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3.1.

Hydrostatics:
Variation of pressure with elevation. Here, we investigate how the pressure in a stationary fluid varies with elevation z. The result is useful because it can answer questions such as what is the pressure at the summit of Mt. Annapurna? , or what forces are e!erted on the walls of an oil storage tan"? #onsider a hypothetical differential cylindrical element of fluid of cross$sectional area A, height dz, and volume A dz, which is also surrounded by the same fluid, as shown in %ig &.'. (ts weight, being the downwards gravitational force in its mass, is dW ) A dz g. Two completely equivalent approaches will be presented*

Fig. 3.1 Method 1* +et p denote the pressure at the base of the cylinder, since p changes at a rate dp / dz with elevation, the pressure is found either from Taylor,s e!pansion or the definition of a derivative to be p + (dp / dz)dz at the top of the cylinder. -.ote that we do not anticipate a reduction of pressure with elevation here/ hence, the plus sign is used. (f, indeed 0 as proves to be the case 0 pressure falls with increasing elevation, then the subsequent development will tell us that dp / dz is negative.1 Hence, the fluid e!erts an upwards force of pA on the base of the cylinder, and a downward force of [p + (dp / dz)dz]A on the top of the cylinder. .e!t, apply .ewton,s law of motion by equation the net upward force to the mass times the acceleration 0 which is 2ero, since the cylinder is stationary*

#ancellation of pA and division by A dz leads to the following differential equation, which governs the rate of change of pressure with elevation*

Method 2* +et pz and pz + dz denote the pressures at the base and top of the cylinder, where the elevations are z and z + dz, respectively. Hence, the fluid e!erts an upwards

force of pzA on the base of the cylinder, and a downward force of pz + dz on the top of the cylinder. Application of .ewton,s second law of motion gives

(solation of the two pressure terms on the left 0 hand side and division by A dz gives*

As dz tends to 2ero, the left hand side of 3qn. -&.41 becomes the derivative dp / dz, leading to the same result as previously*

The same conclusion can also be obtained by considering a cylinder of finite height z and then letting z approach 2ero. .ote that 3qn. &.5 predicts the pressure decrease in the vertically upwards direction at a rate that is proportional to the local density. 6uch pressure variations can readily be detected by the ear when traveling quic"ly in an elevator in a tall building, or when ta"ing off in an airplane. The student must thoroughly understand oth the above approaches. Pressure in a liquid with a free surface . (n %ig. &.5, the pressure is ps at the free surface, and we wish to find the pressure p at the depth ! below the free surface 0 of water in a swimming pool, for e!ample.

Fig. 3.2 6eparation of variables in 3qn. &.5 and integration between the free surface - z " !1 and a depth ! (z " #) gives*

Assuming 0 quite reasonably 0 the and g are constant in the liquid, these quantities may be ta"en outside the integral, yielding*

which predicts a linear increase of pressure with distance downwards from the free surface. %or large depths, such as those encountered by deep 0 sea divers, very substantial pressure will result. E a!ple 3.1 " Pressure in an #il $torage %an& 7hat is the absolute pressure at the bottom of the cylindrical tan" of figure, filled to a depth of ! with crude oil, with its free surface e!posed to the atmosphere? The specific gravity of the crude oil is 8.94:. ;ive the answers for -a1 ! ) '<.8 ft -pressure in lbf = in51, and -b1 ! ) <.8 m -pressure in >a and bar1. 7hat is the purpose of the surrounding di"e?

$olution* -a1 The pressure is that of the atmosphere, pa, plus the increase due to the column of depth ! ) '<.8 ft. Thus, setting ps ) pa, 3qn &.: gives

The student should chec" the units, noting that the &5.5 in the numerator is g ?)@ ft=s5, and that the &5.5 in the denominator is gc ?)@ lbm ft = lbf s5. -b1 %or 6( units, no conversion factors are needed. .oting that the density of water is '888 "g = m&, and that pa '.8' ! '8< >a absolute*

(n the event of a tan" rupture, the di"e contains the lea"ing oil and facilitates prevention of spreading fire and contamination of the environment. E a!ple 3.2 " 'ultiple Fluid Hydrostatics

