ECM+II | Steady State | Machining


3 Solutions of ECM model
• The simplest approximate model, often called model for “ideal” ECM process, is built on the following assumptions,
– Ohm’s law holds over entire inter-electrode gap up to surfaces of the electrodes. – The electric conductivity of the medium in the gap remains constant in both time and space. – At each electrode the potential remains the same over the entire surface area and through the machining time. – Current efficiency for the anodic dissolution of the metal is the same at any point on the surface of the workpiece (Kv).

• Based on these four assumptions, the electrochemical shaping process is described generally as follows:

MECE E4610 – Fall 2013



10) For implicit function F(x. y. 𝑡) 1 + 𝜕𝑧𝑎 2 𝜕𝜕 + 𝜕𝑧𝑎 2 𝜕𝜕 (2. 𝑦. 2. 𝑧.11. z. 𝑦 (2. 𝒚.21) 𝑢 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 = 0. 𝑦.20) Fig. 𝒕 𝜕𝑧𝑎 = 𝜕𝜕 IC: 𝑧𝑎 𝑥 . 0 = 𝐹0 𝑥 . 𝑧 (2.) For explicit function 𝐳 = 𝒛𝒂 𝒙. 𝑦. 2. t)=0: 𝜕𝐹 𝜕𝑡 MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 IC: 𝐹 𝑥 .12. 𝑢 𝑧𝑎 = 𝑈 − ∆𝑈 𝜕𝑢 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑜𝑜 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 = 0 𝜕𝑛 𝐾𝑣 𝑖𝑎 (𝑥 .Solutions of ECM model (cont. 0 = 𝑧0 𝑥 . 2. 𝑢 𝑧𝑎 = 𝑈 − ∆𝑈 𝜕𝑢 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑜𝑜 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 = 0 𝜕𝑛 − 𝜅𝜅𝑣 𝛻𝛻 ∙ 𝛻𝛻 =0 (2. 𝑦.3 Boundary conditions 30 ECM II .22) 𝑢 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 = 0.

2. 2. are S=Za(t)-L(t) apart (gap) • The gradient of potential is. (2.23) • And current density is (2.10 & noting MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II Fig.24) • Substituting Eq.25) 31 IC: za = z0 at t = 0.24 into Eq. 2. with a potential difference U applied across them. .3 ECM with plane parallel electrodes one obtains.One-dimensional case of ECM • Two infinite parallel planes. dz a U − ∆U = K vκ dt z a − L(t ) (2.

26) • At constant working voltage U=U0 (assumption 3). 2.1-D ECM with stationary tool • In finishing operations and for deburring and radiusing • Taking L(t) = 0 to Eq.25 and integrating.27) • where D = Kvκ(U0-∆U) a characteristic parameter of ECM with stationary tool electrode MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II 32 . one obtains 2 2 − z0 = 2 K vκ ∫ (U − ∆U )dt za 0 t (2. one obtains (2.

e. one obtains (2.surface leveling.. Consider points A and B on the anode-workpiece.27 can be applied in. 2.g. assuming that dissolution occurs independently.) • Eq.1-D ECM with stationary tool (cont.4 Surface leveling with stationary tool MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II 33 .28) Figure 2.

L(t)=Vft.) • With gap increases. that is.29) where current density (S0=z0 or z0+R0).25 becomes dza (2. according to expression as follows (2. where Vf is the constant feed rate.30) U − ∆U dt MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 = K vκ za − V f t ECM II IC: za = z0 at t = 0. is initial 1D ECM with constant tool feed rate • The majority of ECM utilizes constant feed rate of tool. also let U=U0 34 . Eq.1-D ECM with stationary tool (cont. the current density decreases. 2.

30 in TSC is: (2. rename za = S . where S is gap.) • Transforming coordinates as follows: (2.31) • where ( ) are coordinates in tool moving system (TSC) and L(t)= Vft dz a U 0 − ∆U • Eq 2.33) MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 35 . one obtains U − ∆U dS = K vκ 0 −Vf S dt ECM II (2.1-D ECM with constant tool feed rate (cont.32) = K vκ −Vf dt za • For convenience.

1-D ECM with constant tool feed rate (cont. Integrating Eq. where S f = K vκ Sf Sf Vf (2. ξ= ξ0=S0/Sf.37) 36 .36) • or in dimensional form: V f t = S 0 − S + S f ln MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II S0 − S f S −Sf (2. dξ 1 = −1 dτ ξ (2.33 becomes.35 yields τ = ξ 0 − ξ + ln ξ0 − 1 ξ −1 (2.35) • at t=0.) • Taking a non-dimemsional transformation.34) • Eq 2. 2. Vf t U 0 − ∆U S ξ= and τ = .

