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HDL Co-Simulation of Single Phase Z-Source Inverter

Akhilesh K. Gupta, Akbar Ahmad, Paulson Samuel

Abstract— This paper discusses HDL co-simulation of Zsource inverter by interfacing MATLAB/Simulink and ModelSim. An inverter is a power electronic circuit that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency. Z-Source inverter which comprises of a LC network in dc link and a small value capacitor on the ac side. By controlling the switching pattern generation, the Z-source can provide any desired output ac voltage. MATLAB minimizes the effort of the system developers and researchers in modeling and designing systems. As system developers and researchers work on same platform it reduces required time required in translating the technical specifications into functional specifications. ModelSim works as HDL (Hardware Description Language) simulator. The most common method of creating hardware design is by using HDL such as VHDL or Verilog.

Index Terms – HDL Co-Simulation, MATLAB, ModelSim, Z source inverter I. INTRODUCTION Demand for better power control and rapid inventions in field of power electronics have created many topologies and control methods in the field of power electronics converters. That’s why a better result is always there in power electronics converters. Z source inverter (ZSI) is one kind of those inventions. An inverter is a power electronic circuit that converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency. In a conventional two leg voltage source inverter (VSI) shown in Fig. 1 the two switches on the same leg can never be on for same duration to avoid a short circuit which can destroy the switching devices and thus the inverter. Another limitation of a conventional VSI is that the amplitude of inverter output voltage can never be greater than the dc input voltage. An output LC filter is also needed to provide a sinusoidal voltage which causes an additional power loss [1], [5]. The conventional single phase current source inverter (CSI) is shown in Fig. 2. The CSI has the following limitations: • The dc voltage should always be smaller than ac voltage. • At least one of the upper leg device and one of the lower leg devices should be gated on at any time.
Authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad-211004, India (,,

Fig. 1 Single Phase VSI

Fig. 2 Single Phase CSI

These limitations can be overcome by using a Z source inverter as shown in Fig. 3. A Z-source inverter comprises of an impedance network to replace the dc link in the conventional VSI. The Z source inverter has special features unlike conventional VSI which are as follows [2]: • It acts as a boost converter for dc to ac conversion so a greater ac voltage can be obtained. • Dead time consideration is not an issue with ZSI. • It is more effective in suppressing voltage ripples because of the second order LC filter used.

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The Z-source inverter consists of a split pair of inductors L1 and L2 and a pair of capacitor C1 and C2 connected in cross (X) shape. Section VI considers simulation results and the last section. In this modulation method two sinusoidal . Section IV is related to ModelSim based design part.e. 6 Simple boost switching pattern for ZSI Fig. 4 Z-Source inverter in non-shoot through mode Fig. Fig. The three phase Z-source inverter has nine permissible switching states whereas conventional VSI has only eight switching states. 6 shows the simple boost modulation method for Z-source inverter [4]. Section V explains HDL cosimulation. 5 [6][8]. Vi = 1 Vdc 1 − 2Tpu (1) Where Tpu is shoot through time duty ratio and Vdc is the input dc link voltage. Section III explains the MATLAB based design part. Switches used in Z-source inverter are same as switches used in conventional VSI. Shoot through mode In non-shoot through mode the ZSI has six active vectors and two zero vectors. 5 Z-Source inverter in shoot through mode The peak of dc link voltage which acts as dc input voltage of inverter can be expressed as [2]. Section II explains the basic operation of Z-source inverter. Active vectors come into role when the dc voltage is impressed across 3-phase load and zero vectors play their role when the load terminals are shorted through either the lower or upper three devices respectively [6][10]. 3 Single phase Z-Source inverter This paper is divided into seven sections. The equivalent circuit diagram is shown in Fig. The unique feature of Zsource inverter is that its ac output voltage can have any value from zero to infinity regardless of dc voltage [1]. It is used to provide the impedance source coupling of the inverter to dc source or load. Z-SOURCE INVERTER Basically a Z-source inverter is an impedance source or impedance fed power converter. i. Fig.. II. section VII gives the conclusions.In shoot through state the load terminals are shorted in both the upper and lower switching devices of same phase legs. 4. Non-shoot through mode 2. The ZSI has two operating modes [2][3]: 1. Fig. a combination of IGBT with an anti-parallel diode. The equivalent circuit diagram is shown in Fig.