The A 0 tube shown in figure contains oil and water columns, between which there is a long trapped air bubble. %or the indicated heights of the columns, find the specific gravity of the oil. $olution* The pressure p2 at point 5 may be deduced by starting with the pressure p1 at point ' and adding or subtracting, as appropriate, the hydrostatic pressure changes due to the various columns of fluid. .ote that the width of the A 0 tube -5.8 ft1 is irrelevant, since there is no change in pressure in the hori2ontal leg. 7e obtain*

(n which

, and

denote the densities of oil, air, and water, respectively.

6ince the density of the air is very small compared to that of oil or water, the term containing can be neglected. Also , because both are equal to atmospheric pressure. The above equation can then be solved for the specific gravity of the oil.

Pressure variations in a gas. %or a gas, the density is no longer constant, but is a function of pressure -and of temperature 0 although temperature variations are usually less significant than those of pressure1, and there are two approaches* '. %or s%all changes in elevation, the assumption of constant density can still be made, and equations similar to 3qn. &.: are still appro!imately valid. 5. %or moderate or large changes in elevation, the density in 3qn. &.5 is given by ) Mw p / &' or ) Mwp / (&', depending on whether the gas is ideal or nonideal. (t is understood that a solute pressure and temperature must alwa)s be used whenever the gas law is involved. A separation of variables can still be made, followed by integration, but the result will now be more complicated

because the term dp/p occurs, leading 0 at the simplest -for an isothermal situation1 0 to a decreasing e*ponential variation of pressure with elevation.

E a!ple 3.3 " Pressure Variations in a (as %or a gas of molecular weight Mw -such as the earth,s atmosphere1, investigate how the pressure p varies with elevation z if p " po at z " #. Assume that the temperature ' is constant. 7hat appro!imation may be made for s%all elevation increases? 3!plain how would proceed for the non$isothermal case, in which ' " '(z) is a "nown function of elevation. 6olution* Assuming ideal gas behavior, 3qn. &.5 and the one for the density gives*

6eparation of variables and integration between appropriate limits yields*

6ince Mw g / &' is constant. Hence, there is an e!ponential decrease of pressure with elevation, as shown in the following plot*

6ince a TaylorBs e!pansion gives e+* " 1 , * + *2 / 2 + -. the pressure is appro!imated by*

%or s%all values of Mw gz / &', the last term in an insignificant second 0 order effect -compressibility effects are unimportant1, and we obtain*

in which is the density at elevation z " #/ this appro!imation 0 essentially one of constant density 0 is "nown as the dashed line in the graph and is clearly applicable only for a small change of elevation. (f there are significant elevation changes, the appro!imation done above cannot be used with any accuracy. Cbserve with caution that the Taylor,s e!pansion is only a vehicle for demonstrating what happens for small values of Mw gz / &'. Actual calculations for larger values of Mw gz / &' should be made using TaylorBs series. %or the case in which the temperature in not constant, but is a "nown function '(z) of elevation -as might be deduced from observations made by a meteorological balloon1, it must be included inside the integral*

6ince '(z) is unli"ely to be a simple function of 2, a numerical method $ such as 6impson,s rule 0 will probably have to be used to appro!imate the second integral of the equation. %otal force on a da! or loc& gate . %ig. &.& shows the side and end elevations of a dam or loc" gate of depth / and width W. An e!pression is needed for the total hori2ontal force 0 e!erted by the liquid on the dam, so that the latter can be made of appropriate strength. 6imilar results would apply for liquids in storage tan"s. ;auge pressures are used for simplicity, with p ) 8 at the free surface and in the air outside the dam. Absolute pressures could also be employed, but would merely add a constant atmospheric pressure everywhere, and would eventually be canceled out.