25 • Vn → Vf • i→ U − ∆U κ 0 Sf 0.1 0.5mm/min.) • Let Vf=0.15 0.8 0. Sf=0. (1) S0=0.3 0.2 0.15mm.7 0. 0.9 1 1.1mm Fig.6 0.3 (constant feed rate) • S → Sf (SS gap) gap width S (mm) 0.5 0.1 0. 2.05 0 0.5 Attainment of equilibrium gap-width Sf • At steady state.2 time (min) MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II 37 .25mm and (2) S0=0.1 1.4 0.1-D ECM with constant tool feed rate (cont.2 So>Sf So<Sf 0.

that is. 2. 2. becomes (2. and 2.33. the direction of the feed is inclined by angle α to the electrode normal.38) • Substituting Eq. which  is measured in normal direction na . equilibrium gap).37. MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II Anode workpiece Vn  na Sn α Sf TE Vf α Figure 2. one obtains dynamic gap for this inclined case.39) • The equilibrium gap Sn increases with the angle of inclination. The effective feed  rate of tool-electrode in direction n to a anode–workpiece is equal to (2. e. 2.1-D ECM with constant and inclined tool feed • Consider plane parallel gap with inclined tool feed. Steady state gap (i.34.6 Inclined tool feeding 38 .38 into Eqs.

• The key is to design the tool shape properly so that the desired shape is generated on the workpiece. As seen.7 shows steady-state ECM using a circular tool electrode. This will greatly reduce the number of factors affecting ECM accuracy (among other things. the red tool shape is not exactly copied onto the blue workpiece • ECM should be carried out so that the required form of the part is generated under steady-state conditions. irregularities in the workpiece blank.4 Tool-electrode design • Figure 2. and initial position of the electrodes).7 steady-state ECM using a circular tool electrode 39 . MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II Vf Figure 2.2.

ECM is said to have achieved a steady state – part configuration is no longer changing for all practical purpose because the work material at all points on the workpiece surface (A1.Tool-electrode design (cont. A4) is moving along feed tool direction at the same velocity equal to tool feed rate Vf (see Fig 2.8). MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II Vf Figure 2.) • Once the gap geometry is stabilized. A2. A3.8 Distribution of dissolution velocity in steady-state ECM process 40 .

MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II 41 .) • Now the normal velocity of dissolution Vn on the workpiece and the normal gap Sn between electrodes are given by and (2. • The design procedure for the tool shape is simplified by a method based on the linearization of the potential distribution across the gap width. that is. With this method. it is about the same as one existing in a plane parallel gap.Tool-electrode design (cont.39) • where α is angle between normal to anode na and feed tool direction (Vf) at each point.38 and 2. one assumes that in the vicinity of a given point the electric field is locally one-dimensional.

) The actual line of current (the dashed line in Fig 2. 2.9 tool electrode design procedure 42 .9a).9b (a) MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II (b) Figure 2. the graphical construction of the tool profile. which is perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece or to the surface of the tool (the solid lines in Fig.39. AC′ or AC′′. 2.Tool-electrode design (cont.9a) is replaced with a straight-line segment. 2. is shown in Fig. Using Eq. using straight-line segment AC′ as na.

) • Draw equilibrium gap Sn normal to the anode workpiece with its value to be determined. Sf . draw a horizontal line to intersect the Sn line. • Link all intersected points to form the tool cathod surface. MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 ECM II 43 . • Repeat the process at other points.34): U 0 − ∆U S f = K vκ Vf • From the end of Sf .Tool-electrode design (cont. with its value determined using (2. • Draw equilibrium gap along the Vf direction.

25mm/min feed rate. 55O 30O R300mm 130mm 30O Desired workpiece MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 100mm II Die surfaceECM needs to be ECMed 44 .atomic weight of iron: 55.Faraday’s constant (96.Example: A Simple 2D Cathode Design Problem Using “Cosine Rule” Given data: current efficiency = 100% A .86gram/cm3) κ = electrolyte conductivity (0. Design the cathode surface for machining the die surface marked in blue.2 ohm-1/cm) Use 18V voltage and 0.85 z = 2 divalent reaction F .500C) ρ – workpiece material density (7.

xE = xA + Sf . 2. tgα (2.Tool-electrode design (cont. • The coordinates of tool electrode profile can be calculated as follows.Sf where y=F0(x) is required shape of workpiece.) • The analytic construction of the tool profile is illustrated in Fig.10 Analytic tool design for ECM of the airfoil (blade) ECM II 45 .10 by the determination of tool electrode profile for ECM of an airfoil.40) yE = yA – Sf = F0(xA) . MECE E4610 – Fall 2013 Figure 2.

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