with the analog to digital A/D converter acting as an interface between the power circuit (analog part) and the digital controller. The co-simulation is explained by the block diagram as shown in Fig. Once a session is started. SIMULATION AND RESULT The simulation diagram of Z-source inverter using Simulink is shown in Fig. 11 and its generated switching pattern by ModelSim block is shown in Fig. one of the key points is the simulation of the overall system. one can use Simulink and ModelSim to keep an eye on simulation progress and results. PSCAD etc) and specific simulators for HDL simulations (ModelSim. The simulation code for ModelSim block is written in hardware description language VHDL. MATLAB allows the users to get accurate solutions of their problems within very little time. System Verilog and for mixed language designs. When ModelSim receives a simulation request from the cosimulation blocks of Simulink it responds. This shoot through zero states gives a unique feature of buck-boost nature to this inverter which makes it distinct from a conventional VSI or CSI. produce graphic outputs easily and produce code efficiently. [12]. etc). 8 and the generated switching pattern by simple boost generation method is shown in Fig. Fig. The accuracy and simulation speed provided in MATLAB is much more in comparison with any other analog simulator tools. PSIM. hardware runs under the control of Simulink. bringing the power of MATLAB and Simulink to analyse and visualize the data. There are separate simulators for analog power stage simulations (MATLAB.voltages A and B are compared with a triangular carrier signal and it works as traditional PWM based voltage source inverter [7]. and visualize the results without any need for complicated and time consuming programming. In this diagram ModelSim block is Simulink block which provides a communication link between HDL simulator ModelSim and software MATLAB/Simulink. VI. Similar to other types of project design in Simulink. V. The co-simulation diagram of ZSI in Simulink is shown in Fig. Verilog. a bit stream is generated in ModelSim and associated to a block. This interface provides bidirectional link between hardware description language simulator such as ModelSim with MATLAB/SIMULINK software for direct hardware design verification and co-simulation for design. HDL CO-SIMULATION The link that is used for ModelSim is a co-simulation interface block in Simulink that integrates Electronic Design Automation (EDA) workflow for field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). 10. The MATLAB/Simulink function block and ModelSim commands are useful to provide the link for ModelSim interface. Input voltage Vdc is 50V and corresponding boosted output voltage achieved is 75V. The output voltage and current waveforms are shown in fig. This project takes the Simulink toolboxes and a block that provides a connection between Simulink and ModelSim. The other controlling methods are maximum boost control method and simple boost control method with independent relationship between modulation index and shoot through duty ratio [3]. In this block the input and output are the HDL code such as VHDL or Verilog which can be used in the required simulation. MATLAB BASED DESIGN MATLAB provides easy and interactive tools for simulation. III. According to different states switching pulses are generated by ModelSim to control the MOSFET/IGBT . From the design methodology point of view. 12. There are a lot of tools defined in MATLAB which make it very fast in comparison with other simulators. 9. a base project is written to MATLAB/Simulink environment. For HDL co-simulation.7 Simulink and ModelSim Co-simulation In the HDL co-simulation. Two constant voltages Vp and Vn are used to generate the shoot through zero state. These shoot through states are inserted into conventional PWM. PSPICE. 7. When the carrier is higher than the upper constant voltage Vp phase leg A goes into shoot through mode and when the lower constant voltage Vn goes higher than the carrier then phase leg B goes to shoot through mode. The switching pattern is generated by VHDL code is in digital form which is used to control the switches such as MOSFET/IGBT used in Simulink simulator. MODELSIM BASED DESIGN ModelSim is a verification and simulation tool for HDL languages such as VHDL. MATLAB is an interpreted language for numerical computation. [11]. The output of this block is given as the control input for Simulink toolboxes block. Digital controller of the Z source inverter can be designed by means of a hardware description language (HDL) such as VHDL or Verilog. IV. It allows one to perform one’s numerical calculations. Thus a connection comes into existence between ModelSim and Simulink.

Some of those switching patterns for different states are shown in Fig. Fig. 12. 9 switching pattern of single phase ZSI (b) Fig. 8 Simulation diagram of ZSI (a) Fig. 10 Output Voltage and Current waveform of ZSI . 11 Co-simulation of Z-Source inverter Fig.switches.

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