Fig. 3.3 (f the coordinate z is measured from the bottom of the liquid upwards, the corresponding depth of a point below the free surface is / , z. Hence, from 3qn. &.:, the differential hori2ontal force d0 on an infinitesimally small rectangular strip area dA " W dz is * (ntegration from the bottom (z " #) to the top (z " /) of the dam gives the total hori2ontal force*

Hori)ontal pressure force on an ar*itrary plane vertical surface. The preceding analysis was for a regular shape. A more general case is illustrated in %ig. &.4, which shows a plane vertical surface of arbitrary shape. .ote that it is now slightly easier to wor" in terms of a downwards coordinate h. Again ta"ing gauge pressure for simplicity -the gas law is not involved1, with p " # at the free surface, the total hori2ontal force is*

Dut the depth

of the centroid of the surface is defined as*

Thus, from 3qns. &.E and &.'8, the total force is*

(n which

is the pressure at the centroid

Fig. 3.+

The advantage of this approach is that the location of the centroid is already "nown for several geometries. %or e!ample, for a rectangle of depth / and width W*

in agreement with the earlier result of 3qn. &.9. 6imilarly, for a vertical circle that is Fust submerged, the depth of the centroid equals its radius. And, for a vertical triangle

with one edge coincident with the surface of the liquid, the depth of the centroid equals one$third of its altitude. Hori)ontal pressure force on a curved surface. %ig. &.<-a1 shows the cross section of a submerged surface that is no longer plane. However, the shape is uniform normal to the plane of the diagram.

Fig. 3.(n general, as shown in %ig. &.<-b1, the local pressure force p dA on an element of surface area dA does not act hori2ontally/ therefore, its hori2ontal component must be obtained by proFection through an angle of . The total hori2ontal force 0 is then* 1, by multiplying by

(n which dA1" dA sin is an element of the proFection of A onto the hypothetical vertical plane AG. The integral of 3qn. &.'& can be obtained readily, as illustrated in the following e!ample. E a!ple 3.+ " Hydrostatic Force on a ,urved $urface A submarine, whose hull has a circular cross section of diameter /, is Fust submerged in water of density , as shown in figure. Herive an equation that gives the total hori2ontal force on the left half of the hull, for a distance W normal to the plane of the diagram. (f / ) 9 m, the circular cross section continues essentially for the total length W ) <8 m of the submarine, and the density of sea water is , determine the total hori2ontal force on the left$hand half of the hull.

$olution The force is obtained by evaluating the integral of 3qn. &.'&, which is identical to that for the rectangle in figure.

(nsertion of the numerical values gives*

Thus, the total force is considerable 0 about .uoyancy forces. (f an obFect is submerged in a fluid, it will e!perience a net upwards or uo)ant force e!erted by the liquid. To find this force, first e!amine the buoyant force on a submerged circular cylinder of height ! and cross$sectional area A, shown in %ig. &.:

Fig. 3./ The forces on the curved vertical surface act hori2ontally and may therefore be ignored. Hence, the net upwards force due to the difference between the opposing pressures on the bottom and top faces is

which is e!actly the weight of the displaced liquid, thus verifying Archi%edes2 law, -the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid displaced1 for the cylinder. The same result would clearly be obtained for a cylinder of any uniform cross section.

Fig. 3.3 %ig &.I shows a more general situation, with a body of arbitrary shape. However, Archimedes, law still holds since the body can be decomposed into an infinitely large number of vertical rectangular parallelpipeds of bo!es of infinitesimally small cross$sectional area dA. The effect for one bo! is then summed or integrated over all the bo!es, and again gives the net upwards buoyant force as the weight of the liquid displaced. E a!ple 3.- " 0pplication of 0rchi!edes1 2aw #onsider the situation in the given figure, in which a barrel rests on a raft that floats in a swimming pool. The barrel is then pushed off the raft, and may either float or sin", depending on its contents and hence its mass. The cross$hatching shows the volumes of water that are displaced. %or each of the cases shown in figure and -c1, determine whether the water level in the pool will rise, fall, or remain constant, relative to the initial level in -a1.

