in Red Sea area are Basharia and Ababdah tribes who live in the area extending from east of Aswan to Shalatin and 1-4 . in addition to the Arabic language. through population censuses. Matrouh. They had lived north of old Nubia (south of Aswan City).162 Red Sea 26 (1993) 50.616 Qena. the “Bedouin” in Egypt were considered nomads.8% rural in 1998). these subgroups share norms of generosity. and uses their dialect in singing. Their folkloric music and songs are similar to those of El Kunouz. They have a special dialect. • • • • It should be noted that despite their relatively low economic standards. They are willing to participate in efforts directed to development of their communities. Bashariya and Abaddah tribes live in the area east of Aswan and in Red Sea Mountains. June 1999 Red Sea: Human Resources Development Report 1996 by The National Institute of Planning (2) Minority Races and Communities Until 1960. They are mainly of southern Egyptian origin and migrants from other regions of the country who came to work in Luxor City. it was identified that a majority of them have already settled in permanent communities and are no longer living a nomadic life Qena Governorate The population of Qena Governorate predominantly lives in rural areas (78. which is different from Nubian dialects. Aswan Governorate There are several sub-groups of the Egyptian population which have distinctive sub-cultures within the Egyptian culture rooted in Islamic. particularly north and south of Sinai. and currently lives in the area east of Kom Ombo. Arab tribe had lived in the middle of old Nubia between El Kunouz and El Fajika tribes. El Fajeka is another Nubian tribe. hospitality and respect.550 Aswan 40 412. This tribe is of Arab origin and came to Aswan during the Islamic invasion of Egypt. El Gaafrah tribe lives in small cities and villages along the banks of the Nile River. special dress and ceremonies of marriage and birth. the Red Sea and the Western Desert. and moved to an area north of Kom Ombo City after the establishment of the High Dam and the formation of Nasser Lake. including a special dialect (in addition to the main language). They also have their own dialect. However. They constitute a homogenous group sharing the same tradition and cultural traits with the rest of southern Egypt’s population. which is different from that of El Kunouz.

1.593 23. June 1998. Table 1. 1-5 . while it is low in Aswan Governorate.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Halayeb at the southeast corner of Red Sea Governorate close to the Sudanese borders. Red Sea Governorate shows a very high growth rate at 4. These tribes live on camel and sheep rising and some work in indigenous jobs in tourist villages.64% 1. Ministry of Housing. regarding Luxor City and Red Sea Governorate. which is estimated at 1.525 83.702 Increase 1996-2017 (thousand) 991 141 198 263 1.172 419 5.8%.441 361 974 156 3.82% 1.1. the regional development plans have individually been formulated afterward with a special focus on tourism development. As shown in Table 1.727 Population in 2017 (thousand) 3. On the contrary.932 59.89% 4.975 Average annual growth rate 1. utilities and Urban Communities In the meantime.1. by General Organization for Physical Planning.8 Population Projection for 2017 Governorate/City Qena Luxor City Aswan Red Sea Total Whole Egypt Source: Population in 1996 (thousand) 2.66% per year.60% 0. 1.66% Development Master Plan in Egypt until 2012.8.4 Population Projection The Ministry of Housing. oil fields. mines and fisheries in the area.432 502 1. Utilities and Urban Communities has estimated the future population framework for 2017. the growth rates of Qena Governorate and Luxor City are the same level as the average growth rate of the population of the country.

and capital revenue. Luxor City and Qena. Table 1.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan 1. In Red Sea Governorate it is the highest at LE 693 per person per year.1. 331 Qena Governorate 562 6% 80% 9% 5% 562 5% 95% 12% 223 Aswan Governorate 363 5% 81% 6% 7% 363 7% 93% 12% 366 Red Sea Governorate 118 7% 39% 40% 13% 118 13% 87% 14% 693 Source: 1) Share of budget to GRDP is calculated by projected GRDP in 1998/99. the revenues of Luxor City and Qena. Governorates 1-6 .A. Population in 1998/99 is projected based on 1996 population and future population is estimated by General Organization for Physical Planning.2 illustrates the change of budget amounts and composition of revenue of the four local governments from 1994/95 to 1998/99.4.5 Local Government Budget Table 1. Figure 1. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates have allocated 11%. LE 363 million and LE 118 million respectively. Aswan and Red Sea Governorates are LE 123 million. which is one third that of Red Sea Governorate. 2) Expenditure per person per year is calculated by population projection in 1998/99.1.9 Local Government Budgets in 1998/99 Fiscal Year Luxor City Total Revenues (LE million) Tax Transfers Local Fees Capital Revenues Total Expenditures (LE million) Investment Recurrent Expenditures Share of budget revenue to GRDP 1) Expenditures per person per year (LE) 2) Note: 123 11% 63% 15% 11% 123 11% 89% N. Share of the investment budget is comparatively high in Red Sea Governorate and Luxor City. Share of local fee revenues is high in Red Sea Governorate and it increased from 30% in 1994/95 to 40% in 1998/99.9 shows the budget of local governments in the priority area for the 1998/99 fiscal year. 7% and 13% of their total expenditure to investment expenditure respectively. In the meantime. Amount of expenditure budget per person varies among the governorates. 5%. It is lowest in Qena Governorate.1. the average annual sectoral growth rate of the 3rd Five-Year plan (1992/99-1996/97) and the 4th.1. transfers from the state government. Five-Year Plan (1997/98-2001/2002).1. The sources of revenue of governorates consist of tax. LE 562 million. GRDP projections in 1998/99 are based on 1993/94 data given in Table 1. amounting to LE 223. fees and charges. In the 1998/99 fiscal year.

0 300.0 300.0 100.0 500.0 1994/95 Source: 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Information from each governorate 1-7 .0 0.Main Report The Study on Tourism Development Projects in Egypt Figure 1.2 Revenues of Local Governments (1994/95-1998/99) Budget Revenue of Luxor City 150.0 0.0 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Budget Revenue of Asuwan Governorate Budget Revenue of Red Sea Governorate 150.0 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 Local fees Transfers Tax Budget Revenue of Qena Governorate 600.1.0 100.0 milion LE 200.0 400.0 100.0 1994/95 400.0 50.0 0.0 200.0 Capital rev enues milion LE 100.0 50.0 0.

Quseir and Marsa Alam) should be well coordinated with the development plan of TDA Tourist Centers to set up the future population distribution and regional structure and to distribute regional urban functions to each city. local governorates. 1-8 . and the Ministry of Planning.6 Existing Plans of City Development in Upper Nile and the Red Sea Formulation of master plans of cities in Upper Nile has been planned recently by several agencies such as Ministry of Housing. which were planned by MHUUC in 1999. Safaga. TDA has helped cities in Upper Nile not only at advisory level but also financial level to develop tourism facilities such as berthing facilities for the Nile cruise boats. aimed at redressing the grave imbalance in the distribution of investments and returns of development among Egypt's governorates.1. On the other hand. Red Sea Governorate is currently reviewing master plans for seven cities.Part II Upper Egypt Tourism Development Plan 1. Development master plans for four cities within the Upper Egypt Region (Hurghada. Utilities and Urban Communities (MHUUC) with UNDP such as Luxor and Aswan cities. This is in line with the National Project for Developing Southern Egypt.