$olution 3nitial state. +et the masses of the raft and barrel be and , respectively. (f the volume of displaced water is initially 4 in -a1, Archimedes, law requires that the total weight of the raft and barrel equals the weight of the displaced water, whose density is

5arrel floats. (f the barrel floats, as in -b1, with submerged volumes of

and

of the raft and barrel, respectively, Archimedes, law may be applied to the raft and barrel separately* Adding the two equations and comparing the resultant equation with the first equation gives* Therefore, since the volume of the water is constant, and the total displaced volume does not change, the level of the surface also remains unchanged. 5arrel sin6s. Archimedes, law may still be applied to the raft, but the weight of the water displaced by the barrel no longer suffices to support the weight of the barrel, so that Adding the two equations and comparing the resultant equation with the first equation gives* Therefore, since the volume of the water in the pool is constant, and the total displaced volume is reduced, the level of the surface falls. This result in perhaps contrary to intuition* since the whole volume of the barrel is submerged in -c1, it might be thought that the water level will rise above that in -b1. However, because the barrel must be heavy in order to sin", the load on the raft and hence are substantially reduced, so that the total displaced volume is also reduced. This problem illustrates the need for a complete analysis rather than Fumping to a possibly erroneous conclusion.

3.2. Pressure ,hanges ,aused *y 4otation:


%inally, consider the shape of the free surface for the situation shown in %ig. &.9-a1, in which a cylindrical container, partly filled with liquid, is rotated with an angular velocity, 0 that is, at revolutions per unit time. This analysis has applications in fuel tan"s of spinning roc"ets, centrifugal filters, and liquid mirrors. >oint 7 denotes the origin, where r " # and z " #. After a sufficiently long time, the rotation of the container will be transmitted by viscous action to the liquid, whose rotation is called a forced 8orte*. (n fact, the liquid spins as if it were a solid od), rotating with uniform angular velocity , so that the velocity in the direction of rotation at a radial location r is given by . (t is therefore appropriate to treat the situation similar to the hydrostatic investigations already made.

Fig. 3.5 6uppose that the liquid element 9 is essentially a rectangular bo! with cross sectional area dA and radial e!tent dr. -(n reality, the element has slightly tapering sides, but a more elaborate treatment ta"ing this into account will yield identical results to those derived here.1 The pressure on the inner face is p, whereas that on the outer face is . Also, for uniform rotation in a circular path of radius r, the acceleration towards the center 7 of the circle is . .ewton,s second law of motion is then used for equating the net pressure force towards 7 to the mass of the element times its acceleration*

.ote that the use of a partial derivative is essential, since the pressure now varies in both the hori2ontal -radial1 and vertical directions. 6implification yields the variation of pressure in the radial direction*

so that pressure increases in the radially outwards direction. Cbserve that the gauge pressure at all points on the interface is 2ero/ in particular, . integrating from points 7 to 9 -at constant z1*

However, the pressure at 9 can also be obtained by considering the usual hydrostatic increase in traversing the path :9*

3limination of the intermediate pressure between 3qns. -&.'I1 and -&.'91 relates the elevation of the free surface to the radial location*

Thus, the free surface is para olic in shape/ observe also that the density is not a factor, having been canceled from the equations. There is another type of vorte! Jthe free vorte!Jthat is also important, in cyclone dust collectors and tornadoes, for e!ample. The velocity in the angular direction is given by , where c is a constant, so that is inversely proportional to the radial position.

E a!ple 13./ " #verflow fro! a $pinning ,ontainer A cylindrical container of height ! and radius a is initially half$filled with a liquid. The cylinder is then spun steadily around its vertical a!is K$K, as shown in the figure. At what value of the angular velocity will the liquid Fust start to spill over the top of the container? (f ! ) ' ft and a ) 8.5< ft, how many rpm -revolutions per minute1 would be needed?

$olution %rom 3qn. &.'E, the shape of the free surface is parabola. Therefore, the air inside the rotating cylinder forms a paraboloid of revolution, whose volume is "nown

from calculus to be e!actly one half of the volume of the circumscribing cylinder, namely, the container. Hence, the liquid at the center reaches the bottom of the cylinder ;ust as the liquid at the curved wall reaches the top of the cylinder. (n 3qn. -&.'E1, therefore, set z " ! and r " a, giving the required angular velocity*

%or the stated values*